Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Categories: Ear diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

MalaCards integrated aliases for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo:

Name: Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo 12 15 71
Vertigo of Central Origin 12 32
Central Vestibular Vertigo 12
Vertigo 44


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2479
ICD9CM 34 386.2
MeSH 44 D014717
SNOMED-CT 67 20425006
ICD10 32 H81.4
UMLS 71 C0155503

Summaries for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Disease Ontology : 12 A brain disease that is characterized by vertigo caused by hemorrhagic insult, ischemic insult or mass lesion of the cerebellum, the vestibular nuclei, and the brainstem, has symptom dizziness, has symptom nausea, has symptom vomiting and has symptom difficulty walking.

MalaCards based summary : Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo, also known as vertigo of central origin, is related to migraine, familial hemiplegic, 3 and migraine with aura, and has symptoms including vomiting, difficulty walking and nausea. An important gene associated with Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo is CLCN1 (Chloride Voltage-Gated Channel 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Ion channel transport and Sympathetic Nerve Pathway (Pre- and Post- Ganglionic Junction). The drugs Dimenhydrinate and Piracetam have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include cerebellum, liver and eye, and related phenotypes are growth/size/body region and digestive/alimentary

Related Diseases for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Diseases related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 649)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 migraine, familial hemiplegic, 3 31.5 SCN2A CACNA1A
2 migraine with aura 30.2 SCN2A F2 CACNA1A
3 encephalopathy 29.9 SCN2A POLG CACNA1A
4 migraine with or without aura 1 29.8 SCN2A POLG F2 CLCN1 CACNA1A ATP4A
5 ocular motility disease 29.4 SLC25A4 POLG CACNA1A
6 kearns-sayre syndrome 29.3 SLC25A4 POLG CACNA1A
7 vitamin b12 deficiency 29.3 ATP4A ATP12A
8 ptosis 29.2 SLC5A7 POLG CLCN1
9 somatoform disorder 29.2 ATP4A ATP12A
10 pernicious anemia 29.1 ATP4A ATP12A
11 apnea, obstructive sleep 29.1 ATP4A ATP12A
12 dysentery 29.1 ATP4A ATP12A
13 exanthem 28.8 F2 ATP4A ATP12A
14 disease of mental health 27.7 SCN2A POLG F2 CACNA1A ATP4A ATP12A
15 benign paroxysmal positional nystagmus 11.7
16 meniere disease 11.6
17 vertigo, benign recurrent 11.4
18 viral labyrinthitis 11.3
19 peripheral vertigo 11.3
20 episodic ataxia, type 3 11.3
21 vertigo, benign recurrent, 2 11.2
22 herpes zoster oticus 11.1
23 vestibular neuronitis 11.1
24 vestibular disease 11.0
25 motion sickness 11.0
26 episodic ataxia 11.0
27 superior semicircular canal dehiscence 11.0
28 cogan syndrome 11.0
29 acoustic neuroma 11.0
30 sudden sensorineural hearing loss 11.0
31 fibromuscular dysplasia 10.9
32 arachnoid cysts, intracranial 10.9
33 basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 1 10.9
34 deafness, autosomal dominant 6 10.9
35 episodic ataxia, type 5 10.9
36 autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features 10.9
37 otitis media 10.9
38 otosclerosis 10.9
39 migraine with brainstem aura 10.8
40 medulloblastoma 10.8
41 episodic ataxia, type 4 10.8
42 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 10.8
43 deafness, autosomal dominant 9 10.8
44 patulous eustachian tube 10.8
45 brain stem infarction 10.8
46 paraneoplastic syndromes 10.8
47 spinocerebellar ataxia 31 10.8
48 camurati-engelmann disease 10.8
49 migraine, familial hemiplegic, 1 10.8
50 sneddon syndrome 10.8

Comorbidity relations with Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Hypertension, Essential

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo:

Diseases related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo


  • vomiting
  • difficulty walking
  • nausea
  • dizziness

UMLS symptoms related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo:


MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 9.76 ATP12A ATP4A CACNA1A CLCN1 F2 POLG
2 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.65 ATP12A ATP4A F2 POLG SLC5A7
3 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.61 ATP12A ATP4A CACNA1A CLCN1 F2 POLG
4 muscle MP:0005369 9.02 CACNA1A CLCN1 F2 POLG SLC25A4

Drugs & Therapeutics for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Drugs for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 137)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Dimenhydrinate Approved Phase 4 523-87-5 441281
Piracetam Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7491-74-9
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-45-6, 75614-87-8 774
Caffeine Approved Phase 4 58-08-2 2519
Calcium carbonate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 471-34-1
Nicotinamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 98-92-0 936
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 364-62-5 4168
Phenol Approved, Experimental Phase 4 108-95-2 996
Thymol Approved Phase 4 89-83-8 6989
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56-81-5 753
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
Vitamin D3 Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 67-97-0 6221 5280795
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 1406-16-2
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-30-3 6037
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-02-9 14985
Niacin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 59-67-6 938
19 Tocotrienol Investigational Phase 4 6829-55-6
20 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
21 Antioxidants Phase 4
22 Anti-Ulcer Agents Phase 4
23 Antacids Phase 4
24 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
25 Histamine Antagonists Phase 4
Histamine Phosphate Phase 4 51-74-1 65513
27 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 4
28 Antiemetics Phase 4
29 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 4
30 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
31 Trace Elements Phase 4
32 Vitamins Phase 4
33 Nutrients Phase 4
34 Calciferol Phase 4
35 Micronutrients Phase 4
36 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4
37 Calcium Supplement Phase 4
38 Vasodilator Agents Phase 4
39 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
40 Vitamin B3 Phase 4
41 Vitamin B Complex Phase 4
42 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 4
43 Nicotinic Acids Phase 4
44 Folate Phase 4
45 Tocotrienols Phase 4
46 Vitamin B9 Phase 4
47 Antimetabolites Phase 4
48 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 4
49 Tocopherols Phase 4
50 Dopamine Agents Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 149)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Effects of Caffeine on Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Healthy Unknown status NCT01693809 Phase 4 Caffeine
2 Effects on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Magnetic Imaging Angiographies of the Supra-Aortic Vessels by Three Different Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agents in Patients With Headache and Dizziness or Epilepsy and Clinical Indication for an Angiography by Magnetic Imaging Unknown status NCT00132223 Phase 4 Contrast agent
3 Comparison of Efficacy Between Piracetam and Dimenhydrinate in Patients With Peripheral Vertigo: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT01890538 Phase 4 Administration of 100 mg dimenhydrinate intravenous;2 g piracetam intravenous
4 Phase 3 Study of Efficacy of Local Overpressure Treatment for Meniere's Disease Completed NCT00831688 Phase 4
5 Efficacy of Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation on the Prevention of Recurrences in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A Prospective Multicenter Randomized Trial Completed NCT02031692 Phase 4 400IU cholecalciferol and 500mg of elemental calcium as calcium carbonate
6 Effect of Stellate Ganglion Block on Meniere's Disease Completed NCT01574313 Phase 4 0.25mg, fludiazine;25mg cephadol@ (diphenidol);200mg kentons@ (tocopherol nicotinate).
7 Effect of Caffeine Intake in Vestibular Function: A Randomized Triple-Blind Controlled Trial Completed NCT02825199 Phase 4
8 Comparison of Efficacy Dimenhydrinate and Metoclopramide in the Treatment of Nausea Due to Vertigo Completed NCT02253524 Phase 4 Dimenhydrinate;Metoclopramide
9 Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of Chlorobutanol, Potassium Carbonate, and Irrigation in Cerumen Removal Completed NCT00765635 Phase 4 drops intilation (Taponoto ® );drops intilation (Otocerum®);drops intilation (Placebo)
10 A Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study To Evaluate The Efficacy And Safety Of Betahistine Mesilate In The Treatment Of Patients With Vertigo Caused By Cerebral Infarction In Posterior Circulation Withdrawn NCT00474409 Phase 4 Merislon
11 Assessment of Acyclovir Efficacy Versus Placebo in Controlling Vertigo Attacks of Patients With Meniere's Disease Visited in Amiralam Hospital Unknown status NCT01729767 Phase 2, Phase 3 Acyclovir;Placebo
12 " National, Phase III, Radomized, Double-Blind, Double -Dummy, Controlled, Parallel to Evaluate Non Inferiority of Meclin® (Meclizine Chlorhydrate) Versus Dramin® (Dimenhydrinate) Soft Gel Capsules in the Control of Acute Vertigo Symphtoms From Peripheral Origin" Unknown status NCT02112578 Phase 3 Meclizine;Dimenhydrinate
13 The Effectiveness Comparison of Three Different Methods for the Treatment of Posterior Semicircular Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: Prospective, Double Blinded, Randomized, Multicenter Clinical Trial Completed NCT02029508 Phase 3
14 Treatment of Geotropic Horizontal Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo; Randomized Controlled Trial of Barbeque Rotation and Gufoni Maneuver Completed NCT01366430 Phase 3
15 Treatment of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo With the Canalith Repositioning Procedure in Family Practice: A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT00182273 Phase 3
16 Randomized Multicenter Study of Treatment of Horizontal Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Completed NCT00810641 Phase 3
17 Promethazine vs. Lorazepam for Treatment of Vertigo in the Emergency Department: A Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT01827293 Phase 3 Promethazine;Lorazepam
18 Lamotrigine for Ménière's Disease: a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Pilot Study Completed NCT02158585 Phase 3 Lamotrigine;Placebo
19 A Phase II/III Trial on Rizatriptan for Vestibular Migraine Completed NCT02447991 Phase 2, Phase 3 Rizatriptan;Placebo
20 A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Center Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of SPI-1005 in Meniere's Disease and Open Label Extension Study to Evaluate the Chronic Safety of SPI-1005 Not yet recruiting NCT04677972 Phase 3 Ebselen;Placebo
21 Visual Feedback Goggle For The Treatment Of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo in a Randomized Single-Blind Study Unknown status NCT00729885 Phase 1, Phase 2
22 Phase 1b Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of SPI-1005 in Meniere's Disease Completed NCT02603081 Phase 1, Phase 2 SPI-1005
23 Treatment of Apogeotropic Horizontal Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Completed NCT02046980 Phase 2
24 Treatments for Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Completed NCT00000359 Phase 2
25 Effect of V0251 in Acute Vertigo Completed NCT01583738 Phase 2 V0251;placebo
26 A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Phase Ⅱ Clinical Trial To Evaluate Efficacy And Safety Of Levophencynonate Hydrochloride In Patient With Vertigo Caused By Posterior Circulation Infarction Completed NCT02299804 Phase 2 Levophencynonate Hydrochloric;Placebo
27 Evaluation of the Cost-effectiveness of Booklet-based Self-management of Dizziness in Primary Care, With and Without Expert Telephone Support Completed NCT00732797 Phase 2
28 Multicenter Randomized Controlled Phase 2 Trial to Evaluate AM-125 in the Treatment of Acute Peripheral Vertigo Following Neurosurgery (TRAVERS) Recruiting NCT03908567 Phase 2 Intranasal Drug;Oral Tablet
29 A Double Blinded Randomized Control Trial (RCT) to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Vitamin D Treatment in Lowering the Recurrence Rate of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) in Older Patients Not yet recruiting NCT04578470 Phase 2 Vitamin D;Placebo
30 Efficacy of Extended-release, Once Daily Tramadol for Post Operative in Ambulatory Shoulder Arthroscopy Terminated NCT02247648 Phase 2 tramadol;Placebo
31 Pharmacologic Dissection of Vestibular Migraine and Chronic Subjective Dizziness: A Double-Blind Parallel Group Trial Comparing Response to Verapamil Versus Sertraline Completed NCT01669304 Phase 1 Verapamil;Sertraline
32 Multicentre, Open Label, Phase I Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety of APSLXR for the Treatment of Vertigo of Vestibular Origin or Meniere's Disease Not yet recruiting NCT04674735 Phase 1 APSLXR
33 Saccular Dilatation, Endolymphatic Hydrops and Vestibular Schwannoma : is Vertigo Really Correlated to the Tumor ? A Retrospective Study Based on FIESTA-C Sequence Using a 3 Tesla MRI Unknown status NCT03593577
34 Fast and Accurate Diagnosis of an Oval or Round Window Perilymphatic Fistula on CT and MRI, Without Injection, on 101 Patients With Surgical Confirmation Unknown status NCT03543293
35 Do Migrainous Vertigo Patients Have More Hypersensitivity in Their Vestibular System Than Migraine Patients Without Vertigo? Unknown status NCT00901953
36 Randomized Controlled Trials for Treatment of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Unknown status NCT01822002
37 The Liberatory Maneuver for the Treatment of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT01008124
38 Efficacy of Postural Restriction in Treating Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Unknown status NCT02475239
39 The Effect of Vestibular Exercise, With or Without Medication, in Managing Residual Dizziness After Successful Repositioning Maneuvers in Patients With Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Unknown status NCT03624283 Betahistine
40 Therapeutic Effects and Safety of Percutaneous Disc Decompression With Coblation Nucleoplasty in Cervical Vertigo Unknown status NCT03485768
41 Transcranial Vibrating System for Improving Outcomes of Vestibular Physical Therapy Unknown status NCT03795168
42 The Head Impulse Test in the Screening of Vestibular Function Unknown status NCT01426932
43 The Use of Virtual Reality for the Treatment of Visual Vertigo. Unknown status NCT03020654
44 Tailored Care for Somatoform Vertigo/Dizziness - From Diagnostics to Therapy Unknown status NCT02320851
45 Vestibular Function Evaluated by the Video Head Impulse Test (vHIT) and Vertigo Perceived by the Patients Before and After Cochlear Implant Surgery. Unknown status NCT02584361
46 Inactivity, Balance Problems and Fall Risk in Institutionalized Frail Elderly: What is the Impact of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) and Treatment Effectiveness? Unknown status NCT02905292
47 Vestibular Function and Vestibular Rehabilitation in Sudden Sensorneural Hearing Loss With Vertigo Unknown status NCT03431506
48 Vertigo Symptoms, Balance and Vestibular Function in Patients With Vestibular Schwannoma Unknown status NCT03346889
49 A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial of Pentoxifylline for Imbalance Secondary to Insufficient Microvascular Perfusion Unknown status NCT02592863 Pentoxifylline;Placebo
50 Comparison of Clinical and Game-based Rehabilitation for Balance Impairments and Gaze Dysfunction in Clients With Vestibular Disorders Unknown status NCT02134444

Search NIH Clinical Center for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Cochrane evidence based reviews: vertigo

Genetic Tests for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Anatomical Context for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo:

Cerebellum, Liver, Eye

Publications for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Articles related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo:

(show all 26)
# Title Authors PMID Year
A Rare Case of a Large, Deceitfully Quiet Brainstem Arteriovenous Malformation Presenting Only as Dizziness. 61
32754407 2020
Description of a new type of benign recurrent vertigo of central origin. 61
29792304 2018
Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and video head impulse test in patients with vertigo, dizziness and imbalance. 61
28242131 2017
[Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo]. 61
27070476 2016
[Vestibular neuritis: treatment and prognosis]. 61
24187751 2013
Infratentorial hygroma secondary to decompressive craniectomy after cerebellar infarction. 61
19830371 2009
[Causes and diagnostics of dizziness of central origin in children]. 61
20297643 2009
Clinical investigation on hypotensive patients with vertigo. 61
16816934 2006
[Results of transcranial Doppler examination of cerebral blood flow in children with vertigo]. 61
17348419 2006
Differentiation between cerebellopontine angle tumors in cancer patients. 61
12438865 2002
Intravenous Lorazepam versus dimenhydrinate for treatment of vertigo in the emergency department: a randomized clinical trial. 61
11020677 2000
[Vertigo of central origin in a hypertensive patient]. 61
10730449 2000
The effectiveness of piracetam in vertigo. 61
10338110 1999
Prochlorperazine versus cinnarizine in cases of vertigo. 61
23119469 1998
Smooth pursuit neck torsion test: a specific test for cervical dizziness. 61
9455954 1998
Approach to the dizzy patient. 61
7874402 1994
Dyscalculia in patients with vertigo. 61
1670135 1990
Sudden vertigo of central origin. 61
3261109 1988
Flunarizine. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use. 61
6141044 1984
Velocity of rapid eye movements and vertigo of central origin. 61
7224516 1981
The efficacy of piracetam in vertigo. A double-blind study in patients with vertigo of central origin. 61
7006617 1980
[Vertigo of central origin]. 61
4411493 1974
Vertigo of Central Origin. 61
19994159 1962
Vertigo of central origin. 61
13648026 1959
[Vertigo of central origin]. 61
14396083 1955
Case of Vertigo of Central Origin. 61
19983920 1924

Variations for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo:

# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 SCN2A NM_001040142.2(SCN2A):c.2960G>T (p.Ser987Ile) SNV Pathogenic 206978 rs796053124 2:166210742-166210742 2:165354232-165354232
2 CLCN1 NM_000083.3(CLCN1):c.568_569delinsTC (p.Gly190Ser) Indel Pathogenic 209139 rs797045032 7:143018813-143018814 7:143321720-143321721
3 SLC25A4 NM_001151.4(SLC25A4):c.368C>A (p.Ala123Asp) SNV Likely pathogenic 18249 rs121912683 4:186066174-186066174 4:185145020-185145020
4 MT-ND6 NC_012920.1:m.14477A>G SNV Uncertain significance 523306 rs1556424448 MT:14477-14477 MT:14477-14477
5 DYNC1H1 NM_001376.5(DYNC1H1):c.13298A>C (p.Asp4433Ala) SNV Uncertain significance 523439 rs1555412625 14:102514932-102514932 14:102048595-102048595
6 TNC NM_002160.4(TNC):c.890A>G (p.Asn297Ser) SNV Uncertain significance 523449 rs1554717312 9:117849120-117849120 9:115086841-115086841

Expression for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo.

Pathways for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Pathways related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
11.63 CLCN1 ATP4A ATP12A
2 9.7 SLC5A7 CACNA1A

GO Terms for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Cellular components related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integral component of membrane GO:0016021 9.23 SLC5A7 SLC25A4 SCN2A POLG CLCN1 CACNA1A

Biological processes related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 regulation of ion transmembrane transport GO:0034765 9.58 SCN2A CLCN1 CACNA1A
2 transmembrane transport GO:0055085 9.55 SLC5A7 SLC25A4 SCN2A CLCN1 CACNA1A
3 potassium ion import across plasma membrane GO:1990573 9.46 ATP4A ATP12A
4 cellular sodium ion homeostasis GO:0006883 9.43 ATP4A ATP12A
5 sodium ion export across plasma membrane GO:0036376 9.37 ATP4A ATP12A
6 ion transmembrane transport GO:0034220 9.35 SCN2A CLCN1 CACNA1A ATP4A ATP12A
7 cellular potassium ion homeostasis GO:0030007 9.32 ATP4A ATP12A
8 establishment or maintenance of transmembrane electrochemical gradient GO:0010248 9.26 ATP4A ATP12A
9 ion transport GO:0006811 9.1 SLC5A7 SCN2A CLCN1 CACNA1A ATP4A ATP12A

Molecular functions related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 voltage-gated ion channel activity GO:0005244 9.43 SCN2A CLCN1 CACNA1A
2 sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity GO:0005391 9.16 ATP4A ATP12A
3 potassium-transporting ATPase activity GO:0008556 8.96 ATP4A ATP12A
4 potassium:proton exchanging ATPase activity GO:0008900 8.62 ATP4A ATP12A

Sources for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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