Cerebral Palsy

Categories: Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases
Data Licensing
For inquiries, contact:

Aliases & Classifications for Cerebral Palsy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Cerebral Palsy:

Name: Cerebral Palsy 11 19 52 75 28 53 5 41 2 14 36 16 71 31 33
Infantile Cerebral Palsy 11 71
Cerebral Palsy, Mixed 71
Mixed Cerebral Palsy 19
Palsy, Cerebral 38
Palsy Cerebral 75


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:1969
MeSH 43 D002547
NCIt 49 C34460
SNOMED-CT 68 155024003
ICD10 31 G80 G80.9
UMLS 71 C0007789 C0392549 C0751024

Summaries for Cerebral Palsy

MedlinePlus: 41 What is cerebral palsy (CP)? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that cause problems with movement, balance, and posture. CP affects the cerebral motor cortex. This is the part of the brain that directs muscle movement. In fact, the first part of the name, cerebral, means having to do with the brain. The second part, palsy, means weakness or problems with using the muscles. What are the types of cerebral palsy (CP)? There are different types of CP: Spastic cerebral palsy, which is the most common type. It causes increased muscle tone, stiff muscles, and awkward movements. Sometimes it only affects one part of the body. In other cases, it can affect both arms and legs, the trunk, and the face. Dyskinetic cerebral palsy, which causes problems controlling the movement of the hands, arms, feet, and legs. This can make it hard to sit and walk. Ataxic cerebral palsy, which causes problems with balance and coordination. Mixed cerebral palsy, which means that you have symptoms of more than one type. What causes cerebral palsy (CP)? CP is caused by abnormal development or damage to the developing brain. It could happen when: The cerebral motor cortex doesn't develop normally during fetal growth There is an injury to the brain before, during, or after birth Both the brain damage and the disabilities it causes are permanent. Who is at risk for cerebral palsy (CP)? CP is more common among boys than girls. It affects black children more often than white children. Certain medical conditions or events that can happen during pregnancy and delivery that may increase a baby's risk of being born with cerebral palsy, including: Being born too small Being born too early Being born a twin or other multiple birth Being conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) or other assisted reproductive technology (ART) An infection in the pregnant parent Health problems in the pregnant parent, such as thyroid problems Severe jaundice Having complications during birth Rh incompatibility Seizures Exposure to toxins What are the signs of cerebral palsy (CP)? There are many different types and levels of disability with CP. So the signs can be different in each child. The signs usually appear in the early months of life. But sometimes there is a delay in getting a diagnosis until after age two. Infants with CP often have developmental delays. They are slow to reach developmental milestones such as learning to roll over, sit, crawl, or walk. They may also have abnormal muscle tone. They may seem floppy, or they may be stiff or rigid. It's important to know that children without CP can also have these signs. Contact your child's health care provider know if your child has any of these signs, so you can get a correct diagnosis. How is cerebral palsy (CP) diagnosed? Diagnosing CP involves several steps: Developmental monitoring (or surveillance) means tracking a child's growth and development over time. If there are any concerns about your child's development, then he or she should have a developmental screening test as soon as possible. Developmental screening involves a giving your child a short test to check for motor, movement, or other developmental delays. If the screenings are not normal, the provider will recommend some evaluations. Developmental and medical evaluations are done to diagnose which disorder your child has. The provider many use many tools to make the diagnosis: A check of your child's motor skills, muscle tone, reflexes, and posture. A medical history. Lab tests, genetic tests, and/or imaging tests. What are the treatments for cerebral palsy (CP)? There is no cure for CP, but treatment can improve the lives of those who have it. It is important to begin a treatment program as early as possible. A team of health professionals will work with you and your child to develop a treatment plan. Common treatments include: Medicines Surgery Assistive devices Physical, occupational, recreational, and speech therapy Can cerebral palsy (CP) be prevented? You cannot prevent the genetic problems that can cause CP. But it may be possible to manage or avoid some of the risk factors for CP. For example, making sure that pregnant women have been vaccinated could prevent certain infections that can cause CP in unborn babies. Using cars seats for infants and toddlers could prevent head injuries, which can be a cause of CP. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MalaCards based summary: Cerebral Palsy, also known as infantile cerebral palsy, is related to spastic cerebral palsy and spastic hemiplegia, and has symptoms including tremor, back pain and abnormality of extrapyramidal motor function. An important gene associated with Cerebral Palsy is COL4A1 (Collagen Type IV Alpha 1 Chain), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Signal Transduction and Platelet Aggregation Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics. The drugs Acetaminophen and Levodopa have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Blood and Umbilical Cord, and related phenotypes are nervous system and growth/size/body region

NINDS: 52 The term cerebral palsy refers to a group of neurological disorders that appear in infancy or early childhood and permanently affect body movement, muscle coordination, and balance. CP affects the part of the brain that controls muscle movements.  The majority of children with cerebral palsy are born with it, although it may not be detected until months or years later. The early signs of cerebral palsy usually appear before a child reaches 3 years of age. The most common are a lack of muscle coordination when performing voluntary movements (ataxia); stiff or tight muscles and exaggerated reflexes (spasticity); walking with one foot or leg dragging; walking on the toes, a crouched gait, or a “scissored” gait; and muscle tone that is either too stiff or too floppy. Other neurological symptoms that commonly occur in individuals with CP include seizures, hearing loss and impaired vision, bladder and bowel control issues, and pain and abnormal sensations. A small number of children have CP as the result of brain damage in the first few months or years of life, brain infections such as bacterial meningitis or viral encephalitis, or head injury from a motor vehicle accident, a fall, or child abuse. The disorder isn't progressive, meaning that the brain damage typically doesn't get worse over time. Risk factors associated with CP do not cause the disorder but can increase a child's chance of being born with the disorder.CP is not hereditary.

GARD: 19 "Cerebral palsy refers to a group of neurological disorders that can affect the brain and/or spinal cord. Signs and symptoms generally appear during infancy or early childhood and vary based on the type of Cerebral palsy (spastic Cerebral palsy, dyskinetic Cerebral palsy, ataxic Cerebral palsy, and mixed Cerebral palsy), the severity of the condition and which area(s) of the brain are affected. Common features include a lack of muscle coordination when performing voluntary movements (ataxia); stiff or tight muscles and exaggerated reflexes (spasticity); walking with one foot or leg dragging; walking on the toes, a crouched gait, or a ""scissored"" gait; and muscle tone that is either too stiff or too floppy. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain."

CDC: 2 Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and maintain balance and posture. CP is the most common motor disability in childhood. CDC estimates that an average of 1 in 323 children in the U.S. have CP.

Disease Ontology: 11 A brain disease that is caused by damage to the motor control centers of the developing brain during pregnancy, during childbirth or after birth, which affects muscle movement and balance.

Wikipedia: 75 Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Signs and symptoms... more...

Related Diseases for Cerebral Palsy

Diseases related to Cerebral Palsy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 955)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 spastic cerebral palsy 33.5 TUBA1A SPAST KANK1 COL4A2 COL4A1 ALDH3A2
2 spastic hemiplegia 33.3 COL4A2 COL4A1
3 spastic diplegia 33.3 TUBA1A SPAST ALDH3A2
4 inherited congenital spastic tetraplegia 32.7 KANK1 ADD3
5 porencephaly 31.2 TUBA1A COL4A2 COL4A1
6 migraine with or without aura 1 30.2 MT-TL1 F2 COL4A1 CLCN1
7 tubulinopathy 30.0 TUBB4A TUBA1A
8 spastic quadriplegia 11.9
9 cerebral palsy, ataxic, autosomal recessive 11.9
10 dyskinetic cerebral palsy 11.9
11 papillon-lefevre syndrome 11.9
12 spastic diplegia cerebral palsy 11.8
13 cerebral palsy, spastic quadriplegic, 2 11.7
14 spastic monoplegia 11.6
15 cerebral palsy, spastic quadriplegic, 3 11.6
16 intellectual disability - athetosis - microphthalmia 11.6
17 mixed cerebral palsy 11.5
18 spasticity 11.5
19 spastic paraplegia 51, autosomal recessive 11.4
20 neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive spasticity and brain white matter abnormalities 11.4
21 spastic paraplegia 47, autosomal recessive 11.3
22 spastic paraplegia 52, autosomal recessive 11.3
23 suprabulbar paresis, congenital 11.3
24 periventricular leukomalacia 11.3
25 hereditary spastic paraplegia 11.3
26 spastic paraplegia 20, autosomal recessive 11.3
27 spastic paraplegia 50, autosomal recessive 11.3
28 masa syndrome 11.3
29 spastic paraplegia 2, x-linked 11.2
30 neonatal hypoxic and ischemic brain injury 11.2
31 swallowing disorders 11.2
32 lesch-nyhan syndrome 11.2
33 hypertonia 11.2
34 athetosis 11.2
35 neurodevelopmental disorder with hearing loss and spasticity 11.2
36 hemiplegia 11.2
37 hypotonia 11.2
38 primary aldosteronism, seizures, and neurologic abnormalities 11.1
39 quadriplegia 11.1
40 hereditary spastic paraplegia 51 11.1
41 cerebral atrophy 11.1
42 neonatal jaundice 11.1
43 foot drop 11.1
44 twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome 11.0
45 fetal methylmercury syndrome 11.0
46 rhombencephalosynapsis 11.0
47 parkinsonism-dystonia 1, infantile-onset 11.0
48 intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 26 11.0
49 cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 9 11.0
50 congenital laryngeal palsy 11.0

Comorbidity relations with Cerebral Palsy via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Acute Cystitis

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cerebral Palsy:

Diseases related to Cerebral Palsy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Cerebral Palsy

UMLS symptoms related to Cerebral Palsy:

tremor; back pain; abnormality of extrapyramidal motor function; involuntary movements; dystonia; headache; syncope; athetosis; torticollis; pain; myokymia; muscle fibrillation; chronic pain; sciatica; asterixis; seizures; vertigo/dizziness; sleeplessness; muscle rigidity

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Cerebral Palsy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no effect GR00402-S-1 10.19 ADD3 ALDH3A2 CLCN1 COL4A1 COL4A2 F2
2 no effect GR00402-S-2 10.19 ADD3 ALDH3A2 CLCN1 COL4A1 COL4A2 F2

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Cerebral Palsy:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 10.39 ALDH3A2 CLCN1 COL4A1 COL4A2 F2 GNB1
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.28 ALDH3A2 CLCN1 COL4A1 COL4A2 F2 GNB1
3 cellular MP:0005384 10.21 ALDH3A2 COL4A1 F2 GNB1 GPHN PALS1
4 muscle MP:0005369 10.09 CLCN1 COL4A1 COL4A2 F2 PMM2 PROC
5 normal MP:0002873 10.08 ADD3 F2 GPHN PALS1 PMM2 SAMHD1
6 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.03 ALDH3A2 CLCN1 COL4A1 F2 GNB1 GPHN
7 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.02 ADD3 COL4A1 COL4A2 F2 PMM2 PROC
8 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.81 COL4A1 COL4A2 F2 GNB1 GPHN PMM2
9 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.65 CLCN1 COL4A1 COL4A2 GNB1 GPHN KANK1
10 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.55 ALDH3A2 CLCN1 COL4A1 COL4A2 F2 GNB1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Cerebral Palsy

Drugs for Cerebral Palsy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 191)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7, 63-84-3 6047
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Experimental, Vet_approved Phase 4 86347-14-0, 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
Amitriptyline Approved Phase 4 50-48-6 2160
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 84057-84-1 3878
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
Trihexyphenidyl Approved Phase 4 144-11-6 5572
Clonazepam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 1622-61-3 2802
Diazepam Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 439-14-5 3016
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
Tetrabenazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-46-8 6018
Ropivacaine Approved Phase 4 84057-95-4 71273 175805
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 62-31-7, 51-61-6 681
Amantadine Approved Phase 4 768-94-5 2130
Inulin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 9005-80-5 24763
19 Antipyretics Phase 4
20 Carbidopa, levodopa drug combination Phase 4
21 Dihydroxyphenylalanine Phase 4
22 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
incobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
24 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
25 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
26 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
27 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4
28 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
29 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
30 calcium channel blockers Phase 4
31 Acidophilus Phase 4
32 Sunflower Phase 4
33 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
34 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
35 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4
36 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
37 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4
38 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
39 Antiemetics Phase 4
40 Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic Phase 4
41 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
42 GABA Modulators Phase 4
43 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4
44 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
45 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
46 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
47 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
48 Sympathomimetics Phase 4
49 Bronchodilator Agents Phase 4
50 Adrenergic beta-Agonists Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 1104)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Consequence of Dexmedetomidine on Emergence Deliruim After Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Children With Cerebral Palsy Unknown status NCT02244515 Phase 4 dexmedetomidine
2 Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Treatment With Paracetamol in Children and Adults With Spinal Muscular Atrophy and Cerebral Palsy Unknown status NCT03648658 Phase 4 Paracetamol 120Mg/5mL Oral Suspension
3 Effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait in Children With Hemiplegic and Diplegic Cerebral Palsy Unknown status NCT02462018 Phase 4
4 Dopamine Treatment in Children With Cerebral Palsy With Dystonia- A Double Blind Controlled Study Unknown status NCT01361373 Phase 4 L- DOPA;placebo
5 A Placebo Controlled, Cross-over, Double Blind, Randomized, Clinical Trial to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of Meditoxin® Injection for Cervical Dystonia in Adults With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT01860196 Phase 4 Meditoxin;Normal saline
6 Recurrent Crying Spells in Cerebral Palsy With Spastic Quadriparesis - A Crossover Study Completed NCT01955655 Phase 4 Baclofen
7 A Randomized Controlled Trial on Effects of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Adults With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT00432055 Phase 4 Botulinum toxin type A (Botox);placebo (saline)
8 Does Botulinum Toxin A Make Walking Easier in Children With Cerebral Palsy? Completed NCT02546999 Phase 4 botox;placebo
9 Alterations of Functional Activities and Leg Stiffness After Hamstring Lengthening in Cerebral Palsy Children Completed NCT00154830 Phase 4
10 Postoperative Pain in Children With Cerebral Palsy After Pelvic and Femoral Osteotomies. A Prospective, Randomized and Double-blinded Study Completed NCT00964639 Phase 4 Ropivacaine;Saline
11 Efficacy of the Supplementation With a Symbiotic, a Prebiotic and a Probiotic to Produce a Beneficial Effect on the Intestinal Microbiota and on the Characteristics of Feces in Children With Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Chronic Constipation Completed NCT03117322 Phase 4
12 Multi-center, Single Arm, Open-label, Phase IV Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of MEDITOXIN® in Children With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT01256021 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin Type A
13 Excessive Crying in Children With Cerebral Palsy and Communication Deficits -a Fixed-sequence, Crossover Clinical Trial Completed NCT04523935 Phase 4 Baclofen, Diazepam, Clonazepam, Trihexyphenidyl, Tetrabenazine, Gabapentin, Topiramate, Lamotrigine, Amitriptyline.
14 A Pilot Study of Dexmedetomidine-Propofol in Children Undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging Completed NCT02633241 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine bolus and infusion-Propofol;Dexmedetomidine bolus only - Propofol
16 Efficacy of a Peri-Operative Surgical-Site, Multimodal Drug Injection in Pediatric Patients With Cerebral Palsy Undergoing Hip Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT04074265 Phase 4 Ropivacaine injection;normal saline
17 Improvement After Botulinum Toxin A Injections to the Upper Extremities in Children With Cerebral Palsy Terminated NCT00549471 Phase 4
18 Use of Amantadine in Treating Cognitive and Motor Impairments in Adolescents and Adults With Cerebral Palsy Terminated NCT04273737 Phase 4 Amantadine Hydrochloride
19 Does Oral Baclofen Improve Care and Comfort in Spastic Children in Nursing Homes? Terminated NCT00752934 Phase 4 oral baclofen + placebo;placebo + oral baclofen
20 Placebo Controlled Study of Baclofen for GERD in Children With Cerebral Palsy Withdrawn NCT01386255 Phase 4 Baclofen;placebo
21 Safety and Efficacy of Bone Marrow MNC for the Treatment of Cerebral Palsy in Subjects Below Years. It is Self Funded (Patients' Own Funding) Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT01832454 Phase 2, Phase 3
22 Targeted Hip Progressive Resistance Training to Improve Single Leg Balance and Walking in Children With Cerebral Palsy Unknown status NCT01633736 Phase 3
23 Phase 2/3 Application of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A in Salivary Glands as a Treatment of Chronic Drooling in Patients With Cerebral Palsy: A Controlled Clinical Trial. Unknown status NCT01489904 Phase 2, Phase 3
24 Effect of Early Application of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin in Premature Infants on White Matter Lesions and Neurodevelopmental Outcome Unknown status NCT03110341 Phase 3 Erythropoietin;Normal saline
25 Stimulation for Perinatal Stroke Optimizing Recovery Trajectories Unknown status NCT03216837 Phase 2, Phase 3
26 Magnesium Prevention of Brain Injury in Preterm Infants Unknown status NCT00065949 Phase 3 magnesium sulfate
27 Modulation of Brain Plasticity After Perinatal Stroke: The PLASTIC CHAMPS Trial Unknown status NCT01189058 Phase 2, Phase 3
28 Open-label, Non-controlled, Multicenter Long-term Study to Investigate the Safety and Efficacy of Xeomin® (Incobotulinumtoxin A, NT 201) for the Treatment of Spasticity of the Lower Limb(s) or of Combined Spasticity of Upper and Lower Limb in Children and Adolescents (Age 2 - 17 Years) With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT01905683 Phase 3 IncobotulinumtoxinA (16-20 Units per kg body weight)
29 Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group, Dose-response Study of Three Doses Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA, NT 201) for the Treatment of Lower Limb Spasticity in Children and Adolescents (Age 2 - 17 Years) With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT01893411 Phase 3 IncobotulinumtoxinA (16 Units per kg body weight);IncobotulinumtoxinA (12 Units per kg body weight);IncobotulinumtoxinA (4 Units per kg body weight)
30 A Six-Month, Multi-Center, Open-Label Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Oral Glycopyrrolate Liquid for the Treatment of Pathologic (Chronic Moderate to Severe) Drooling in Pediatric Patients 3 to 18 Years of Age With Cerebral Palsy or Other Neurologic Conditions Completed NCT00491894 Phase 3 Oral Glycopyrrolate Liquid
31 The Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Sativex as an Adjunctive Treatment to Existing Anti-spasticity Medications in Children Aged 8 to 18 Years With Spasticity Due to Cerebral Palsy or Traumatic Central Nervous System Injury Who Have Not Responded Adequately to Their Existing Anti-spasticity Medications: a Parallel Group Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study Followed by a 24-week Open Label Extension Phase Completed NCT01898520 Phase 3 Sativex;Placebo
32 Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group, Dose-response Study of Three Doses Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA, NT 201) for the Treatment of Upper Limb Spasticity Alone or Combined Upper and Lower Limb Spasticity in Children and Adolescents (Age 2 - 17 Years) With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT02002884 Phase 3 IncobotulinumtoxinA (8 Units per kg body weight);IncobotulinumtoxinA (6 Units per kg body weight);IncobotulinumtoxinA (2 Units per kg body weight)
33 Effectiveness of Intermittent Serial Casting on Spastic Wrist Flexion Deformity in Children With Cerebral Palsy Treated By Botulinum Toxin A Completed NCT03306212 Phase 3 Botulinum toxin A
34 Integrated Management With Brain Stimulation and Hybrid Training Enhances Functional Gains in Children With Cerebral Palsy Treated by Botulinum Toxin A Completed NCT03302871 Phase 3 Botulinum toxin type A
35 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of TEV-50717 (Deutetrabenazine) for the Treatment of Dyskinesia in Cerebral Palsy in Children and Adolescents Completed NCT03813238 Phase 3 Deutetrabenazine;Placebo
36 Botulinum Toxin Efficiency on Spasticity of Rectus Femoris and Semitendinosus Muscles as Functional Agonist and Antagonist Muscles. Assessment of Efficiency of Botulinum Toxin on Spasticity in Agonist and Antagonist Muscles Using Clinical Assessment and Gait Analysis in Cerebral Palsy Children: Rectus Femoris and Semitendinosus Completed NCT00133861 Phase 2, Phase 3 Botulinum toxin
37 Intrathecal Baclofen. Evaluation of a Therapy for Refractory Spasticity in Children With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT00367068 Phase 3 baclofen, intrathecal
38 Efficacy and Functional Outcomes of Botulinum Toxin A Injections to Hamstrings in Flexed Knee Gait in Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Completed NCT00261131 Phase 3 Botulinum Toxin A
39 A Phase III, Prospective, Multicentre, Open Label, Extension Study Assessing the Long Term Safety and Efficacy of Repeated Treatment With DYSPORT® Used in the Treatment of Lower Limb Spasticity in Children With Dynamic Equinus Foot Deformity Due to Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT01251380 Phase 3
40 A Phase III, Multicentre, Double Blind, Prospective, Randomised, Placebo Controlled Study Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of DYSPORT® Used in the Treatment of Lower Limb Spasticity in Children With Dynamic Equinus Foot Deformity Due to Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT01249417 Phase 3 Placebo
41 Post-operative Pain in Children With Cerebral Palsy Following Major Hip Surgery: a Double Blind Randomised Placebo Controlled Trial of Pre-operative Botulinum Toxin Type A Completed NCT01437644 Phase 3 botulinum toxin intramuscular injection
42 Is it Possible to Improve Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Cerebral Palsy Children by Modulating Attention? Completed NCT01799304 Phase 3
43 Administration of Antenatal Magnesium Sulphate for Prevention of Cerebral Palsy and Death in Preterm Infants (MASP-STUDY) Completed NCT01492608 Phase 3 Magnesium sulphate
44 Double-blinded, Randomized, Active Control Comparative, Multicenter-designed, Phase III Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of "Botulax®" Versus "Botox®" in Children With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT01787344 Phase 3 Botulinum Toxin Type A(Botox®);Botulinum toxin type A(Botulax®)
45 A Randomized Controlled Trial on Integrated Management of Pronation Deformity of Children With Cerebral Palsy Treated by Botulinum Toxin-A Completed NCT03472261 Phase 3 Botulinum toxin type A
46 Efficacy of Stem Cell Transplantation Compared to Rehabilitation Treatment of Children With Cerebral Paralysis Completed NCT01929434 Phase 3
47 Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Multicenter Study With an Open-label Extension Period to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of NT 201 in the Treatment of Children and Adolescents (2-17 Years) With Chronic Troublesome Sialorrhea Associated With Neurological Disorders, and/or Intellectual Disability Completed NCT02270736 Phase 3 NT 201 Placebo;NT 201
48 Evaluation of the Efficacy of "MEOPA" Used to Obtain Better ROM Immediately After Multilevel Surgery in Children With Spastic Diplegia, Quadriplegia or Hemiplegia. Completed NCT00632528 Phase 3 MEOPA;Medicinal air
49 Comparing Fetal Cerebral Blood Flow Between Magnesium Sulfate & Calcium Channel Blockers in Patients With Preterm Labor; a Randomized Controlled Trial. Completed NCT02591004 Phase 2, Phase 3 Magesium sulphate;Nifedipine
50 BOTOX® Treatment in Pediatric Upper Limb Spasticity: Double-blind Study Completed NCT01603602 Phase 3 Normal Saline (Placebo)

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cerebral Palsy

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Dantrolene Sodium

Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Cerebral Palsy cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.

Genetic Tests for Cerebral Palsy

Genetic tests related to Cerebral Palsy:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Cerebral Palsy 28

Anatomical Context for Cerebral Palsy

Organs/tissues related to Cerebral Palsy:

MalaCards : Brain, Spinal Cord, Bone Marrow, Cortex, Thyroid, Bone, Globus Pallidus
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Cerebral Palsy:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Blood Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
2 Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Publications for Cerebral Palsy

Articles related to Cerebral Palsy:

(show top 50) (show all 25125)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Recessive COL4A2 Mutation Leads to Intellectual Disability, Epilepsy, and Spastic Cerebral Palsy. 62 5
33912663 2021
Late diagnosis and atypical brain imaging of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome: are we failing to diagnose Aicardi-Goutières syndrome-2? 62 5
28762473 2017
Effectiveness of virtual reality on functional mobility during treadmill training in children with cerebral palsy: a single-blind, two-arm parallel group randomised clinical trial (VirtWalkCP Project). 62 41
36328390 2022
Efficacy of a Hip Brace for Hip Displacement in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Clinical Trial. 62 41
36331502 2022
Effects of intermittent aerobic training on exercise capacity, pulmonary functions, and gait parameters in asthmatic children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial. 62 41
36263570 2022
Whole-genome sequencing of patients with rare diseases in a national health system. 5
32581362 2020
Diagnosis of Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome in Adults: A Case Series. 5
32258229 2020
Diagnostic high-throughput sequencing of 2396 patients with bleeding, thrombotic, and platelet disorders. 5
31064749 2019
Germline De Novo Mutations in GNB1 Cause Severe Neurodevelopmental Disability, Hypotonia, and Seizures. 5
27108799 2016
Genetic screening and functional characterization of PDGFRB mutations associated with basal ganglia calcification of unknown etiology. 5
24796542 2014
Spectrum of mutations and sequence variants in the FALDH gene in patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. 5
9829906 1998
Identification of proteolipid protein 1 gene duplication by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification: first report of genetically confirmed family of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease in Korea. 53 62
18437021 2008
Reaching movements in childhood dystonia contain signal-dependent noise. 53 62
15996397 2005
The Xq22 inversion breakpoint interrupted a novel Ras-like GTPase gene in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and profound mental retardation. 53 62
12145744 2002
Amniotic fluid matrix metalloproteinase-8 and the development of cerebral palsy. 53 62
12235718 2002
Deleterious effects of IL-9-activated mast cells and neuroprotection by antihistamine drugs in the developing mouse brain. 53 62
11477207 2001
Temporal effects of two interferential current applications on peripheral circulation in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. 62
36398021 2023
Retraction: Ultrasound guided neural stem cell transplantation through the lateral ventricle for treatment of cerebral palsy in children. 62
35900448 2023
Development of a Clinical Framework for the Assessment of Dyskinesia and Function in the Upper Limb in Children with Cerebral Palsy. 62
36097697 2023
Blade plate versus locking plate fixation of proximal femoral varus osteotomy in children with cerebral palsy. 62
35170574 2023
Clinical course of pain intensity in individuals with cerebral palsy: A prognostic systematic review. 62
35871758 2023
Evaluation of a technique of patellar tendon shortening to correct patella alta associated with severe crouch gait in cerebral palsy. 62
36445353 2023
The effect of medial only versus medial and lateral hamstring lengthening on transverse gait parameters in cerebral palsy. 62
36445368 2023
Gross motor function prediction using natural language processing in cerebral palsy. 62
35665923 2023
Temporal trends, clinical characteristics, and sociodemographic profile of post-neonatally acquired cerebral palsy in Australia, 1973-2012: A population-based observational study. 62
35665921 2023
Excitability of the radiculo-medullary circuitry in spastic cerebral palsy: An intraoperative neurophysiological study in children undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy. 62
35698904 2023
Post-neonatal cerebral palsy in Australia: Through the lens of intersectionality. 62
35758144 2023
Dystonia in individuals with spastic cerebral palsy and isolated periventricular leukomalacia. 62
35661146 2023
Effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in improving mobility in children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 62
35730135 2023
Adverse events after different forms of botulinum neurotoxin A injections in children with cerebral palsy: An 8-year retrospective study. 62
35674175 2023
Assessing Dyskinesia in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Moving Forward: A Commentary on Development of a Clinical Framework for the Assessment of Dyskinesia and Function in the Upper Limb in Children with Cerebral Palsy. 62
36437504 2023
Lanbotulinumtoxin-A: Safe for children with cerebral palsy but is it effective? 62
35746861 2023
Post-fracture rehabilitation pathways and association with mortality among adults with cerebral palsy. 62
36039504 2023
Interleukin-1: an important target for perinatal neuroprotection? 62
35799507 2023
Assisted reproductive technology: Short- and long-term outcomes. 62
35851656 2023
Measuring the inch stones for progress: Gross motor function in the developmental and epileptic encephalopathies. 62
36368092 2022
Neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm infants who received cord milking at birth: a randomized controlled trial. 62
36194256 2022
Multi-level personalization of neuromusculoskeletal models to estimate physiologically plausible knee joint contact forces in children. 62
36229699 2022
Preventing Brain Damage from Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in Neonates: Update on Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Umbilical Cord Blood Cells. 62
33853147 2022
Biofeedback assisted relaxation training and distraction therapy for pain in children undergoing botulinum neurotoxin A injections: A crossover randomized controlled trial. 62
35665493 2022
Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: Perspectives of Neuroprotective and Neuroregenerative Treatments. 62
36030792 2022
Hand-Arm Bimanual Intensive Training in Virtual Reality: A Feasibility Study. 62
36459077 2022
Mid forceps did not cause "compromised babies" - "compromise" caused forceps: an approach toward safely lowering the cesarean delivery rate. 62
33494634 2022
Timing intrapartum management based on the evolution and duration of fetal heart rate patterns. 62
34121585 2022
Preterm Brain Injury and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: A Meta-analysis. 62
36330752 2022
Multimorbidity and chronic co-prescription networks and potential interactions in adult patients with epilepsy: MorbiNet study. 62
36063254 2022
Cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination during pregnancy. 62
33478281 2022
Probabilistic mapping of deep brain stimulation in childhood dystonia. 62
36403506 2022
Cost effectiveness of buprenorphine vs. methadone for pregnant people with opioid use disorder. 62
33455473 2022
Fentanyl analgesia in asphyxiated newborns treated with therapeutic hypothermia. 62
34486466 2022

Variations for Cerebral Palsy

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Cerebral Palsy:

5 (show top 50) (show all 57)
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 SPAST NM_014946.4(SPAST):c.131C>T (p.Ser44Leu) SNV Other
5671 rs121908515 GRCh37: 2:32289031-32289031
GRCh38: 2:32063962-32063962
2 RNASEH2B NM_024570.4(RNASEH2B):c.529G>A (p.Ala177Thr) SNV Pathogenic
1262 rs75184679 GRCh37: 13:51519581-51519581
GRCh38: 13:50945445-50945445
3 CLCN1 NM_000083.3(CLCN1):c.2680C>T (p.Arg894Ter) SNV Pathogenic
17545 rs55960271 GRCh37: 7:143048771-143048771
GRCh38: 7:143351678-143351678
4 GNB1 NM_002074.5(GNB1):c.239T>C (p.Ile80Thr) SNV Pathogenic
208722 rs752746786 GRCh37: 1:1737942-1737942
GRCh38: 1:1806503-1806503
5 PMM2 NM_000303.3(PMM2):c.338C>T (p.Pro113Leu) SNV Pathogenic
7723 rs80338700 GRCh37: 16:8900255-8900255
GRCh38: 16:8806398-8806398
6 PMM2 NM_000303.3(PMM2):c.422G>A (p.Arg141His) SNV Pathogenic
7706 rs28936415 GRCh37: 16:8905010-8905010
GRCh38: 16:8811153-8811153
7 MT-TL1 NC_012920.1:m.3243A>G SNV Pathogenic
9589 rs199474657 GRCh37: MT:3243-3243
GRCh38: MT:3243-3243
8 TUBB4A NM_006087.4(TUBB4A):c.1228G>A (p.Glu410Lys) SNV Pathogenic
135658 rs587777428 GRCh37: 19:6495282-6495282
GRCh38: 19:6495271-6495271
9 ADD3 NM_016824.5(ADD3):c.1100G>A (p.Gly367Asp) SNV Pathogenic
242273 rs564185858 GRCh37: 10:111882007-111882007
GRCh38: 10:110122249-110122249
10 SAMHD1 NM_015474.4(SAMHD1):c.109G>T (p.Glu37Ter) SNV Pathogenic
997718 rs1684124082 GRCh37: 20:35579938-35579938
GRCh38: 20:36951535-36951535
11 ALDH3A2 NM_000382.3(ALDH3A2):c.941_943delinsGGGCTAAAAGTACTGTTGGGG (p.Ala314_Pro315delinsGlyAlaLysSerThrValGlyAla) INDEL Pathogenic
1638 GRCh37: 17:19566646-19566648
GRCh38: 17:19663333-19663335
12 COL4A1 NM_001845.6(COL4A1):c.4114G>C (p.Gly1372Arg) SNV Pathogenic
1172810 GRCh37: 13:110817245-110817245
GRCh38: 13:110164898-110164898
13 overlap with 47 genes GRCh37/hg19 22q11.21(chr22:18873001-21469900) CN GAIN Pathogenic
1172811 GRCh37: 22:18873001-21469900
14 TUBA1A NM_006009.4(TUBA1A):c.50G>A (p.Gly17Asp) SNV Pathogenic
1172808 GRCh37: 12:49580570-49580570
GRCh38: 12:49186787-49186787
15 SPAST NM_014946.4(SPAST):c.1099-4371_1245+1010del DEL Pathogenic
1172817 GRCh37: 2:32347645-32354557
GRCh38: 2:32122576-32129488
16 SYNE2 NM_182914.3(SYNE2):c.16153C>T (p.Gln5385Ter) SNV Pathogenic
1172818 GRCh37: 14:64628848-64628848
GRCh38: 14:64162130-64162130
17 overlap with 15 genes DEL Pathogenic
1172820 GRCh37: 17:28992701-30408700
18 overlap with 6 genes DEL Pathogenic
1172822 GRCh37: X:6451301-8138000
19 SMARCA4 NM_003072.5(SMARCA4):c.3355C>T (p.Arg1119Cys) SNV Pathogenic
816866 rs2090378511 GRCh37: 19:11138599-11138599
GRCh38: 19:11027923-11027923
20 GPHN, PALS1 NM_022474.4(PALS1):c.1289A>G (p.Glu430Gly) SNV Pathogenic
983221 rs2085184370 GRCh37: 14:67783612-67783612
GRCh38: 14:67316895-67316895
21 COL4A2 NM_001846.4(COL4A2):c.3472G>C (p.Gly1158Arg) SNV Likely Pathogenic
1344842 GRCh37: 13:111144434-111144434
GRCh38: 13:110492087-110492087
22 ARFGEF1-DT, CPA6 NM_020361.5(CPA6):c.799G>A (p.Gly267Arg) SNV Likely Pathogenic
1172805 rs61738009 GRCh37: 8:68396042-68396042
GRCh38: 8:67483807-67483807
23 SETX NM_015046.7(SETX):c.5821_5830del (p.Ala1941fs) DEL Likely Pathogenic
209188 rs797045067 GRCh37: 9:135172393-135172402
GRCh38: 9:132297006-132297015
24 GRIN2B NM_000834.5(GRIN2B):c.1739T>A (p.Phe580Tyr) SNV Likely Pathogenic
1139464 GRCh37: 12:13764700-13764700
GRCh38: 12:13611766-13611766
25 COL4A2-AS1, COL4A2 NM_001846.4(COL4A2):c.4049G>A (p.Gly1350Asp) SNV Likely Pathogenic
1172813 GRCh37: 13:111155739-111155739
GRCh38: 13:110503392-110503392
26 CACNA1C NM_000719.7(CACNA1C):c.3568G>T (p.Val1190Leu) SNV Likely Pathogenic
836422 rs1048241141 GRCh37: 12:2719716-2719716
GRCh38: 12:2610550-2610550
27 TUBB4A NM_006087.4(TUBB4A):c.763G>A (p.Val255Ile) SNV Likely Pathogenic
217025 rs767399782 GRCh37: 19:6495747-6495747
GRCh38: 19:6495736-6495736
28 KIDINS220 NM_020738.4(KIDINS220):c.4497del (p.Arg1499fs) DEL Likely Pathogenic
1172823 GRCh37: 2:8871669-8871669
GRCh38: 2:8731539-8731539
29 CACNA1A NM_001127222.2(CACNA1A):c.7249G>T (p.Glu2417Ter) SNV Likely Pathogenic
1172824 GRCh37: 19:13318399-13318399
GRCh38: 19:13207585-13207585
30 F8 NM_000132.4(F8):c.5146C>A (p.His1716Asn) SNV Risk Factor
1172825 GRCh37: X:154156919-154156919
GRCh38: X:154928644-154928644
31 overlap with 24 genes GRCh37/hg19 15q11.2-12(chr15:22722801-26749200) CN GAIN Risk Factor
1172827 GRCh37: 15:22722801-26749200
32 NKX2-6 NM_001136271.3(NKX2-6):c.455dup (p.Gln153fs) DUP Risk Factor
1172828 GRCh37: 8:23560414-23560415
GRCh38: 8:23702901-23702902
33 overlap with 13 genes GRCh37/hg19 1q21.1(chr1:145382601-145616000) CN LOSS Risk Factor
1172829 GRCh37: 1:145382601-145616000
34 KLHL3 NM_017415.3(KLHL3):c.1692G>A (p.Trp564Ter) SNV Likely Pathogenic
1172819 GRCh37: 5:136961485-136961485
GRCh38: 5:137625796-137625796
35 COL4A2 NM_001846.4(COL4A2):c.3625G>A (p.Gly1209Arg) SNV Likely Pathogenic
1172809 GRCh37: 13:111145620-111145620
GRCh38: 13:110493273-110493273
36 COL4A2 NM_001846.4(COL4A2):c.957+2T>C SNV Likely Pathogenic
1172812 GRCh37: 13:111092182-111092182
GRCh38: 13:110439835-110439835
37 ASTN2 and overlap with 1 gene(s) GRCh37/hg19 9q33.1(chr9:119311659-119462832) CN LOSS Risk Factor
1172814 GRCh37: 9:119311659-119462832
38 PDGFRB NM_002609.4(PDGFRB):c.2083C>T (p.Arg695Cys) SNV Likely Pathogenic
135650 rs138008832 GRCh37: 5:149502705-149502705
GRCh38: 5:150123142-150123142
39 ARHGAP31 NM_020754.4(ARHGAP31):c.1700del (p.Pro567fs) DEL Likely Pathogenic
1172804 GRCh37: 3:119128396-119128396
GRCh38: 3:119409549-119409549
40 COL4A1 NM_001845.6(COL4A1):c.1258G>A (p.Gly420Arg) SNV Likely Pathogenic
1172807 GRCh37: 13:110850841-110850841
GRCh38: 13:110198494-110198494
41 PROC NM_000312.4(PROC):c.226G>A (p.Val76Met) SNV Likely Pathogenic
665 rs121918149 GRCh37: 2:128179014-128179014
GRCh38: 2:127421438-127421438
42 CC2D1A NM_017721.5(CC2D1A):c.378+137_1641+1157del DEL Likely Pathogenic
812928 GRCh37: 19:14023543-14032892
GRCh38: 19:13912730-13922079
43 F2 NM_000506.5(F2):c.*97G>A SNV Risk Factor
13310 rs1799963 GRCh37: 11:46761055-46761055
GRCh38: 11:46739505-46739505
44 BRCA2 NM_000059.4(BRCA2):c.8487+3A>G SNV Likely Pathogenic
52603 rs81002806 GRCh37: 13:32944697-32944697
GRCh38: 13:32370560-32370560
45 CLCN2 NM_004366.6(CLCN2):c.1730G>A (p.Arg577Gln) SNV Likely Pathogenic
9039 rs137852682 GRCh37: 3:184071575-184071575
GRCh38: 3:184353787-184353787
46 F2 NM_000506.3(F2):c.598G>A (p.Glu200Lys) SNV Risk Factor
13302 rs62623459 GRCh37: 11:46747447-46747447
GRCh38: 11:46725897-46725897
47 SPAST NM_014946.4(SPAST):c.1625A>G (p.Asp542Gly) SNV Likely Pathogenic
217003 rs142053576 GRCh37: 2:32370014-32370014
GRCh38: 2:32144945-32144945
48 TTN-AS1, TTN NM_001267550.2(TTN):c.50473C>T (p.Gln16825Ter) SNV Likely Pathogenic
1172821 GRCh37: 2:179476563-179476563
GRCh38: 2:178611836-178611836
49 MFN2 NM_014874.4(MFN2):c.2220G>A (p.Trp740Ter) SNV Likely Pathogenic
1172816 GRCh37: 1:12071568-12071568
GRCh38: 1:12011511-12011511
50 SPG7 NM_003119.4(SPG7):c.1045G>A (p.Gly349Ser) SNV Uncertain Significance
6819 rs141659620 GRCh37: 16:89598369-89598369
GRCh38: 16:89531961-89531961

Expression for Cerebral Palsy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cerebral Palsy.

Pathways for Cerebral Palsy

Pathways related to Cerebral Palsy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
2 10.84 F2 COL4A2 COL4A1

GO Terms for Cerebral Palsy

Cellular components related to Cerebral Palsy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 collagen type IV trimer GO:0005587 8.92 COL4A2 COL4A1

Biological processes related to Cerebral Palsy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 collagen-activated tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathway GO:0038063 9.26 COL4A2 COL4A1
2 regulation of body fluid levels GO:0050878 8.62 PROC F2

Sources for Cerebral Palsy

8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
36 LifeMap
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
Loading form....