Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Categories: Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

MalaCards integrated aliases for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak:

Name: Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak 53 72 33
Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak 72
Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea 72
Spinal Csf Leak 53
Csf Rhinorrhea 53
Csf Otorrhea 53
Csf Leak 53


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ICD10 33 G96.0
UMLS 72 C0007815 C0023182 C2936821

Summaries for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea is the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) though the ear. It is a rare but very serious condition that requires rapid intervention. Symptoms include leak of clear fluid through the ear, inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain (meningitis), hearing loss, and seizures. The cause of a spinal fluid leak through the ear is a defect of the bone and meningeal layers covering the brain that separate the subarachnoid space of the brain from the middle ear and mastoid bone (located just behind the ear). The leaks occur after a surgery in the base of the skull, temporal bone fractures, congenital defects of the inner ear, trauma, or they may be spontaneous. Treatment depends on the cause and may include antibiotics, compression dressing and surgery.

MalaCards based summary : Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak, also known as spinal cerebrospinal fluid leak, is related to spontaneous intracranial hypotension and intracranial hypotension, and has symptoms including seizures, vertigo and pain. An important gene associated with Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak is PTGDS (Prostaglandin D2 Synthase). The drugs Budesonide and Thrombin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, bone and brain.

Related Diseases for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Diseases related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 207)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 spontaneous intracranial hypotension 12.6
2 intracranial hypotension 11.8
3 intracranial hypertension 10.7
4 headache 10.7
5 acoustic neuroma 10.7
6 neurilemmoma 10.6
7 encephalocele 10.6
8 meningitis 10.6
9 hydrocephalus 10.5
10 congenital hydrocephalus 10.5
11 neuroma 10.5
12 adenoma 10.5
13 pituitary adenoma 10.4
14 meningoencephalocele 10.4
15 meningocele 10.4
16 craniopharyngioma 10.4
17 mollaret meningitis 10.4
18 sleep apnea 10.3
19 empty sella syndrome 10.3
20 rare surgical neurologic disease 10.3
21 bacterial meningitis 10.3
22 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 10.3
23 pituitary tumors 10.3
24 otitis media 10.2
25 meningioma, radiation-induced 10.2
26 meningioma, familial 10.2
27 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 10.2
28 spinal meningioma 10.2
29 secretory meningioma 10.2
30 lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma 10.2
31 head injury 10.2
32 marfan syndrome 10.1
33 migraine with or without aura 1 10.1
34 trigeminal neuralgia 10.1
35 chordoma 10.1
36 intracranial hypertension, idiopathic 10.1
37 ocular motor apraxia 10.1
38 ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of spine 10.1
39 allergic rhinitis 10.1
40 papilledema 10.1
41 spondylosis 10.1
42 rhinitis 10.1
43 spinal stenosis 10.1
44 diabetes insipidus 10.1
45 spinal cord injury 10.1
46 branchiootic syndrome 1 10.1
47 squamous cell papilloma 10.1
48 papilloma 10.1
49 spondylosis, cervical 10.1
50 deafness, autosomal recessive 4, with enlarged vestibular aqueduct 10.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak:

Diseases related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

UMLS symptoms related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak:

seizures, vertigo, pain, meningism, reflex, abnormal, neurobehavioral manifestations, neuromuscular manifestations

Drugs & Therapeutics for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Drugs for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 73)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Budesonide Approved Phase 4 51333-22-3 63006 5281004
Thrombin Approved, Investigational Phase 4
3 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
4 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
5 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4
6 glucocorticoids Phase 4
7 Hormones Phase 4
8 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
9 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 4
10 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
11 Bronchodilator Agents Phase 4
12 Fibrin Tissue Adhesive Phase 4
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 302-25-0
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 2921-57-5
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 83-43-2 6741
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 50-24-8 5755
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 2, Phase 3 2920-86-7
18 Coagulants Phase 2, Phase 3
19 Antiemetics Phase 2, Phase 3
20 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
21 Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 2, Phase 3
22 Gentamicins Phase 2, Phase 3
23 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
24 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 2, Phase 3
25 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
26 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
27 Protective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
28 Prednisolone acetate Phase 2, Phase 3
Acetazolamide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 59-66-5 1986
tannic acid Approved Phase 2 1401-55-4
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 2 51-41-2 439260
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
33 Natriuretic Agents Phase 2
34 diuretics Phase 2
35 Anticonvulsants Phase 2
36 Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Phase 2
37 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 2
38 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 2
39 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 2
40 GABA Agents Phase 2
41 GABA Modulators Phase 2
42 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 2
43 Sympathomimetics Phase 2
44 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 2
45 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 2
46 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 2
47 Adrenergic Agents Phase 2
48 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 2
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 1 2078-54-8 4943
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 1 59467-70-8 4192

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 52)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Impact Of The Addition Of Budesonide To Low-Pressure, High-Volume Saline Sinus Irrigation For Chronic Rhinosinusitis Completed NCT02696850 Phase 4 Budesonide;Saline alone
2 A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of EVICEL® Used for Suture-Line Sealing in Dura-Mater Closure During Paediatric Neurosurgical Cranial Procedures Recruiting NCT02309645 Phase 4
3 Sphenopalatine Ganglion Nerve Block for Postdural Puncture Headache in Obstetrics Withdrawn NCT03181464 Phase 4 Lidocaine 4%;Placebo
4 A Single-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety and Effectiveness of EVICEL® Fibrin Sealant (Human) Compared to a Hydrogel Sealant as an Adjunct to Sutured Dural Repair Completed NCT02457546 Phase 3
5 A Randomised Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Fibrin Sealant, Vapour Heated, Solvent/Detergent Treated FS VH S/D 500 S-apr (Tisseel) Compared to DuraSeal Dural Sealant as an Adjunct to Sutured Dural Repair in Cranial Surgery. Completed NCT02891070 Phase 3 FS VH S/D 500 s-apr
6 TachoSil® Versus Current Practice in Dura Sealing Techniques for the Prevention of Post-operative Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Leaks in Patients Undergoing Skull Base Surgery: An Open Label, Randomised, Controlled, Multi-centre, Parallel Group Efficacy and Safety Trial. Completed NCT01355627 Phase 3
7 A Randomized, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety and Effectiveness of EVICEL as an Adjunct to Sutured Dural Repair Completed NCT01174992 Phase 2, Phase 3
8 Effectiveness of Transtympanic Steroids in Unilateral Ménière's Disease: a Randomised Controlled Double-Blind Trial Completed NCT00802529 Phase 2, Phase 3 Methylprednisolone;Gentamicin
9 A Pivotal Clinical Trial Examining the Safety and Effectiveness of the Adherus Dural Sealant System When Used as a Dural Sealant in Cranial Procedures Completed NCT01158378 Phase 3
10 A Prospective, Multi-Center, Randomized Controlled Study to Compare the Spinal Sealant System as an Adjunct to Sutured Dural Repair With Standard of Care Methods During Spinal Surgery Completed NCT00458354 Phase 3
11 A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, Single Blinded, Study to Evaluate the Safety and Effectiveness of Bioseal as an Adjunct to Sutured Dural Repair Recruiting NCT03110783 Phase 3
12 Evaluating the Effect of Acetazolamide Administration and Prone Positioning Following Lumbosacral Spinal Surgery in Preventing Cerebro Spinal Fluid Leakage and Collection and Wound Dehiscence in Children. Unknown status NCT01867268 Phase 2 Acetazolamide
13 Periprocedural Sedation for the Prevention of Post Dural Puncture Headache Unknown status NCT01503788 Phase 2 Midazolam
14 A Randomized Trial of CT Fluoroscopy-guided Targeted Autologous Blood and Fibrin Glue Patching for Treatment of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks in Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension. Recruiting NCT03276975 Phase 2 TISSEEL
15 A Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled, Trial of Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage (CSFD) in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Recruiting NCT02495545 Phase 2
16 Spreading Depolarization and Ketamine Suppression Completed NCT02501941 Phase 1 ketamine
17 Study to Compare 2 Minimally Invasive Fetal Neural Tube Defect Repair Techniques: Repair Using Durepair Patch vs. Repair Without Durepair Patch Recruiting NCT03794011 Phase 1
18 Flat Bed Rest vs. Immediate Mobilisation After Incidental Durotomy During Lumbar Spinal Surgery: A Prospective Randomised Trial Unknown status NCT02927782
19 Continuous Spinal Anesthesia Versus Combined Spinal Epidural Block for Major Orthopedic Surgeries. Study Prospective and Randomized. Unknown status NCT00616044
21 A Prospective, Multi-Center, Randomized Controlled Study to Compare the Spinal Sealant System as an Adjunct to Sutured Dural Repair With Standard of Care Methods During Spinal Surgery Completed NCT00444067
22 Auftreten Von Okkultem Asymptomatischem Liqourverlust Nach Nebenhöhlenoperationen Eine Prospektive Kohortenstudie Completed NCT02382692
23 Chitosan Scaffold for Sellar Floor Repair in Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery Completed NCT03280849
24 A Prospective, Open, Multi-center, Single-arm Study of the Performance and Safety of I-020805 in the Prevention of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage Following Elective Cranial Surgery Completed NCT01295619
25 A Prospective, Multi-Center, Randomized Controlled Study to Compare the Spinal Sealant System as an Adjunct to Sutured Dural Repair With Standard of Care Methods During Spinal Surgery Completed NCT00594035
26 Cone Beam CT (CS 9300) for Diagnosis of Select Otorhinolaryngology (ENT) Indications at Lower Dose Completed NCT01855425
27 Predictive Factors of Re-craniotomy and Major Non-neurological Complications in Elective Neurosurgery: A Prospective Cohort Study Completed NCT03910556 Propofol
28 Incidence of Post-Dural Puncture Headache Following Unintentional Dural Puncture: A Randomized Trial of Intrathecal Morphine Versus Saline Completed NCT01977898 Morphine;Saline
29 A New Cochlear Implant Electrode With A "Cork" Type Stopper For Inner Ear Malformations Completed NCT02011867
30 Evaluation of a Simulation Based Workshop to Enhance Learning of Insertion and Management of CSF Drainage Catheters in an Anesthesia Residency Program Completed NCT03545984
31 Preemptive Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Relief in Thoraco-lumbo-sacral Spine Surgery: a Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT02968862
32 Non-Missile Penetrating Brain Injuries, Cases Registry in Sohag University Hospital Completed NCT03768778
33 Effectiveness of a Multimodal Prophylactic Strategy to Treat Post-dural Puncture Headache: A Retrospective Study Completed NCT03790124
34 15-Degree Reverse Trendelenburg Position for FESS Completed NCT01442740
35 Comparison of the Posterior Septectomy and Stamm Approach to Endoscopic Pituitary Adenoma Resection: A Randomized, Single-blind Trial Completed NCT01689064
36 Transcranial Doppler Role in Prediction of Post-dural Puncture Headache in Parturients Undergoing Elective Caesarean Section Completed NCT03464253
37 A Feasibility Clinical Trial to Evaluate High Frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation for the Treatment of Patients With Chronic Migraine Completed NCT01653340
38 Single-arm, Open-label, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Safety and Performance of Dura Sealant Patch in Reducing CSF Leakage Following Elective Cranial Surgery Recruiting NCT03566602
39 Multimodal Sonographic Monitoring of Cerebral Perfusion, Ventricle Seize and Optic Nerve Diameter During Weaning of Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage Catheters: a Single Centre Observational Trial Recruiting NCT02408757
40 Simultaneous Cochlear Implantation During Translabyrinthine Resection of Vestibular Schwannoma Recruiting NCT03958006
41 Prospective Study for Improvement in Outcomes Following Draf III/Endoscopic Modified Lothrop Procedure Using a Porcine Intestinal Submucosal Graft Recruiting NCT02981017
42 Skull Base Reconstruction After Endonasal Cranio-endoscopic Resection Using Autologus Grafts Active, not recruiting NCT03448614
43 Post-market Clinical Data Collection Plan for the Biodesign® Dural and Duraplasty Grafts Not yet recruiting NCT04057157
44 Role of Beta Trace Protein Assay During Spinal Anesthesia of Cesarean Section Not yet recruiting NCT03556267
45 Nasal Packing Following Endoscopic Endonasal Pituitary Resection Not yet recruiting NCT03677713
46 Chronic Headache and Chronic Backache Following Unintentional Dural Puncture at Delivery Room Not yet recruiting NCT03908424
47 Lumbar Drain After Endoscopic Surgery of the Skull Base Terminated NCT03163134
48 Randomized, Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Trial of Epidural, Sustained-relief Morphine for Acute Post-operative Analgesia Following Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy in Children Terminated NCT00955877 Extended-release Epidural morphine (EREM) 80;Extended-release Epidural Morphine (EREM) 120;Control: Saline
49 Pilot Study of Acetazolamide to Prevent Post Operative Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Leak in Patients Undergoing Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery Withdrawn NCT02902133 Acetazolamide
50 The Effect of Tranexamic Acid on Intraoperative and Post-Operative Bleeding in Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: A Randomized, Prospective, Double-Blinded Study Withdrawn NCT00671281 Tranexamic acid;Placebo

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Genetic Tests for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Anatomical Context for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak:

Pituitary, Bone, Brain, Spinal Cord, Kidney, Testes, Cerebellum

Publications for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Articles related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak:

(show top 50) (show all 1635)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Spontaneous intracranial hypotension in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. 38
31428214 2019
Postoperative Drain Use in Cranial Vault Remodeling: A Survey of Craniofacial Surgeon Practices and a Review of the Literature. 38
30884974 2019
Radical Intracapsular Dissection Technique for Dumbbell-Shaped Spinal Schwannoma with Intradural and Extradural Components. 38
31158529 2019
Expanded Endonasal Endoscopic Surgery in Suprasellar Craniopharyngiomas: A Retrospective Analysis of 43 Surgeries Including Recurrent Cases. 38
30768130 2019
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Rate after Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery via Middle Cranial Fossa Approach. 38
31316890 2019
Canalis basalis medianus with cerebrospinal fluid leak: rare presentation and literature review. 38
28660774 2019
Aberrant Venous Drainage in a Case of Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak. 38
31295212 2019
Endoscopic endonasal surgery for Clival Chordomas - a single institution experience and short term outcomes. 38
30741028 2019
Risk Recall of Complications Associated with Vestibular Schwannoma Treatment. 38
30885097 2019
Treating nasoethmoidal encephalocele in a low-resource country: a surgical experience from a Philippine multidisciplinary craniofacial team. 38
31129706 2019
Surgical treatment of pontine cavernous malformations via subtemporal transtentorial and intradural anterior transpetrosal approaches. 38
31388841 2019
Intracranial infection in patients with myelomeningocele: profile and risk factors. 38
31289854 2019
Little Insights from Big Data: Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak After Skull Base Surgery and the Limitations of Database Research. 38
30928599 2019
Endocrine and Visual Outcomes Following Gross Total Resection and Subtotal Resection of Adult Craniopharyngioma: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 38
30947004 2019
Endoscopic endonasal double flap technique for reconstruction of large anterior skull base defects: technical note. 38
29754975 2019
Endoscope-assisted retrosigmoid approach in hemifacial spasm: our experience. 38
29784621 2019
Brachial multisegmental amyotrophy caused by cervical anterior horn cell disorder associated with a spinal CSF leak: a report of five cases. 38
31312956 2019
Trans-mastoid approach for cerebrospinal fluid leak repair. 38
31361612 2019
Frontal Sinus Preservation During Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Repair. 38
31348205 2019
Postoperative management of patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak. 38
31361610 2019
False localizing signs of spinal CSF-venous fistulas in spontaneous intracranial hypotension: report of 2 cases. 38
31277063 2019
Persistent postural daily headaches. 38
31295242 2019
Finding the "Sweet Spot" for C2 Root Transection in C1 Lateral Mass Exposure. 38
30951909 2019
The supraseptal ethmoid sinus cell: A previously unreported ethmoid sinus variant. 38
31360472 2019
The Incidence of Meningitis in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Undergoing External Ventricular Drain Placement: A Nationwide Inpatient Sample Analysis. 38
30523540 2019
Outcomes following endoscopic endonasal resection of sellar and supresellar lesions in pediatric patients. 38
31214816 2019
Comparison of Short-Term Outcomes Between Endoscopic and Microscopic Trans-Sphenoidal Surgery for the Treatment of Pituitary Adenoma. 38
31261331 2019
Strategy and technique of endonasal endoscopic bony decompression and selective tumor removal in symptomatic skull base meningiomas of the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave. 38
31226453 2019
Recurrent Rathke's Cleft Cysts: Incidence and Surgical Management in a Tertiary Pituitary Center over 2 Decades. 38
30247673 2019
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Following Nasal Packing for Epistaxis. 38
31261322 2019
Spinal Column Shortening for Secondary Tethered Cord Syndrome in Children: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. 38
30169877 2019
Unique Far-Lateral Closure Technique: Technical Note. 38
31236599 2019
Proposal of Standardization of Closure Techniques After Endoscopic Pituitary and Skull Base Surgery Based on Postoperative Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Risk Classification. 38
30908447 2019
Erratum to "Surgical outcomes in the treatment of temporal bone cerebrospinal fluid leak: A systematic review" [Auris Nasus Larynx 45 (2018) 903-910]. 38
30472083 2019
Posterior nasoseptal flap in the reconstruction of skull base defects following endonasal surgery. 38
31070119 2019
Long-term sinonasal outcomes after endoscopic skull base surgery with nasoseptal flap reconstruction. 38
30569585 2019
Iatrogenic Nontraumatic CPAP-Induced Pneumocephalus in a Patient With Meningitis. 38
31053214 2019
Tension Pneumocephalus: A Rare Complication of Transsphenoidal Resection of a Pituitary Macroadenoma. 38
31312549 2019
The Use of Spinal Cord Stimulation/Neuromodulation in the Management of Chronic Pain. 38
30358637 2019
Intracranial Hypotension and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak. 38
30926112 2019
Assessing Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks in Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension With a Scoring System Based on Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings. 38
30776059 2019
Hormonal Fertility Therapy as a Potential Risk Factor for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak After Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery: A Case Study and Literature Review. 38
31132487 2019
Results of Transcranial Resection of Olfactory Groove Meningiomas in Relation to Imaging-Based Case Selection Criteria for the Endoscopic Approach. 38
30085221 2019
Utilization of the Nasoseptal Flap for Repair of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak after Endoscopic Endonasal Approach for Resection of Pituitary Tumors. 38
31062526 2019
Middle Turbinate Friendly Technique for Cribriform Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Repair. 38
31039072 2019
Bone Morphogenetic Protein in the Repair of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak after Transsphenoidal Surgery. 38
31143295 2019
Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Differentiating Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak from Middle Ear Effusion. 38
31039071 2019
Chronic cough and pneumonitis secondary to cerebrospinal fluid leak: Resolution after repair. 38
31003737 2019
Analysis of the Surgical Technique and Outcome of the Thoracic and Lumbar Intradural Spinal Tumor Excision Using Minimally Invasive Tubular Retractor System. 38
31143261 2019
Delayed presentation of morning glory disc anomaly and transsphenoidal encephalocele: A management dilemma. 38
31312233 2019

Variations for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Expression for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak.

Pathways for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

GO Terms for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Cellular components related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 perinuclear region of cytoplasm GO:0048471 8.62 TPPP3 PTGDS

Sources for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
71 Tocris
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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