Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Categories: Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

MalaCards integrated aliases for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak:

Name: Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak 52 71 32
Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak 71
Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea 71
Spinal Csf Leak 52
Csf Rhinorrhea 52
Csf Otorrhea 52
Csf Leak 52


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ICD10 32 G96.0
UMLS 71 C0007815 C0023182 C2936821

Summaries for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea is the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) though the ear. It is a rare but very serious condition that requires rapid intervention. Symptoms include leak of clear fluid through the ear, inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain (meningitis ), hearing loss , and seizures . The cause of a spinal fluid leak through the ear is a defect of the bone and meningeal layers covering the brain that separate the subarachnoid space of the brain from the middle ear and mastoid bone (located just behind the ear). The leaks occur after a surgery in the base of the skull, temporal bone fractures, congenital defects of the inner ear , trauma, or they may be spontaneous. Treatment depends on the cause and may include antibiotics , compression dressing and surgery.

MalaCards based summary : Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak, also known as spinal cerebrospinal fluid leak, is related to spontaneous intracranial hypotension and intracranial hypotension, and has symptoms including seizures, vertigo and pain. An important gene associated with Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak is PTGDS (Prostaglandin D2 Synthase). The drugs Budesonide and Thrombin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, bone and brain.

Related Diseases for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Diseases related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 203)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 spontaneous intracranial hypotension 12.6
2 intracranial hypotension 11.8
3 intracranial hypertension 10.7
4 headache 10.7
5 acoustic neuroma 10.7
6 encephalocele 10.6
7 neurilemmoma 10.6
8 meningitis 10.6
9 hydrocephalus 10.5
10 neuroma 10.5
11 adenoma 10.5
12 pituitary adenoma 10.5
13 meningoencephalocele 10.4
14 meningocele 10.4
15 mollaret meningitis 10.4
16 sleep apnea 10.4
17 craniopharyngioma 10.4
18 rare surgical neurologic disease 10.4
19 empty sella syndrome 10.3
20 bacterial meningitis 10.3
21 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 10.3
22 pituitary tumors 10.3
23 otitis media 10.2
24 meningioma, radiation-induced 10.2
25 meningioma, familial 10.2
26 spinal meningioma 10.2
27 rhinitis 10.2
28 secretory meningioma 10.2
29 lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma 10.2
30 diabetes insipidus 10.2
31 head injury 10.2
32 branchiootic syndrome 1 10.1
33 marfan syndrome 10.1
34 migraine with or without aura 1 10.1
35 trigeminal neuralgia 10.1
36 chordoma 10.1
37 intracranial hypertension, idiopathic 10.1
38 ocular motor apraxia 10.1
39 ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of spine 10.1
40 allergic rhinitis 10.1
41 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 10.1
42 ehlers-danlos syndrome 10.1
43 papilledema 10.1
44 spondylosis 10.1
45 olfactory neuroblastoma 10.1
46 spinal stenosis 10.1
47 spinal cord injury 10.1
48 squamous cell papilloma 10.1
49 papilloma 10.1
50 spondylosis, cervical 10.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak:

Diseases related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

UMLS symptoms related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak:

seizures, vertigo, pain, meningism, reflex, abnormal, neurobehavioral manifestations, neuromuscular manifestations

Drugs & Therapeutics for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Drugs for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 72)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Budesonide Approved Phase 4 51333-22-3 63006 5281004
Thrombin Approved, Investigational Phase 4
3 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 4
4 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
5 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4
6 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
7 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
8 Bronchodilator Agents Phase 4
9 glucocorticoids Phase 4
10 Hormones Phase 4
11 Fibrin Tissue Adhesive Phase 4
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 50-24-8 5755
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 83-43-2 6741
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 2921-57-5
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 302-25-0
16 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 52-21-1
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 2, Phase 3 2920-86-7
18 Coagulants Phase 2, Phase 3
19 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
20 Antiemetics Phase 2, Phase 3
21 Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 2, Phase 3
22 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
23 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
24 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
25 Gentamicins Phase 2, Phase 3
26 Protective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
27 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 2, Phase 3
Acetazolamide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 59-66-5 1986
29 Anticonvulsants Phase 2
30 Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Phase 2
31 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 2
32 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 2
33 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 2
34 GABA Agents Phase 2
35 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 2
36 GABA Modulators Phase 2
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 1 2078-54-8 4943
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 1 59467-70-8 4192
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1 6740-88-1 3821
41 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 1
42 Anesthetics, General Phase 1
43 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 1
44 Analgesics Phase 1
45 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 1
46 Anesthetics, Dissociative Phase 1
47 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 1
48 Excitatory Amino Acids Phase 1
Norepinephrine Approved 51-41-2 439260
tannic acid Approved 1401-55-4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 56)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Impact Of The Addition Of Budesonide To Low-Pressure, High-Volume Saline Sinus Irrigation For Chronic Rhinosinusitis Completed NCT02696850 Phase 4 Budesonide;Saline alone
2 A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of EVICEL® Used for Suture-Line Sealing in Dura-Mater Closure During Paediatric Neurosurgical Cranial Procedures Recruiting NCT02309645 Phase 4
3 Sphenopalatine Ganglion Nerve Block for Postdural Puncture Headache in Obstetrics Withdrawn NCT03181464 Phase 4 Lidocaine 4%;Placebo
4 A Single-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety and Effectiveness of EVICEL® Fibrin Sealant (Human) Compared to a Hydrogel Sealant as an Adjunct to Sutured Dural Repair Completed NCT02457546 Phase 3
5 A Randomised Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Fibrin Sealant, Vapour Heated, Solvent/Detergent Treated FS VH S/D 500 S-apr (Tisseel) Compared to DuraSeal Dural Sealant as an Adjunct to Sutured Dural Repair in Cranial Surgery. Completed NCT02891070 Phase 3 FS VH S/D 500 s-apr
6 TachoSil® Versus Current Practice in Dura Sealing Techniques for the Prevention of Post-operative Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Leaks in Patients Undergoing Skull Base Surgery: An Open Label, Randomised, Controlled, Multi-centre, Parallel Group Efficacy and Safety Trial. Completed NCT01355627 Phase 3
7 A Randomized, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety and Effectiveness of EVICEL as an Adjunct to Sutured Dural Repair Completed NCT01174992 Phase 2, Phase 3
8 A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, Single Blinded, Study to Evaluate the Safety and Effectiveness of Bioseal as an Adjunct to Sutured Dural Repair Completed NCT03110783 Phase 3
9 Effectiveness of Transtympanic Steroids in Unilateral Ménière's Disease: a Randomised Controlled Double-Blind Trial Completed NCT00802529 Phase 2, Phase 3 Methylprednisolone;Gentamicin
10 A Pivotal Clinical Trial Examining the Safety and Effectiveness of the Adherus Dural Sealant System When Used as a Dural Sealant in Cranial Procedures Completed NCT01158378 Phase 3
11 A Prospective, Multi-Center, Randomized Controlled Study to Compare the Spinal Sealant System as an Adjunct to Sutured Dural Repair With Standard of Care Methods During Spinal Surgery Completed NCT00458354 Phase 3
12 Evaluating the Effect of Acetazolamide Administration and Prone Positioning Following Lumbosacral Spinal Surgery in Preventing Cerebro Spinal Fluid Leakage and Collection and Wound Dehiscence in Children. Unknown status NCT01867268 Phase 2 Acetazolamide
13 Periprocedural Sedation for the Prevention of Post Dural Puncture Headache Unknown status NCT01503788 Phase 2 Midazolam
14 A Randomized Trial of CT Fluoroscopy-guided Targeted Autologous Blood and Fibrin Glue Patching for Treatment of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks in Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension. Recruiting NCT03276975 Phase 2 TISSEEL
15 Spreading Depolarization and Ketamine Suppression Completed NCT02501941 Phase 1 ketamine
16 Study to Compare 2 Minimally Invasive Fetal Neural Tube Defect Repair Techniques: Repair Using Durepair Patch vs. Repair Without Durepair Patch Recruiting NCT03794011 Phase 1
17 Flat Bed Rest vs. Immediate Mobilisation After Incidental Durotomy During Lumbar Spinal Surgery: A Prospective Randomised Trial Unknown status NCT02927782
18 Continuous Spinal Anesthesia Versus Combined Spinal Epidural Block for Major Orthopedic Surgeries. Study Prospective and Randomized. Unknown status NCT00616044
20 A Prospective, Multi-Center, Randomized Controlled Study to Compare the Spinal Sealant System as an Adjunct to Sutured Dural Repair With Standard of Care Methods During Spinal Surgery Completed NCT00444067
21 International Opinion Study on Peri-operative Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks Management After Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery Completed NCT04124523
22 Chitosan Scaffold for Sellar Floor Repair in Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery Completed NCT03280849
23 A Prospective, Open, Multi-center, Single-arm Study of the Performance and Safety of I-020805 in the Prevention of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage Following Elective Cranial Surgery Completed NCT01295619
24 A Prospective, Multi-Center, Randomized Controlled Study to Compare the Spinal Sealant System as an Adjunct to Sutured Dural Repair With Standard of Care Methods During Spinal Surgery Completed NCT00594035
25 Auftreten Von Okkultem Asymptomatischem Liqourverlust Nach Nebenhöhlenoperationen Eine Prospektive Kohortenstudie Completed NCT02382692
26 Cone Beam CT (CS 9300) for Diagnosis of Select Otorhinolaryngology (ENT) Indications at Lower Dose Completed NCT01855425
27 Predictive Factors of Re-craniotomy and Major Non-neurological Complications in Elective Neurosurgery: A Prospective Cohort Study Completed NCT03910556 Propofol
28 Incidence of Post-Dural Puncture Headache Following Unintentional Dural Puncture: A Randomized Trial of Intrathecal Morphine Versus Saline Completed NCT01977898 Morphine;Saline
29 A Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled, Trial of Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage (CSFD) in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Completed NCT02495545
30 A New Cochlear Implant Electrode With A "Cork" Type Stopper For Inner Ear Malformations Completed NCT02011867
31 Evaluation of a Simulation Based Workshop to Enhance Learning of Insertion and Management of CSF Drainage Catheters in an Anesthesia Residency Program Completed NCT03545984
32 Preemptive Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Relief in Thoraco-lumbo-sacral Spine Surgery: a Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT02968862
33 Non-Missile Penetrating Brain Injuries, Cases Registry in Sohag University Hospital Completed NCT03768778
34 Effectiveness of a Multimodal Prophylactic Strategy to Treat Post-dural Puncture Headache: A Retrospective Study Completed NCT03790124
35 15-Degree Reverse Trendelenburg Position for FESS Completed NCT01442740
36 Comparison of the Posterior Septectomy and Stamm Approach to Endoscopic Pituitary Adenoma Resection: A Randomized, Single-blind Trial Completed NCT01689064
37 Transcranial Doppler Role in Prediction of Post-dural Puncture Headache in Parturients Undergoing Elective Caesarean Section Completed NCT03464253
38 Comparison of the Vasopressin-2 Antagonist Tolvaptan and Fluid Restriction in the Treatment of Hyponatremia Following Pituitary Surgery Completed NCT04119206
39 A Feasibility Clinical Trial to Evaluate High Frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation for the Treatment of Patients With Chronic Migraine Completed NCT01653340
40 Post-market Clinical Data Collection Plan for the Biodesign® Dural and Duraplasty Grafts Recruiting NCT04057157
41 Single-arm, Open-label, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Safety and Performance of Dura Sealant Patch in Reducing CSF Leakage Following Elective Cranial Surgery Recruiting NCT03566602
42 Nasal Packing Following Endoscopic Endonasal Pituitary Resection Recruiting NCT03677713
43 Multimodal Sonographic Monitoring of Cerebral Perfusion, Ventricle Seize and Optic Nerve Diameter During Weaning of Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage Catheters: a Single Centre Observational Trial Recruiting NCT02408757
44 Simultaneous Cochlear Implantation During Translabyrinthine Resection of Vestibular Schwannoma Recruiting NCT03958006
45 Prospective Study for Improvement in Outcomes Following Draf III/Endoscopic Modified Lothrop Procedure Using a Porcine Intestinal Submucosal Graft Recruiting NCT02981017
46 Skull Base Reconstruction After Endonasal Cranio-endoscopic Resection Using Autologus Grafts Active, not recruiting NCT03448614
47 Role of Beta Trace Protein Assay During Spinal Anesthesia of Cesarean Section Not yet recruiting NCT03556267
48 Randomized, Two-arm, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Dura Sealant Patch in Reducing CSF Leakage Following Elective Cranial Surgery Not yet recruiting NCT04086550
49 A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Multi-center Study of ArtiFascia® Dural Repair Patch Compared With Commercially Available Dural Substitutes- NEOART Study. Not yet recruiting NCT04145544
50 Chronic Headache and Chronic Backache Following Unintentional Dural Puncture at Delivery Room Not yet recruiting NCT03908424

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Genetic Tests for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Anatomical Context for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak:

Pituitary, Bone, Brain, Spinal Cord, Kidney, Testes, Cerebellum

Publications for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Articles related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak:

(show top 50) (show all 1706)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Pituitary Apoplexy Case Series: Outcomes Following Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery at a Single Tertiary Center. 61
32032792 2020
Approaching the Sella through the Nonpneumatized Sphenoid in Pediatric Patients. 61
32021750 2020
Is Longer Surgery More Dangerous? Operative Duration Not Associated With Complications After Vestibular Schwannoma Resection. 61
31789812 2020
Predictive Factors, 30-Day Clinical Outcomes, and Costs Associated with Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak in Pituitary Adenoma Resection. 61
32021749 2020
Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Presenting as Chronic Rhinitis. 61
31606393 2020
Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit for Point-of-Care Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Detection. 61
31544595 2020
Development and validation of a preclinical model for training and assessment of cerebrospinal fluid leak repair in endoscopic skull base surgery. 61
31574591 2020
Adverse Events Associated with Balloon Sinuplasty: A MAUDE Database Analysis. 61
31638866 2020
Hydroxyapatite cement cranioplasty for translabyrinthine surgery: A single institution experience. 61
30843619 2020
Contralateral Precaruncular Approach to the Lateral Sphenoid Sinus-A Case Report Detailing a New, Multiportal Approach to Lesions, and Defects in the Lateral Aspect of Well-Pneumatized Sphenoid Sinuses. 61
31018686 2020
Trends in Age of Cochlear Implant Recipients, and the Impact on Perioperative Complication Rates. 61
31939905 2020
Pseudohypoxic Brain Swelling: Report of 2 Cases and Introduction of the Lentiform Rim Sign as Potential MRI Marker. 61
31606497 2020
Radiofrequency Coblation-Assisted Resection of Skull Base Neoplasms Using an Endoscopic Endonasal Approach. 61
31739305 2020
Chronic cough and pneumonitis secondary to cerebrospinal fluid leak: Resolution after repair. 61
31003737 2020
Top-cited articles in cerebrospinal fluid leak (rhinorrhea and otorrhea) (1945-2018). 61
31982378 2020
Subfascial drainage and clipping technique for treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leak following spinal surgery. 61
31982895 2020
The 'mushroom': a simple and safe technique to avoid cerebrospinal fluid leak after endoscopic third ventriculostomy. 61
31964159 2020
Spontaneous Nasal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Repaired With Single-Layer Mucoperichondrial Graft: Long-term Results. 61
31928352 2020
Greater Occipital Nerve Block as a Tool to Diagnose Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Before Epidural Blood Patch: A Case Report. 61
31703006 2020
The New Strategy for the Treatment of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Following Lumbar Surgery. 61
32039306 2020
Comparative Analysis of Endoscopic Transorbital Approach and Extended Mini-Pterional Approach for Sphenoid Wing Meningiomas with Osseous Involvement: Preliminary Surgical Results. 61
32001400 2020
Surgical management of clinically silent thyrotropin pituitary adenomas: A single center series of 20 patients. 61
31668712 2020
Typical Trigeminal Neuralgia: Comparison of Results between Patients Older and Younger than 65 Years Operated on with Microvascular Decompression by Retrosigmoid Approach. 61
31466107 2020
Septal floor rotational flap pedicled on ethmoidal arteries for endoscopic skull base reconstruction. 61
30957235 2019
Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in the Outpatient Ambulatory Surgery Setting: Analysis of 2000 Consecutive Cases. 61
31819994 2019
Multiple Iterations of Magnetic Resonance-Guided Laser Interstitial Thermal Ablation of Brain Metastases: Single Surgeon's Experience and Review of the Literature. 61
31828344 2019
Basal Cistern Effacement and Pseudo-Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Computed Tomography Images of Chronic Subdural Hematoma. 61
31518737 2019
Severe displaced fracture of the coccyx or sacrococcygeal junction causes trauma to the thecal sac: Author's reply to "Letter to editor: Cerebrospinal fluid leak after fracture of the sacrum or coccyx." 61
31759439 2019
Do Most Patients With a Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Have Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension? 61
30747786 2019
Intraoperative Management of an Enlarged Suprameatal Tubercle During Microvascular Decompression of the Trigeminal Nerve, Surgical and Anatomical Description: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. 61
30851049 2019
Effect of Intraoperative Lumbar Drainage on Gross Total Resection and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Rates in Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery of Pituitary Macroadenomas. 61
31881340 2019
The Mixed Sellar Barrier: A New Subtype of this Novel Concept. 61
31521751 2019
Obesity Is Not Associated With Postoperative Complications After Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery in a Large Single Institution Series. 61
31634280 2019
Extradural Compressive Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome. 61
31479794 2019
Hospital Charge Variability across New York State: Sociodemographic Factors in Pituitary Surgery. 61
31750048 2019
The effectiveness of epidural blood patch in patients with cerebral palsy treated with intrathecal baclofen implantation. 61
31837185 2019
The Utility of Computed Tomography and Intrathecal Fluorescein in the Management of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak. 61
31856587 2019
Headache due to spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid leak secondary to cerebrospinal fluid-venous fistula: Case series. 61
31597463 2019
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak to the IPG Subcutaneous Pocket after Deep Brain Stimulation Implantation: A Case Report. 61
31852004 2019
Cerebrospinal fluid leak after fracture of the sacrum or coccyx. 61
31759438 2019
Removal of Migrating Lumbar Spine Bullet: Case Report and Surgical Video. 61
31356981 2019
Use of Meshed Acellular Dermal Allograft as a Lining Material After Orbital Exenteration. 61
31809482 2019
Frontal Sinus Preservation During Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Repair. 61
31348205 2019
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak From the Orbital Roof During Orbital Exenteration. 61
31498271 2019
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Following Nasal Packing for Epistaxis. 61
31261322 2019
Outcomes following endoscopic endonasal resection of sellar and supresellar lesions in pediatric patients. 61
31214816 2019
Novel Use of Biodissolvable Stent in Treatment of Recurrent Rathke Cleft Cyst. 61
31421294 2019
Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak and idiopathic intracranial hypertension. 61
31449087 2019
Streptococcus Oralis meningitis from right sphenoid Meningoencephalocele and cerebrospinal fluid leak. 61
31711423 2019
National 30-day readmission and prolonged length of stay after vestibular schwannoma surgery: Analysis of the Nationwide Readmissions Database. 61
31530434 2019

Variations for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Expression for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak.

Pathways for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

GO Terms for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

Cellular components related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 perinuclear region of cytoplasm GO:0048471 8.62 TPPP3 PTGDS

Sources for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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