Cervical Dystonia

Categories: Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Cervical Dystonia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Cervical Dystonia:

Name: Cervical Dystonia 12 53 37 15
Spasmodic Torticollis 12 75 53 33


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Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050840
KEGG 37 H01608
ICD10 33 G24.3

Summaries for Cervical Dystonia

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Cervical dystonia is a neurological condition characterized by excessive pulling of the muscles of the neck and shoulder resulting in abnormal movements of the head (dystonia). Most commonly, the head turns to one side or the other. Tilting sideways, or to the back or front may also occur. The turning or tilting movements may be accompanied by shaking movement (tremor) and/or soreness of the muscles of the neck and shoulders. Cervical dystonia can occur at any age, but most cases occur in middle age. It often begins slowly and usually reaches a plateau over a few months or years. The cause of cervical dystonia is often unknown. In some cases there is a family history. Several genes have been associated with cervical dystonia, including GNAL, THAP1, CIZ1, and ANO3. Other cases may be linked to an underlying disease (e.g. Parkinson disease), neck trauma, or certain medications. Treatment may include local injections of botulinum toxin, pain medications, benzodiazepines (anti-anxiety medications), anticholinergics, physical therapy, or surgery.

MalaCards based summary : Cervical Dystonia, also known as spasmodic torticollis, is related to dystonia 24 and torticollis. An important gene associated with Cervical Dystonia is CIZ1 (CDKN1A Interacting Zinc Finger Protein 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are TCR Signaling (Qiagen) and Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 infection. The drugs Acetylcholine and rimabotulinumtoxinB have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus, and related phenotype is behavior/neurological.

Disease Ontology : 12 A focal dystonia that is characterized by simultaneous contraction of the agonist and antagonist muscles that control the position of the head contracting during dystonic movement which causes the neck to involuntarily turn to the left, right, upwards, and/or downwards.

KEGG : 37
Cervical dystonia (CD), formerly referred to as spasmodic torticollis, is a condition characterized by simultaneous and sustained contractions of both agonist and antagonist muscles of the neck, which frequently result in abnormal movements or postures. CD is considered a form of primary adult-onset focal dystonia. The majority of patients complain of pain, which is not a common feature of other focal dystonias. Head rotation is common, but head tilt, neck extension, and flexionmay also occur, often in combination. The pathogenesis of primary CD is unclear. Patients with secondary CD may have an abnormal birth or developmental history, exposure to drugs known to cause dystonia (tardive dystonia), or neurological illness. Intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin (BoNT), have been shown to be efficacious and well tolerated when used to treat CD, and are therefore recommended as first-line therapy by current treatment guidelines.

Wikipedia : 75 Spasmodic torticollis is an extremely painful chronic neurological movement disorder causing the neck to... more...

Related Diseases for Cervical Dystonia

Diseases related to Cervical Dystonia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 253)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dystonia 24 32.9 TOR1A THAP1
2 torticollis 32.1 TOR1A CIZ1
3 dystonia 11, myoclonic 31.7 TOR1A THAP1 GCH1
4 spasmodic dysphonia 30.6 TOR1A THAP1
5 dystonia 1, torsion, autosomal dominant 30.4 TOR1A GCH1
6 narcolepsy 30.3 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
7 focal hand dystonia 30.0 TOR1A THAP1 DRD5
8 dystonia 29.8 TOR1A THAP1 GNAL GCH1 DRD5 CIZ1
9 spasmodic dystonia 29.7 TOR1A THAP1 GNAL
10 dystonia 12 29.7 TOR1A THAP1 GCH1
11 oromandibular dystonia 29.6 TOR1A THAP1 GCH1
12 blepharospasm 29.2 TOR1A THAP1 GNAL GCH1 DRD5
13 segmental dystonia 29.0 TOR1A THAP1 GCH1 CIZ1 BDNF
14 focal dystonia 28.7 TOR1A THAP1 GNAL DRD5 CIZ1 CDIP1
15 obsolete: cervical dystonia 12.3
16 dystonia 23 12.0
17 leukoencephalopathy with dystonia and motor neuropathy 11.6
18 dyt-gnal 11.6
19 dystonia 7, torsion 11.5
20 lymphatic malformation 5 11.5
21 dyt-thap1 11.5
22 x-linked dystonia-parkinsonism/lubag 11.4
23 torsion dystonia 4 11.2
24 klippel-feil syndrome 11.2
25 dyt-tubb4a 11.2
26 tremor 10.7
27 dysphagia 10.7
28 movement disease 10.6
29 focal, segmental or multifocal dystonia 10.6
30 benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy 10.6
31 achalasia, familial esophageal 10.5 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
32 limbic encephalitis with lgi1 antibodies 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
33 hirata disease 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1
34 eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1
35 narcolepsy 2 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
36 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
37 hypersomnia 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
38 type ii mixed cryoglobulinemia 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
39 lichen planopilaris 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
40 metal allergy 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
41 recurrent respiratory papillomatosis 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
42 congenital toxoplasmosis 10.4 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
43 chronic beryllium disease 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
44 narcolepsy 1 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
45 sympathetic ophthalmia 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1
46 ataxia and polyneuropathy, adult-onset 10.4
47 lichen sclerosus 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
48 pityriasis rosea 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
49 whipple disease 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
50 histoplasmosis 10.4 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQA1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cervical Dystonia:

Diseases related to Cervical Dystonia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Cervical Dystonia

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Cervical Dystonia:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.23 BDNF CIZ1 DRD5 GNAL HLA-DQB1 NALCN

Drugs & Therapeutics for Cervical Dystonia

Drugs for Cervical Dystonia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 59)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
2 rimabotulinumtoxinB Phase 4
3 incobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
4 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
5 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4
6 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
7 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
8 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
9 Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors Phase 4
10 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4
11 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4
12 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 3
Dronabinol Approved, Illicit Phase 2 1972-08-3 16078
Ethanol Approved Phase 2 64-17-5 702
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 185243-69-0
Amlodipine Approved Phase 2 88150-42-9 2162
Levetiracetam Approved, Investigational Phase 2 102767-28-2 441341
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 2 7440-70-2 271
19 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
20 Hormone Antagonists Phase 2
21 Analgesics Phase 2
22 Hallucinogens Phase 2
23 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 2
24 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 2
25 Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists Phase 2
26 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 2
27 insulin Phase 2
28 Insulin, Globin Zinc Phase 2
29 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
30 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 1, Phase 2
31 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
32 Autoantibodies Phase 1, Phase 2
33 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
34 Immunologic Factors Phase 1, Phase 2
35 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 2
36 Hormones Phase 2
37 Vasodilator Agents Phase 2
38 Calcium, Dietary Phase 2
39 calcium channel blockers Phase 2
40 Nootropic Agents Phase 2
41 Anticonvulsants Phase 2
Trihexyphenidyl Approved 144-11-6, 58947-95-8 5572
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved 302-25-0
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved 83-43-2 6741
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved 2921-57-5
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved 50-24-8 5755
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved 124-94-7 31307
Cortisone Experimental 53-06-5 222786
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental 2920-86-7
50 Muscarinic Antagonists

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 108)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Impact of Botulinum Toxin Treatment in Quality of Life of Cervical Dystonia Patients Unknown status NCT01664013 Phase 4 Nuronox
2 The Impact of Botulinum Toxin Injection in the Frontalis on Brow Height and Morphology: A Randomized Trial Unknown status NCT03186001 Phase 4 Abobotulinum toxin A
3 An Open-Label Pilot Study to Compare the Efficacy of Escalating Doses of IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®) in the Treatment of Glabellar Rhytids Unknown status NCT01583478 Phase 4
4 Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Two Different Types of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Moderate to Severe Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT00528541 Phase 4
5 Synergistic Effects of Neurotoxin and Physical Therapy Completed NCT02177617 Phase 4 Botox injection
6 Pilot Study of the Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A Treatment on Swallowing in Patients With Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT01384214 Phase 4
7 A Placebo Controlled, Cross-over, Double Blind, Randomized, Clinical Trial to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of Meditoxin® Injection for Cervical Dystonia in Adults With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT01860196 Phase 4 Meditoxin;Normal saline
8 Pre-injection, Multi-channel EMG Mapping to Optimize Botulinum Toxin Type A Efficacy in Cervical Dystonia. Completed NCT00773253 Phase 4 Botulinum toxin A
9 An Open Label Safety and Immunogenicity Study of MYOBLOC (Neurobloc; Botulinum Toxin Type B) Injectable Solution in Patients With Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT00702754 Phase 4
10 A Double Blind, Randomized, Multi-center, Cross-over Study to Demonstrate the Non-inferiority of Dysport® in Comparison With Botox®, Assuming a Bioequivalence Ratio of 2.5:1 Units, in the Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT00950664 Phase 4 Dysport® (abobotulinumtoxinA);Botox® (onabotulinumtoxinA)
11 Prospective, Single-arm, Multicenter Trial to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of NT 201 and the Duration of Treatment Effect After One Injection Session and in Long-term Treatment in Patients With Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT00541905 Phase 4 NT 201
12 An Open-Label, Non-Inferiority Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Two Injection Schedules of Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA) [Short Flex Versus Long Flex] in Subjects With Cervical Dystonia With < 10 Weeks of Benefit From OnabotulinumtoxinA Treatment Completed NCT01486264 Phase 4
13 Measuring the Functional Effects of Botox on the Brain Using MR Spectroscopy and fMRI Completed NCT03373162 Phase 4 onabotulinumtoxinA
14 Efficacy and Safety of Two Different Botulinum Toxin Type A Treatments for Moderate to Severe Cervical Dystonia Terminated NCT00432341 Phase 4
15 Comparison of Efficacy of 250 Units Versus 500 Units of Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Refractory Vaginismus Unknown status NCT00638066 Phase 3 botulinum toxin;botulinum toxin A
16 Evaluation of Botulinum Toxin Injection Efficacy in the Treatment of Head Essential Tremor by a Multi-center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-group, Placebo-controlled Study Unknown status NCT02555982 Phase 3 BOTOX ® 200 Unités;Placebo
17 Prospective,Randomised, Double-blind, Multicenter Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Bilateral Globus Pallidus Internus - in Patients With Medically Refractory Primary Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT00148889 Phase 3
18 Open Multicentre Study to Demonstrate the Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin A (500 Units Dysport®) in the Treatment of Heterogeneous Forms of Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT00447772 Phase 3
19 A Phase 3b, Multicentre, Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of DYSPORT® Using 2mL Dilution in Adults With Cervical Dystonia. Completed NCT01753310 Phase 3 Placebo
20 A Prospective, Randomized, Multi-center, Phase III, Double-Blind, Activi Controlled, Parallel-group Study to Evaliate the Efficacy and Safety of MEDITOXIN® Comparison With BOTOX® in Treatment of Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT03905304 Phase 3
21 A Phase IIIb, Prospective, Multicentre, Open-Label Extension Study To Assess Long Term Safety And Effectiveness Of Dysport® Using 2 mL Dilution In Adults With Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT01753336 Phase 3
22 A Prospective, Randomized, Multi-center, Phase III, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of MEDITOXIN in Treatment of Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT03232320 Phase 3 Meditoxin;Placebo
23 A Phase III Multicentre, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Dysport® for the Treatment of Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT00257660 Phase 3 Placebo
24 A Phase III, Randomised, Double-blind and Open Label Phase, Active and Placebo Controlled Study Comparing the Short Term Efficacy of Two Formulations of Clostridium Botulinum Type A Toxin (Dysport® and Dysport RU®) to Placebo, and Assessing the Short and Long Term Efficacy and Safety of Dysport RU® Following Repeated Treatments of Subjects With Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT01261611 Phase 3 Botulinum type A toxin (Dysport RU®);Botulinum type A toxin (Dysport®);Placebo
25 Prospective, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized, Multi-center Trial With a Double-blind Parallel-group Extension Period to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Different Doses of IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the Treatment of Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT00407030 Phase 3 incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) (240 Units);incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) (120 Units);Placebo
26 A Phase III, Prospective, Multicenter, Open-label Extension Study to Assess the Longer Term Safety and Efficacy of Repeated Treatment of Dysport® Intramuscular Injection in the Treatment of Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT00288509 Phase 3
27 Efficacy and Safety of Xeomin for the Treatment of Notalgia Paresthetica Completed NCT01098019 Phase 3 Xeomin;Placebo / Xeomin
28 Botulinum Toxin in Patients With Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Crossover Study Completed NCT02604186 Phase 2, Phase 3
29 A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group, Multi-Center Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of a Single Treatment of DaxibotulinumtoxinA for Injection in Adults With Isolated Cervical Dystonia (ASPEN-1) Recruiting NCT03608397 Phase 3
30 A Phase 3, Open-Label, Multi-Center Trial to Evaluate the Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Repeat Treatments of DaxibotulinumtoxinA for Injection in Adults With Isolated Cervical Dystonia (ASPEN-OLS) Recruiting NCT03617367 Phase 3
31 A 48-Week Prospective, Double-Blinded, Randomized, Cross-over Design in Multicenter Study of 250 Unit of Dysport Versus 50 Unit of Neuronox Injection For Cervical Dystonia in Thai Patients Not yet recruiting NCT03805152 Phase 3 Neuronox(R);Dysport (R)
32 ASIS for Botox in Cervical Dystonia Unknown status NCT02074293 Phase 1, Phase 2 Gadolinium;Gadolinium;Gadolinium;Efficacy of Botox intramuscularly at Week 6;Efficacy of Botox intramuscularly at Week 12;Efficacy of Botox intramuscularly at Week 18;Efficacy of Botox intramuscularly at Week 24;Efficacy of Botox intramuscularly at Week 30;Efficacy of Botox subdermally at Week 6;Efficacy of Botox subdermally at Week 12;Efficacy of Botox subdermally at Week 18;Efficacy of Botox subdermally at Week 24;Efficacy of Botox subdermally at Week 30;Adverse Reactions of Botox intramuscularly;Adverse Reactions of Botox subdermally
33 Phase II, Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial of Dronabinol for the Treatment of Cervical Dystonia Unknown status NCT00418925 Phase 2 Dronabinol
34 Study of the Treatment of Tendinopathy Unruptured of Rotator Cuff by Intramuscular Injection of Botulinum Toxin Unknown status NCT02867787 Phase 2 Botox arm
35 Treatment of Temporo-Myofascial Disorder of Muscular Origin Using Botulinum Toxin: A Prospective Study Unknown status NCT02810015 Phase 2 Botulinum Toxin Type A
36 ASIS for Enbrel in Plaque Psoriasis Unknown status NCT02112097 Phase 1, Phase 2 Gadolinium;Gadolinium;Gadolinium;Efficacy of Enbrel subcutaneously at Week 12;Efficacy of Enbrel subcutaneously at Week 24;Efficacy of Enbrel subcutaneously at Week 36;Efficacy of Enbrel subdermally at Week 12;Efficacy of Enbrel subdermally at Week 24;Efficacy of Enbrel subdermally at Week 36;PASI 75 n(%) subcutaneously at Week 12;PASI 75 n(%) subcutaneously at Week 24;PASI 75 n(%) subcutaneously at Week 36;PASI 75 n(%) subdermally at Week 12;PASI 75 n(%) subdermally at Week 24;PASI 75 n(%) subdermally at Week 36;Adverse Reactions of Enbrel subcutaneously;Adverse Reactions of Enbrel subdermally at Week 36;Gadolinium;Gadolinium;Gadolinium
37 Dose-escalating Safety and Preliminary Efficacy of DaxibotulinumtoxinA for Injection in Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT02706795 Phase 2
38 Study to Evaluate Safety, Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Patients With Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT00564681 Phase 2 Normal Saline
39 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel, Group Dose-Response, Study of E2014 in Patients WIth Spasmodic Torticollis Completed NCT00165776 Phase 2 BOTULINUM TOXIN TYPE B
40 Study for Determine the Safety and Efficacy of Clostridium Botulinum Toxin Type A in Subjects With Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT01588574 Phase 2
41 An Electrophysiological Study Of E2014 In Healthy Adult Male Japanese And Caucasian Subjects Completed NCT00280384 Phase 2 E2014 (Botulinum toxin type B);E2014 (Botulinum toxin type B) Placebo
42 Trial of Amlodipine Combined With Botulinum Toxin Injections for Focal Dystonia Completed NCT00015457 Phase 2 Amlodipine plus Botulinum toxin
43 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study of Botulinum Toxin Type A (Botox) for the Treatment of Pain Associated With Cervical Dystonia and Refractory Cervicothoracic Myofascial Pain Syndrome Completed NCT00178945 Phase 1, Phase 2 Botulinum Toxin Type A
44 Comparison of Clinical and Kinematic Assessment in the Determination of Botox® Injection Parameters in Cervical Dystonia Patients Recruiting NCT02662530 Phase 2 Botulinum Toxin Type A
45 An Open-label Phase 2a Study to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of Perampanel (E2007) in Subjects With Cervical Dystonia (SAFE-Per CD) Recruiting NCT02131467 Phase 1, Phase 2 Perampanel
46 Prospective Double Blind Evaluation of Levetiracetam (Keppra) for the Treatment of Cervical Dystonia Terminated NCT00760318 Phase 2 Keppra
47 Effectiveness of Botulinum Toxin Injection After Exercising Splenius Capitis Muscle in Patients With Cervical Dystonia Unknown status NCT01041157 Phase 1
48 A Phase I, Single-dose, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled, Dose Escalation Study to Evaluate the Safety of PurTox for the Treatment of Adult Onset Spasmodic Torticollis/Cervical Dystonia and to Explore Dose-associated Efficacy Completed NCT00549341 Phase 1 Mentor Purified Toxin, Botulinum Toxn Type A, Purified Neurotoxin
49 Deep Brain Stimulation of the Globus Pallidus Interna or the Subthalamic Nucleus for Treatment of Primary Cervical Dystonia Completed NCT00132340 Phase 1
50 Multimodal Treatment of Cervical Dystonia With Botulinum Toxin Injections Associated With a Sensory-motor Perceptive Rehabilitation Integrated Approach (SPRInt) Based on Motor Learning Techniques Unknown status NCT03247868

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cervical Dystonia

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :

Botulinum toxin type A
Botulinum Toxin Type B

Genetic Tests for Cervical Dystonia

Anatomical Context for Cervical Dystonia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cervical Dystonia:

Brain, Globus Pallidus, Subthalamic Nucleus, Testes, Spinal Cord, Cerebellum, Eye

Publications for Cervical Dystonia

Articles related to Cervical Dystonia:

(show top 50) (show all 2017)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Pallidothalamic Tractotomy (Forel's Field H1-tomy) for Dystonia: Preliminary Results. 38
31207377 2019
Visual compensation in cervical dystonia. 38
31230587 2019
Comorbidity and retirement in cervical dystonia. 38
31152297 2019
Long-Term Specialized Physical Therapy in Cervical Dystonia: Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial. 38
30796919 2019
Head tremor at disease onset: an ataxic phenotype of cervical dystonia. 38
31028543 2019
Treatment of cervical dystonia with abo- and onabotulinumtoxinA: long-term safety and efficacy in daily clinical practice. 38
31049731 2019
Microvascular decompression with partial occipital condylectomy in a case of pediatric spasmodic torticollis. 38
30701298 2019
Cognitive correlates of prospective memory in dystonia. 38
31279634 2019
Effective botulinum toxin injection guide for treatment of cervical dystonia. 38
31301235 2019
Relationship between jerky and sinusoidal oscillations in cervical dystonia. 38
31345708 2019
Immunogenicity induced by botulinum toxin injections for limb spasticity: A systematic review. 38
30980953 2019
Patient-adjusted deep-brain stimulation programming is time saving in dystonia patients. 38
31197514 2019
A randomized study of botulinum toxin versus botulinum toxin plus physical therapy for treatment of cervical dystonia. 38
30837195 2019
Quality of life improvements in patients with cervical dystonia following treatment with a liquid formulation of abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport® ). 38
30168896 2019
Sensory trick in upper limb dystonia. 38
30655163 2019
Network-level connectivity is a critical feature distinguishing dystonic tremor and essential tremor. 38
30957839 2019
IncobotulinumtoxinA and Deep Brain Stimulation. 38
31196241 2019
Pain in cervical dystonia: Evidence of abnormal inhibitory control. 38
31227336 2019
Network localization of cervical dystonia based on causal brain lesions. 38
31099831 2019
Reliability, feasibility and satisfaction of telemedicine evaluations for Cervical Dystonia. 38
31208263 2019
Update on current and emerging therapies for dystonia. 38
31117876 2019
Improvement of quality of life and mental health in patients with spasmodic torticollis after microvascular decompression. 38
30933844 2019
The role of pallidum in the neural integrator model of cervical dystonia. 38
30677494 2019
Probabilistic mapping of the antidystonic effect of pallidal neurostimulation: a multicentre imaging study. 38
30851091 2019
Effectiveness of botulinum neurotoxin type A injections in naïve and previously-treated patients suffering from Torti- or Laterocollis or -caput: Results from a German-Austrian open-label prospective post-marketing surveillance study. 38
30771702 2019
Evaluation of anxiety and depression scales and quality of LIFE in cervical dystonia patients on botulinum toxin therapy and their relatives. 38
30659417 2019
Torticollis and rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation: A clinical review. 38
31404132 2019
Cervical dystonia in a case of longstanding secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. 38
30612702 2019
Predictive factors for long-term clinical outcomes of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of primary Meige syndrome. 38
30952124 2019
Sensory trick efficacy in cervical dystonia is linked to processing of neck proprioception. 38
30553617 2019
Application of real-time shear wave elastography in the assessment of torsional cervical dystonia. 38
31143657 2019
Specific characteristics of the medical history of swallowing before and after application of botulinum toxin in patients with cervical dystonia. 38
30942281 2019
Maladaptive striatal plasticity and abnormal reward-learning in cervical dystonia. 38
30955204 2019
Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Deep Brain Stimulation on Voice and Speech in Patients With Dystonia. 38
30879706 2019
Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Adults With Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy and Cervical Dystonia: A Preliminary Study. 38
29958905 2019
Ultrasound-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injections in Cervical Dystonia Needs Prompt Muscle Selection, Appropriate Dosage, and Precise Guidance. 38
30198913 2019
Author's Response to Letter to the Editor on "Ultrasound-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injections in Cervical Dystonia Needs Prompt Muscle Selection, Appropriate Dosage, and Precise Guidance". 38
30096053 2019
Pain in cervical dystonia and the antinociceptive effects of botulinum toxin: what is currently known? 38
30917105 2019
Cervico-facial dystonia as depicted in sculpture before its scientific description. 38
30658849 2019
Deep Brain Stimulation Versus Peripheral Denervation for Cervical Dystonia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 38
30419402 2019
A Novel Missense OPA1 Mutation in a Patient with Dominant Optic Atrophy and Cervical Dystonia. 38
30838318 2019
The effect of CT-guided botulinum toxin injection on cervical dystonia, confirmed by nine-month follow-up using 18F-FDG PET/CT : A case report. 38
30741760 2019
Remission in dystonia - Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. 38
30898428 2019
Brachial Neuritis After Botulinum Toxin Injections for Cervical Dystonia: A Need for a Reappraisal? 38
30838316 2019
Management of cervical dystonia with botulinum neurotoxins and EMG/ultrasound guidance. 38
30859009 2019
Secondary Cervical Dystonia and Titubatory Head Tremor. 38
30838321 2019
Rare Complication of Botox Injection: A Case Report. 38
30873373 2019
Endoscope-Assisted Microneurosurgery for Neurovascular Compression Syndromes: Basic Principles, Methodology, and Technical Notes. 38
30937034 2019
Treatment of psychiatric disturbances in common hyperkinetic movement disorders. 38
30501439 2019
30605297 2019

Variations for Cervical Dystonia

Expression for Cervical Dystonia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cervical Dystonia.

Pathways for Cervical Dystonia

Pathways related to Cervical Dystonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 18)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
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GO Terms for Cervical Dystonia

Cellular components related to Cervical Dystonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 lysosomal membrane GO:0005765 9.71 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1 CDIP1
2 endosome membrane GO:0010008 9.63 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
3 trans-Golgi network membrane GO:0032588 9.61 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
4 endocytic vesicle membrane GO:0030666 9.54 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
5 ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane GO:0012507 9.5 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
6 transport vesicle membrane GO:0030658 9.43 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
7 clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane GO:0030669 9.33 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
8 integral component of lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane GO:0071556 9.13 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
9 MHC class II protein complex GO:0042613 8.8 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1

Biological processes related to Cervical Dystonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 T cell receptor signaling pathway GO:0050852 9.61 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
2 antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II GO:0019886 9.58 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
3 interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway GO:0060333 9.5 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
4 negative regulation of blood pressure GO:0045776 9.46 GCH1 DRD5
5 regulation of protein localization to cell surface GO:2000008 9.37 TOR1A BDNF
6 antigen processing and presentation GO:0019882 9.33 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
7 humoral immune response mediated by circulating immunoglobulin GO:0002455 9.26 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
8 immunoglobulin production involved in immunoglobulin mediated immune response GO:0002381 8.96 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1
9 antigen processing and presentation of peptide or polysaccharide antigen via MHC class II GO:0002504 8.8 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1

Molecular functions related to Cervical Dystonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 peptide antigen binding GO:0042605 9.13 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1
2 MHC class II receptor activity GO:0032395 8.8 HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1 HLA-DQA1

Sources for Cervical Dystonia

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
71 Tocris
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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