Childhood-Onset Asthma

Categories: Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Childhood-Onset Asthma

MalaCards integrated aliases for Childhood-Onset Asthma:

Name: Childhood-Onset Asthma 12
Childhood Onset Asthma 17
Childhood Asthma 12
Asthma Childhood 54


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0080815

Summaries for Childhood-Onset Asthma

Disease Ontology : 12 A chronic asthma that is characterized by first presentation in early childhood.

MalaCards based summary : Childhood-Onset Asthma, also known as childhood onset asthma, is related to ige responsiveness, atopic and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. An important gene associated with Childhood-Onset Asthma is IGHE (Immunoglobulin Heavy Constant Epsilon), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Allograft rejection and Interleukin-4 and 13 signaling. The drugs Aripiprazole and Citalopram have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include lung, thymus and testis.

Related Diseases for Childhood-Onset Asthma

Diseases related to Childhood-Onset Asthma via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 208)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 ige responsiveness, atopic 30.9 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE
2 exercise-induced bronchoconstriction 30.7 RNASE3 IL13
3 chronic asthma 30.5 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE
4 bronchiolitis 30.4 RNASE3 IL13
5 allergic disease 30.4 RNASE3 IL13 EPX
6 cough variant asthma 30.1 RNASE3 IGHE
7 proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1 30.1 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE
8 bronchitis 30.1 RNASE3 IL13 ADAM33
9 pollen allergy 30.0 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE EPX
10 drug allergy 30.0 IL13 IGHE
11 common cold 29.9 RNASE3 IL13
12 otitis media 29.9 RNASE3 IGHE
13 food allergy 29.7 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE EPX
14 urticaria 29.7 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE
15 pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive 29.7 RNASE3 IL13 ADAM33
16 esophagitis 29.7 RNASE3 IL13
17 milk allergy 29.7 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE
18 egg allergy 29.6 IL13 IGHE
19 toxocariasis 29.5 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE
20 chronic rhinitis 29.5 RNASE3 IL13 EPX
21 respiratory allergy 29.5 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE
22 dermatitis 29.5 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE
23 gastroenteritis 29.4 RNASE3 EPX
24 allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 29.4 IGHE EPX
25 intrinsic asthma 29.4 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE ADAM33
26 allergic conjunctivitis 29.3 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE
27 respiratory failure 29.3 RNASE3 IL13 EPX
28 rhinitis 29.3 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE EPX
29 asthma 29.3 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE EPX ADAM33
30 esophagitis, eosinophilic, 1 29.2 RNASE3 IL13 EPX
31 parasitic helminthiasis infectious disease 29.2 RNASE3 IL13 EPX
32 conjunctivitis 29.1 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE EPX
33 hypereosinophilic syndrome 29.0 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE EPX
34 allergic rhinitis 29.0 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE EPX
35 dermatitis, atopic 29.0 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE EPX
36 bronchial disease 28.5 RNASE3 IL13 EPX ADAM33
37 allergic asthma 28.4 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE EPX ADAM33
38 acute asthma 10.7
39 cytokine deficiency 10.3
40 intermittent asthma 10.3
41 lung disease 10.3
42 asthma-related traits 4 10.2
43 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 10.2
44 asthma-related traits 2 10.2
45 triiodothyronine receptor auxiliary protein 10.2
46 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 10.2
47 body mass index quantitative trait locus 9 10.2
48 body mass index quantitative trait locus 8 10.2
49 body mass index quantitative trait locus 4 10.2
50 body mass index quantitative trait locus 10 10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Childhood-Onset Asthma:

Diseases related to Childhood-Onset Asthma

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Childhood-Onset Asthma

Drugs & Therapeutics for Childhood-Onset Asthma

Drugs for Childhood-Onset Asthma (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 118)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
Mirtazapine Approved Phase 4 85650-52-8, 61337-67-5 4205
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-45-6, 75614-87-8 774
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
Lithium carbonate Approved Phase 4 554-13-2
Sertraline Approved Phase 4 79617-96-2 68617
Bupropion Approved Phase 4 34911-55-2, 34841-39-9 444
Buspirone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 36505-84-7 2477
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 53-03-2 5865
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
13 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3
Montelukast Approved Phase 4 158966-92-8 5281040
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4 83905-01-5 55185 447043
Budesonide Approved Phase 4 51333-22-3 63006 5281004
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7
23 Anti-Ulcer Agents Phase 4
24 Antacids Phase 4
25 Proton Pump Inhibitors Phase 4
26 Albuterol Phase 4
27 Tocolytic Agents Phase 4
28 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
29 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
30 Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists Phase 4
31 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4
32 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4
33 Venlafaxine Hydrochloride Phase 4
34 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
35 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
36 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 4
37 Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors Phase 4
38 Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 4 111974-72-2
39 Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
40 Histamine Antagonists Phase 4
41 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
42 Serotonin Receptor Agonists Phase 4
Histamine Phosphate Phase 4 51-74-1 65513
44 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 4
45 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
46 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
47 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
48 Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
49 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
50 Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 70)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Therapy ( Lansoprazole; Solutab) in the Management of Childhood Asthma Unknown status NCT00237068 Phase 4 Lansoprazole; Solutab
2 Efficacy of a Loading Dose of IV Salbutamol in Children Admitted to a PICU for Severe Acute Asthma or Severe Acute Wheeze Completed NCT03493503 Phase 4 Salbutamol;Sodium Chloride 0.9%
3 The Cost Effectiveness of School-Based Supervised Asthma Therapy Completed NCT01997463 Phase 4 Supervised asthma therapy in schools
4 Treating Caregiver Depression to Improve Childhood Asthma: Impact and Mediators Completed NCT02809677 Phase 4 Escitalopram;Venlafaxine XR;Bupropion XR;Sertraline;Mirtazapine;Buspirone;Quetiapine;Aripiprazole;Lithium
5 Reducing the Acute Care Burden of Childhood Asthma on Health Services in British Columbia Active, not recruiting NCT01326494 Phase 4 Arm 1 Oral Cortico Steroids
6 Ideal Steroids for Asthma Treatment in the PICU (iSTAT PICU): A Prospective, Comparative, Single-arm Study Assessing Dexamethasone Versus Methylprednisolone in Severe Status Asthmaticus Admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Enrolling by invitation NCT03900624 Phase 4 Dexamethasone
7 Childhood Asthma Research and Education (CARE) Network Trial - Montelukast or Azithromycin for Reduction of Inhaled Corticosteroids in Childhood Asthma (MARS) Terminated NCT00471809 Phase 4 Budesonide + Salmeterol + Azithromycin;Budesonide + Salmeterol + Montelukast;Budesonide + Salmeterol + Placebo
8 Effects of Oral Montelukast on Airway Inflammation in Children With Mild Asthma Completed NCT00675285 Phase 3 montelukast sodium;placebo
9 A Single Centre, Randomised, Double-blind, Double-dummy, 2-way Cross Over Study to Compare Safety Assessed by Knemometry and Urinary Cortisol Measurements of CHF1535 50/6 Pmdi (Fixed Combination of Beclomethasone Dipropionate and Formoterol Fumarate) and the Free Combination of Licensed Beclomethasone Dipropionate and Formoterol Fumarate in Asthmatic Children Already Treated With Inhaled Corticosteroids Completed NCT01450774 Phase 3 CHF 1535 50/6µg;beclomethasone dipropionate 50µg + formoterol fumarate 6µg
10 Childhood Asthma Management Program Completed NCT00000575 Phase 3 Placebo;Nedocromil;Budesonide
11 Childhood Asthma Research and Education (CARE) Network Trial - Treating Children to Prevent Exacerbations of Asthma (TREXA) Completed NCT00394329 Phase 3 Beclomethasone dipropionate;Beclomethasone dipropionate;Albuterol sulfate
12 Childhood Asthma Research and Education (CARE) Network Trial - Best Add-On Therapy Giving Effective Response (BADGER) Completed NCT00395304 Phase 3 fluticasone propionate + montelukast;fluticasone propionate;fluticasone propionate + salmeterol
13 Childhood Asthma Research and Education (CARE) Network Trial - Maintenance Versus Intermittent Inhaled Steroids in Wheezing Toddlers (MIST) Completed NCT00675584 Phase 3 Budesonide;Placebo Budesonide
14 Randomized Trial: Maternal Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Childhood Asthma (VDAART) Active, not recruiting NCT00920621 Phase 3
15 Orthomolecular Treatment as add-on Therapy for Childhood Asthma Unknown status NCT00672529 Phase 2
16 A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study of the Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicines in the Treatment of Childhood Asthma Completed NCT00636103 Phase 1, Phase 2 CUF2
17 Environmental Control as Add-on Therapy in Childhood Asthma Completed NCT02251379 Phase 2 Flovent Diskus;Advair Diskus
18 Complementary Role of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine in Management of Mild to Moderate Childhood Asthma Recruiting NCT03645889 Phase 2
19 Antibiotic Treatment of Recurrent Episode of Asthma in Children - a Randomised, Case-controlled Study Within the COPSAC2010 Cohort (Asthma Begins in Childhood) Active, not recruiting NCT01233297 Phase 2 Azithromycin
20 Changes in the Lung Clearance Index as Measured by Multiple-breath Washout, in Pediatric Patients With Asthma After Challenge With Inhaled Steroids and Short-acting Bronchodilator Unknown status NCT02678949 Inhaled Fluticasone 50 mcg/twice day;Inhaled Fluticasone 100 mcg/twice day;Inhaled Albuterol
21 Childhood Asthma and Return to School: the September Epidemic Exacerbation in Israel.A Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of Preventive Treatment With Symbicort or Budicort Turbuhaler Unknown status NCT01179152 Budesonide turbuhaler, Budesonide+Formoterol turbuhaler
22 Phosphodiesterase 4 Gene Variant and Salbutamol Response in Persistent Childhood Asthma Unknown status NCT03592212 Salbutamol
23 Geographic Modeling of Traffic and Asthma Rates Completed NCT00041834
24 Primary Care Pathway for Childhood Asthma Completed NCT02481037
25 Effects of a Parental Training Program Using Group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Managing Children With Asthma: a Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT02405962
26 T Regulatory and Childhood Asthma Completed NCT00204828
27 Digital Health Tool for Parental Management of Childhood Asthma -- Impact on Asthma Control Test Scores Completed NCT03304067
28 AsthmaVent - Effect of Mechanical Ventilation on Asthma Control in Children Completed NCT02068573
29 COPE for Children With Asthma: A Cognitive Behavior Skills-Building Completed NCT03481673
30 Urinary 8-isoprostane is Elevated in Acute Childhood Asthma Completed NCT01472471
31 Flunisolide HFA in Children With Small Airway Disease Completed NCT02404103 Flunisolide HFA
32 A Community Based Participatory Research Intervention for Childhood Asthma Using Air Filters and Air Conditioners Completed NCT00839046
33 More Relaxation by Deep Breath on Methacholine- Than on Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction During the Routine Testing of Asthmatic Children Completed NCT03696602
34 Risk Factors for Intensive Care Admission of Children With Severe Acute Wheeze or Asthma (SAA) Completed NCT02936778
35 Can Electronic Adherence Monitors With Feedback and Daily Reminders Improve Adherence and Health Outcomes in Children With Asthma? Completed NCT02451709
36 Effect of Experienced Chinese Herbal Formulas Based on Different Stages and Different Symptoms on Pediatric Asthma: a Single-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT02341573 experienced chinese herbal formulas;leukotriene receptor antagonist and bronchial relaxant
37 Airflow Obstruction and Biomarkers of Airway Inflammation During and Following Acute Exacerbations of Childhood Asthma Completed NCT01227070
38 Antibiotics in Infancy--Risk Factor for Childhood Asthma Completed NCT00037726
39 Epidemiology of Symptom Perception in Childhood Asthma Completed NCT00005461
40 Nutrition in Pregnancy, Birth Weight, and Childhood Asthma Completed NCT00006404
41 Adherence in the Childhood Asthma Management Program Completed NCT00005705
42 Allergens in Inner-City Schools and Childhood Asthma Completed NCT01756391
43 Environmental Intervention to Reduce Allergens in Urban Schools and Childhood Asthma Completed NCT01913795
44 Effectiveness of the Paediatric Electronic Quality of Life Instrument for Childhood Asthma in the Netherlands (Pelican) in Medical Care. Completed NCT01109745
45 Childhood Asthma Research and Education (CARE) Network Trial - Acute Intervention Management Strategies (AIMS) Completed NCT00319488 Inhaled Corticosteroid (Budesonide);Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist (Montelukast Sodium);Inhaled Albuterol
46 Using the Telephone to Improve Care in Childhood Asthma Completed NCT00660322
47 Data Analysis of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo- Controlled Study of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Therapy (Lansoprazole; Solutab™) in the Management of Childhood Asthma Completed NCT01536457
48 A Double Blind Randomised Placebo Controlled Pilot Study of a Dietary Soup Intervention During Pregnancy to Optimise Dietary Vitamin E Intake in Relation to Childhood Asthma. Completed NCT01661530
49 Childhood Asthma and Schooling: The Truth Unveiled Completed NCT00930826
50 A Study of the Feasibility and Effectiveness of Implementing and Diffusing an Evidence-based Childhood Asthma Management Intervention in Community Health Centers Completed NCT02454192

Search NIH Clinical Center for Childhood-Onset Asthma

Genetic Tests for Childhood-Onset Asthma

Anatomical Context for Childhood-Onset Asthma

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Childhood-Onset Asthma:

Lung, Thymus, Testis, T Cells, Neutrophil

Publications for Childhood-Onset Asthma

Articles related to Childhood-Onset Asthma:

(show top 50) (show all 160)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Association of Infant Antibiotic Exposure With Childhood Health Outcomes. 61
33208243 2021
Adults with current asthma but not former asthma have higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a population-based prospective cohort study. 61
33446724 2021
ORMDL3/GSDMB genotype as a risk factor for early-onset adult asthma is linked to total serum IgE levels but not to allergic sensitization. 61
32444308 2021
Neonatal jaundice, phototherapy and childhood allergic diseases: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
33475191 2021
Endotypes identified by cluster analysis in asthmatics and non-asthmatics and their clinical characteristics at follow-up: the case-control EGEA study. 61
33268339 2020
Long-term exposure to low-level air pollution and incidence of asthma: the ELAPSE project. 61
33303534 2020
Genetic impact of CDHR3 on the adult onset of asthma and COPD. 61
32615023 2020
Integrative genomics analysis of various omics data and networks identify risk genes and variants vulnerable to childhood-onset asthma. 61
32867763 2020
Expression quantitative trait locus fine mapping of the 17q12-21 asthma locus in African American children: a genetic association and gene expression study. 61
32380068 2020
[Occurrence of bronchial asthma and age at initial asthma diagnosis-first results of the German National Cohort]. 61
32125462 2020
The role of atopy in asthma development and persistence. 61
31985546 2020
Genetic susceptibility to asthma increases the vulnerability to indoor air pollution. 61
31949118 2020
At last - linking ORMDL3 polymorphisms, decreased sphingolipid synthesis, and asthma susceptibility. 61
31929192 2020
The Impact of Interleukin (IL)-33 Gene Polymorphisms and Environmental Factors on Risk of Asthma in the Iranian Population. 61
31820077 2020
Dietary Interventions and Nutritional Factors in the Prevention of Pediatric Asthma. 61
33014920 2020
Advances in asthma and allergic disease genetics: Is bigger always better? 61
31677964 2019
Proportion of Severe Asthma Patients Eligible for Mepolizumab Therapy by Age and Age of Onset of Asthma. 61
31201938 2019
Investigating the regulatory role of ORMDL3 in airway barrier dysfunction using in vivo and in vitro models. 61
31173170 2019
Shared and distinct genetic risk factors for childhood-onset and adult-onset asthma: genome-wide and transcriptome-wide studies. 61
31036433 2019
The number and function of T regulatory cells in obese atopic female asthmatics. 61
29641274 2019
The ORMDL3 Asthma Gene Regulates ICAM1 and Has Multiple Effects on Cellular Inflammation. 61
30339462 2019
Asthma diagnosed in late adulthood is linked to work disability and poor employment status. 61
30704704 2019
A population-based birth cohort study of the association between childhood-onset asthma and exposure to industrial air pollutant emissions. 61
30172232 2018
Corrigendum to 'A population-based birth cohort study of the association between childhood-onset asthma and exposure to industrial air pollutant emissions' [Environment International 121P1 (2018) 23-30]. 61
30509620 2018
Pulmonary artery sling diagnosed and corrected in an 11-year-old boy with refractory pulmonary infections and childhood-onset asthma. 61
30310403 2018
Childhood measles contributes to post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction in middle-aged adults: A cohort study. 61
29560611 2018
Age-related prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps and their relationships with asthma onset. 61
29432969 2018
Asthma-specific cognitions, self-focused attention, and fear of negative evaluation in adolescents and young adults diagnosed with childhood-onset asthma. 61
28524707 2018
Elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide and blood eosinophil counts are associated with a 17q21 asthma risk allele in adult subjects. 61
29296089 2018
Role of offending out-door aero-allergen and CD14 C(-159)T polymorphism in development and severity of asthma in a Kolkata patient population. 61
29937881 2017
Association between Caregiver Exposure to Toxics during Pregnancy and Childhood-onset Asthma: A Case-control Study. 61
29338155 2017
Oxidative stress biomarkers and asthma characteristics in adults of the EGEA study. 61
29284685 2017
Helicobacter pylori infection increases the risk of adult-onset asthma: a nationwide cohort study. 61
28389738 2017
Latent class analysis reveals clinically relevant atopy phenotypes in 2 birth cohorts. 61
27771325 2017
Vitamin D levels and susceptibility to asthma, elevated immunoglobulin E levels, and atopic dermatitis: A Mendelian randomization study. 61
28486474 2017
SigMod: an exact and efficient method to identify a strongly interconnected disease-associated module in a gene network. 61
28069594 2017
Pulmonary ORMDL3 is critical for induction of Alternaria-induced allergic airways disease. 61
27623174 2017
Network-assisted analysis of GWAS data identifies a functionally-relevant gene module for childhood-onset asthma. 61
28428554 2017
Effects of older age and age of asthma onset on clinical and inflammatory variables in severe refractory asthma. 61
27578470 2016
Doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1) is a sex-specific genetic determinant of childhood-onset asthma and is expressed in testis and macrophages. 61
26906082 2016
Arterial Stiffness, Distensibility, and Strain in Asthmatic Children. 61
26803723 2016
Prognosis of new-onset asthma diagnosed at adult age. 61
26052036 2015
An official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report: presentations and discussion of the fifth Jack Pepys Workshop on Asthma in the Workplace. Comparisons between asthma in the workplace and non-work-related asthma. 61
26203621 2015
GSDM family genes meet autophagy. 61
26171832 2015
SPINK5 and ADRB2 haplotypes are risk factors for asthma in Mexican pediatric patients. 61
25233048 2015
Have recent investigations into remission from childhood asthma helped in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease? 61
25701655 2015
Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein: a potential Treg modulator suppressing allergic asthma? 61
26082756 2015
Phenotypes, Risk Factors, and Mechanisms of Adult-Onset Asthma. 61
26538828 2015
Abdominal aortic stiffness as a marker of atherosclerosis in childhood-onset asthma: a case-control study. 61
25268111 2015
Self-esteem, Self-focused Attention, and the Mediating Role of Fear of Negative Evaluation in College Students With and Without Asthma. 61
26151164 2015

Variations for Childhood-Onset Asthma

Expression for Childhood-Onset Asthma

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Childhood-Onset Asthma.

Pathways for Childhood-Onset Asthma

Pathways related to Childhood-Onset Asthma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
11.54 RNASE3 IL13 EPX
2 11.01 IL13 IGHE

GO Terms for Childhood-Onset Asthma

Cellular components related to Childhood-Onset Asthma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 8.92 RNASE3 IL13 IGHE EPX

Biological processes related to Childhood-Onset Asthma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 defense response to bacterium GO:0042742 8.8 RNASE3 IGHE EPX

Sources for Childhood-Onset Asthma

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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