MCID: CHL014
MIFTS: 55

Cholera

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Cholera

MalaCards integrated aliases for Cholera:

Name: Cholera 12 74 52 58 54 42 3 43 15 71 32
Vibrio Cholerae Infection 52 3
Cholera Due to Vibrio Cholerae 12
Cholera - Vibrio Cholerae 12
Vibrio Cholerae 12

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
cholera
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: <1/1000000 (Europe),<1/1000000 (United States); Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: any age;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:1498
ICD9CM 34 001 001.0 001.9
MeSH 43 D002771
SNOMED-CT 67 61972007 63650001
MESH via Orphanet 44 D002771
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 A00.0 A00.1 A00.9
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0008354
Orphanet 58 ORPHA173
UMLS 71 C0008354

Summaries for Cholera

MedlinePlus : 42 Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea. The cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food that has been contaminated by feces (poop). Cholera is rare in the US. You may get it if you travel to parts of the world with poor water and sewage treatment. Outbreaks can also happen after disasters. The disease is not likely to spread directly from person to person. Cholera infections are often mild. Some people don't have any symptoms. If you do get symptoms, they usually start 2 to 3 days after infection. The most common symptom is watery diarrhea. In some cases, the infection can be severe, causing lots of watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. Because you quickly lose body fluids, you are at risk for dehydration and shock. Without treatment, you could die within hours. If you think that you might have cholera, you should get medical care right away. Doctors diagnose cholera with a stool sample or rectal swab. Treatment is the replacement of the fluid and salts that you lost through the diarrhea. This is usually with a rehydration solution that you drink. People with severe cases may need an I.V. to replace the fluids. Some of them may also need antibiotics. Most people who get fluid replacement right away will recover. There are vaccines to prevent cholera. One of them is available for adults in the U.S. Very few Americans need it, because most people do not visit areas that have an active cholera outbreak. There are also simple steps you can take to help to prevent cholera infection: Use only bottled or purified water for drinking, washing dishes, making ice cubes, and brushing your teeth If you do use tap water, boil it or use iodine tablets Wash your hands often with soap and clean water Make sure that the cooked food you eat is fully cooked and served hot Avoid unwashed or unpeeled raw fruits and vegetables Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MalaCards based summary : Cholera, also known as vibrio cholerae infection, is related to pertussis and cystic fibrosis, and has symptoms including fever and pruritus. An important gene associated with Cholera is ARF1 (ADP Ribosylation Factor 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Metabolism of proteins and GPCR Pathway. The drugs Tacrolimus and Formaldehyde have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include t cells, colon and small intestine.

Disease Ontology : 12 A primary bacterial infectious disease that is described as an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, leg cramps, circulatory collapse and shock.

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Cholera is an infection of the small intestines that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera . The condition can range from mild to severe and many affected people may have no obvious signs or symptoms. Approximately 5-10% of infected people will have severe disease with watery diarrhea and vomiting leading to rapid fluid loss, dehydration, and shock. If left untreated, this can cause acute renal failure, severe electrolyte imbalances, coma, or even death. People develop cholera when they eat food or drink water that is contaminated with Vibrio cholera . The condition occurs most often in places that lack water treatment and have poor sanitation and inadequate hygiene. Treatment aims to prevent dehydration and replace the fluids and salts that are lost through diarrhea.

CDC : 3 Cholera, caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae, is rare in the United States and other industrialized nations. However, globally, cholera cases have increased steadily since 2005 and the disease still occurs in many places including Africa, Southeast Asia, and Haiti. CDC responds to cholera outbreaks across the world using its Global Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) expertise. Cholera can be life-threatening but it is easily prevented and treated. Travelers, public health and medical professionals and outbreak responders should be aware of areas with high rates of cholera, know how the disease spreads, and what to do to prevent it.

Wikipedia : 74 Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.... more...

Related Diseases for Cholera

Diseases related to Cholera via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 440)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pertussis 31.2 VIP GNAI1 ADCY10
2 cystic fibrosis 29.9 VIP PSMD4 CFTR CAV1 ADCY10
3 pancreatic cholera 12.7
4 vipoma 12.1
5 gastroenteritis 11.8
6 secretory diarrhea 11.6
7 diarrhea 11.1
8 plague 10.7
9 yellow fever 10.7
10 variola major 10.6
11 typhoid fever 10.6
12 smallpox 10.6
13 epidemic typhus 10.6
14 tetanus 10.6
15 dysentery 10.5
16 multinucleated neurons, anhydramnios, renal dysplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hydranencephaly 10.5
17 acute diarrhea 10.5
18 diphtheria 10.4
19 helix syndrome 10.4
20 autoimmune disease 10.3
21 neuroblastoma 10.3
22 glial tumor 10.3
23 glioma 10.3
24 metabolic acidosis 10.3
25 cellulitis 10.3
26 peritonitis 10.3
27 salmonellosis 10.3
28 bacterial infectious disease 10.3
29 newcastle disease 10.3
30 haemophilus influenzae 10.3
31 liver cirrhosis 10.3
32 allergic hypersensitivity disease 10.3
33 shigellosis 10.3
34 erysipelas 10.3
35 anthrax disease 10.2
36 48,xyyy 10.2
37 acute kidney failure 10.2
38 intestinal disease 10.2
39 kidney disease 10.2
40 measles 10.2
41 fasciitis 10.2
42 mouth disease 10.2
43 meningitis 10.2
44 helicobacter pylori infection 10.2
45 chlamydia 10.2
46 pneumonia 10.2
47 influenza 10.2
48 47,xyy 10.2
49 cholestasis, intrahepatic, of pregnancy, 1 10.1
50 acrocapitofemoral dysplasia 10.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cholera:



Diseases related to Cholera

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Cholera

UMLS symptoms related to Cholera:


fever, pruritus

Drugs & Therapeutics for Cholera

Drugs for Cholera (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 93)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Tacrolimus Approved, Investigational Phase 4 104987-11-3 445643 439492 6473866
2
Formaldehyde Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-00-0 712
3
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
4
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
5
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
6 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
7
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
8
Mycophenolic acid Approved Phase 4 24280-93-1 446541
9
Maraviroc Approved, Investigational Phase 4 376348-65-1 3002977
10
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7
11
s 1 (combination) Phase 4
12 Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 4
13 Cyclosporins Phase 4
14 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 4
15 Cholera Toxin Phase 4
16 Calcineurin Inhibitors Phase 4
17 Vaccines Phase 4
18 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
19 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
20 Anti-Retroviral Agents Phase 4
21 Antiviral Agents Phase 4
22 Anti-HIV Agents Phase 4
23
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 3 85721-33-1 2764
24
Azithromycin Approved Phase 3 83905-01-5 55185 447043
25
Erythromycin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 114-07-8 12560 441411
26 Acidophilus Phase 3
27 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 3
28 Topoisomerase Inhibitors Phase 3
29 Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inhibitors Phase 3
30 Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate Phase 3
31 Erythromycin Estolate Phase 3
32 Erythromycin stearate Phase 3
33 Antibodies Phase 3
34 Immunoglobulins Phase 3
35
Secnidazole Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 3366-95-8
36
Albendazole Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 54965-21-8 2082
37
Metronidazole Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 443-48-1 4173
38
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 51-45-6 774
39
Phenol Approved, Experimental Phase 1, Phase 2 108-95-2 996
40
Dopamine Approved Phase 2 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
41
Aluminum hydroxide Approved, Investigational Phase 2 21645-51-2
42
Cocaine Approved, Illicit Phase 2 50-36-2 5760 446220
43
Glycine Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 56-40-6 750
44
Vitamin C Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 2 50-81-7 5785 54670067
45
Butyric Acid Experimental, Investigational Phase 2 107-92-6 264
46 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2
47 Guar Phase 2
48 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 2
49 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
50 Antimitotic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 108)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effect of Extended Dose Intervals on the Immune Response to Oral Cholera Vaccine Unknown status NCT03373669 Phase 4
2 Safety and Efficacy of Vaccination Against Influenza in Patients With Scleroderma Unknown status NCT01002508 Phase 4
3 Cell Immunity Response to Vaccination Against Influenza in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Unknown status NCT01002716 Phase 4
4 Immune Response After Inactivated Oral Cholera Vaccine (Dukoral) in Renal Transplant Recipients Completed NCT01109914 Phase 4
5 A Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Killed Bivalent (o1 and o139) Whole-cell Based Oral Cholera Vaccine (Shanchol®) in Healthy Individuals in Ethiopia Completed NCT01524640 Phase 4
6 An Open Label Post Licensure Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Indigenously Manufactured Killed Bivalent (O1 and O139) Whole Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine(Shanchol™) Completed NCT00760825 Phase 4
7 Safety and Immunogenicity of Two Doses of Oral Cholera Vaccine (Shanchol™) in Subjects Aged 1 Year and Older in the Philippines Completed NCT01949675 Phase 4
8 A Open Labeled Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Immune Response of a Boosting Regimen With Shanchol™, a Killed Whole Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine (WC-OCV), in Previously Immunized Adults and Children in Eastern Kolkata, India Completed NCT01579448 Phase 4
9 Introduction of New Hypo-Osmolar ORS (Recommended by WHO) for Routine Use in the Management of Diarrhoeal Diseases – A Phase IV Surveillance Study Completed NCT00490932 Phase 4 Hypo-osmolar ORS
10 Comparison of Immune Response to the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Young Women With and Without Inflammatory Bowel Disease Completed NCT01034358 Phase 4
11 Introduction of an Oral Live Human Rotavirus (Rotarix) Vaccine in Matlab Completed NCT00737503 Phase 4
12 CVD 38000: Immunity, Microbiome, Epigenetics, and a Systems Biology Approach to the Study of Responses to Vaccination With Typhoid and/or Cholera Recruiting NCT03705585 Phase 4 Vivotif Typhoid Oral Vaccine;Vaxchora
13 Blood Donor CVD 9000: Collection of Blood for In Vitro Studies From Healthy Adults Who Have Received Oral Cholera Vaccine (CVD 103-HgR) Recruiting NCT03724357 Phase 4 Vaxchora
14 A Phase 4 Study to Assess the Safety and Immunogenicity of VAXCHORA (Cholera Vaccine, Live, Oral) in Children 2 to <18 Years of Age Active, not recruiting NCT03220737 Phase 4
15 The Role of Synbiotics in Reducing Post-Operative Infections in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Pilot Study Terminated NCT00164099 Phase 4 Synbiotic 2000
16 Randomised, Placebo Controlled, Phase IV, Safety and Exploratory Immunogenicity Study on Maraviroc, an Oral ART CCR5 Inhibitor, on the Intensification of Immune Function in HIV-1 Infected Subjects Receiving Immunisation With Novel Antigens Terminated NCT01049204 Phase 4 Maraviroc;placebo
17 A Randomized, Observer Blinded, Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of a New Formulation of Euvichol® (Killed Bivalent Whole Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine Manufactured by EuBiologics Co. Ltd.) in Healthy Individuals Unknown status NCT02502331 Phase 3
18 Randomized Controlled Field Trial of a Probiotics to Assess Its Role in The Prevention of Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases in Children Unknown status NCT00534170 Phase 3
19 A Phase III Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study in Older Adults to Assess Immunogenicity and Clinical Acceptability of a Single-dose of the Live Oral Cholera Vaccine Candidate PXVX0200 Vibrio Cholerae O1 Serotype Inaba Vaccine Strain CVD 103-HgR Completed NCT02100631 Phase 3
20 A Phase 3 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Efficacy Trial of a Single Dose Live Oral Cholera Vaccine, PXVX0200 CVD 103-HgR, in Preventing Cholera Following Challenge With Vibrio Cholerae 10 Days or 3 Months After Vaccination Completed NCT01895855 Phase 3
21 Phase 3 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled 3-Lot Consistency Study in Healthy Adult Volunteers to Assess Immunogenicity, and Clinical Acceptability of a Single-dose of Live Oral Cholera Vaccine Candidate PXVX0200, Vibrio Cholerae O1 Serotype Inaba Vaccine Strain CVD 103-HgR Completed NCT02094586 Phase 3
22 Randomized, Double Blind, Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of Multiple-dose Ciprofloxacin With Single Dose Azithromycin Therapy for Adults With Cholera Due to Multiply Resistant Strains of V. Cholerae O1 or O139 Completed NCT00741052 Phase 3 Ciprofloxacin;Azithromycin
23 Oral Rehydration SolutionContaining Amylase Resistant Starch in Severely Malnourished Children With Watery Diarrhoea Due to Vibrio Cholerae Completed NCT00324285 Phase 3 Amylase resistant starch added ORS
24 Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Clinical Trial to Compare Efficacy of a Single Dose of Azithromycin Versus a Single Dose of Ciprofloxacin in the Treatment of Adults With Clinically Severe Cholera Due to V. Cholerae O1 or O139 Completed NCT00229944 Phase 3 Azithromycin
25 Safety and Immunogenicity of Two Doses of Oral Cholera Vaccine (ShancholTM) in Subjects Aged 1 Year and Older in Dominican Republic Completed NCT02434822 Phase 3
26 A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Bivalent Killed Whole Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine in Eastern Kolkata, West Bengal, India Completed NCT00289224 Phase 3
27 An Individually Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial to Measure the Protection Conferred by a Single Dose Regimen of Bivalent, Killed, Whole Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine (Shanchol™) in Dhaka, Bangladesh Completed NCT02027207 Phase 3
28 Clinical Trial of Zinc Supplementation in Cholera Patients Completed NCT00226616 Phase 3 Zinc
29 Efficacy of an Oral, Killed Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Vaccine in Prevention of Diarrhea in Egyptian Infants and Young Children Completed NCT02556996 Phase 3
30 Randomised, Open, Parallel Group Clinical Trial to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of a Single Dose of Ciprofloxacin Oral Suspension 20 Mg/Kg With a 3-Day Course of Erythromycin Oral Suspension Administered in a Dose of 12.5 Mg/Kg Every 6 Hours (12 Doses) in the Treatment of Children,With Clinically Severe Cholera Due to V. Cholerae O1 or O139. Completed NCT00142272 Phase 3 Ciprofloxacin
31 Improving the Immune Response to Rotavirus Vaccine Completed NCT01825109 Phase 3
32 Study on the Immunogenicity of Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) and Oral Cholera Vaccine (OCV) When Co-administered Recruiting NCT03581734 Phase 3
33 Safety and Immunogenicity of a Killed Oral Cholera Vaccine Among Infants 10 Weeks to Less Than 12 Months of Age When Given Concomitantly With EPI Vaccines Unknown status NCT00548054 Phase 2
34 A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Single Dose Regimen of Live Attenuated Oral Cholera Vaccine (Choleragarde®) in HIV-Seropositive Adults in Thailand Completed NCT00741637 Phase 2
35 A Phase I/II Dose-escalation Study to Evaluate Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of '2-dose Primary Series' Single Strain (Hikojima Serotype) Inactivated Oral Cholera Vaccine Formulations (Two Formulations Based on Total O1 LPS Content), in Sequential Age Descending Population of Healthy Adults and Children Completed NCT02823899 Phase 1, Phase 2
36 Optimisation of Oral Rehydration Solution and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Benefiber(Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum) Containing Modified Oral Rehydration Solution in the Treatment of Severely Malnourished Children With Watery Diarrhoea Completed NCT01821586 Phase 2
37 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial, to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Orally Administered, Killed, Bivalent Whole-cell, Cholera Vaccine, ShanChol in Bangladeshi Adults and Children Completed NCT01042951 Phase 2
38 Immune Responses Following One Versus Two Doses of Killed Oral Cholera Vaccine in Eastern Kolkata, West Bengal, India Completed NCT00419133 Phase 2
39 A Safety and Immunogenicity Study of a New Formulation of the Locally-Produced Bivalent Killed, Whole-Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine in Vietnamese Subjects Completed NCT00128011 Phase 2
40 Safety and Immunogenicity of a Killed, Oral Cholera Vaccine in Indian Subjects in Eastern Kolkata, West Bengal Completed NCT00119197 Phase 2
41 A Phase 2 Randomized, Double-Blinded Study to Compare in Malian Adults the Immunogenicity, Clinical Acceptability and Excretion Pattern Following the Ingestion of a Single Dose of PXVX0200 (CVD 103-HgR) Live Oral Cholera Vaccine Containing Either 108 Colony Forming Units [Cfu] or 109 Cfu Using Shanchol™ Killed Whole Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine as an Immunological Comparator Completed NCT02145377 Phase 2
42 A Randomized Controlled Trial To Evaluate the Immunogenicity of Two Doses of the Modified Killed Whole-Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine Under Two Alternative Vaccination Schedules. Completed NCT01233362 Phase 2
43 A Randomized Observer Blinded Controlled Non Inferiority Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Locally Manufactured Inactivated Bivalent Whole Cell-oral Cholera Vaccine (WC-OCV) 'Cholvax' in Bangladeshi Healthy Adults and Children Completed NCT02742558 Phase 2
44 Comparison of Rapid and Slow Rehydration of Severely Malnourished Children Suffering From Dehydrating Diarrhoea and Impact on Renal Function and Subsequent Growth of Children Completed NCT02216708 Phase 2
45 Studies of Acute and Memory Immune Responses to Orally Administered Vaccines in Developing Country Children and Factors That May Augment Such Responses Completed NCT01019083 Phase 1, Phase 2 Placebo;Placebo;Zinc Sulphate;Albendazole and Secnidazole
46 Efficacy of Benefiber-Added, Reduced-Osmolarity WHO-ORS in the Treatment of Cholera in Adults Completed NCT00672308 Phase 2
47 Study of Field Application of Oral Cholera Vaccine, Shanchol for Use in Developing Country Settings Completed NCT01762930 Phase 2 Shanchol
48 Randomized Double-Blinded Pilot Study Confirming A Human Challenge Model Using LSN03-016011/A Expressing LT And CS17 And Investigating The Safety Of VLA1701 (An Investigational Oral Cholera And ETEC Vaccine) Completed NCT03576183 Phase 2
49 Therapeutic Induction of Endogenous Antibiotics for Improved Recovery in Shigellosis Completed NCT00800930 Phase 2
50 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Dose-Escalation Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of an Oral Inactivated ETEC Vaccine (ETVAX) Alone and Together With dmLT Adjuvant in Descending Age Groups in Bangladesh Completed NCT02531802 Phase 1, Phase 2

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cholera

Cochrane evidence based reviews: cholera

Genetic Tests for Cholera

Anatomical Context for Cholera

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cholera:

40
T Cells, Colon, Small Intestine, Testes, Skin, Thyroid, Spinal Cord

Publications for Cholera

Articles related to Cholera:

(show top 50) (show all 22908)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
The case-area targeted rapid response strategy to control cholera in Haiti: a four-year implementation study. 61 42
30990822 2019
2
Micro-Space Complexity and Context in the Space-Time Variation in Enteric Disease Risk for Three Informal Settlements of Port au Prince, Haiti. 61 42
30841596 2019
3
Bivalent oral cholera vaccination induces a memory B cell response to the V. cholerae O1-polysaccharide antigen in Haitian adults. 61 42
30703094 2019
4
Sustained delivery of thermostabilized chABC enhances axonal sprouting and functional recovery after spinal cord injury. 54 61
19884507 2010
5
Differential expression of enteric neuroimmune-network in invasive and acute watery diarrhoea. 54 61
19650770 2010
6
Development of immunoglobulin M memory to both a T-cell-independent and a T-cell-dependent antigen following infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 in Bangladesh. 54 61
19858296 2010
7
Rescue of functional F508del cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by vasoactive intestinal peptide in the human nasal epithelial cell line JME/CF15. 54 61
19584307 2009
8
Caveolin-1 regulation of dynamin-dependent, raft-mediated endocytosis of cholera toxin-B sub-unit occurs independently of caveolae. 54 61
19438805 2009
9
Parallel preoptic pathways for thermoregulation. 54 61
19776281 2009
10
Sorting in early endosomes reveals connections to docking- and fusion-associated factors. 54 61
19487677 2009
11
Generating an unfoldase from thioredoxin-like domains. 54 61
19289469 2009
12
Pseudomonas aeruginosa vesicles associate with and are internalized by human lung epithelial cells. 54 61
19192306 2009
13
Desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors in lung injury induced by 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a mustard analog. 54 61
19202564 2009
14
Lipid rafts mediate internalization of beta1-integrin in migrating intestinal epithelial cells. 54 61
18755811 2008
15
Different internalization pathways of polymeric micelles and unimers and their effects on vesicular transport. 54 61
18729494 2008
16
Thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitors with improved water solubility identified by structure-activity analysis. 54 61
18691893 2008
17
Automated quantitative analysis of epithelial cell scatter. 54 61
19271353 2008
18
Differential subcellular membrane recruitment of Src may specify its downstream signalling. 54 61
18316074 2008
19
Activation of PKCbeta(II) and PKCtheta is essential for LDL-induced cell proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells via Gi-mediated Erk1/2 activation and Egr-1 upregulation. 54 61
18211822 2008
20
Transcriptional upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in human intestinal epithelial cells following Vibrio cholerae infection. 54 61
17697117 2007
21
Adherence-inhibitory intestinal immunoglobulin a antibody response in baboons elicited by use of a synthetic intranasal lectin-based amebiasis subunit vaccine. 54 61
17526742 2007
22
Cholera toxin induces malignant glioma cell differentiation via the PKA/CREB pathway. 54 61
17679696 2007
23
Cellular uptake of cationic polymer-DNA complexes via caveolae plays a pivotal role in gene transfection in COS-7 cells. 54 61
17385010 2007
24
Monobutyl phthalate inhibits steroidogenesis by downregulating steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in mouse Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1). 54 61
17479410 2007
25
Acinar plasticity: development of a novel in vitro model to study human acinar-to-duct-to-islet differentiation. 54 61
17446845 2007
26
Study on the mechanism of trichlorfon-induced inhibition of progesterone synthesis in mouse leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1). 54 61
17350742 2007
27
Stimulation of intestinal secretion by vasoactive intestinal peptide and cholera toxin. 54 61
17023221 2007
28
Syntaxin 16 and syntaxin 5 are required for efficient retrograde transport of several exogenous and endogenous cargo proteins. 54 61
17389686 2007
29
Identification of new small molecule inhibitors of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein: in vitro and in vivo studies. 54 61
17329846 2007
30
Do salivary antibodies reliably reflect both mucosal and systemic immunity? 54 61
17435136 2007
31
In vitro induction of immunoglobulin A (IgA)- and IgM-secreting plasma blasts by cholera toxin depends on T-cell help and is mediated by CD154 up-regulation and inhibition of gamma interferon synthesis. 54 61
17220318 2007
32
Characterization of the Rab8-specific membrane traffic route linked to protrusion formation. 54 61
17105768 2006
33
Low concentrations mono-butyl phthalate stimulates steroidogenesis by facilitating steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in mouse Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1). 54 61
16999944 2006
34
Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in intestinal immune defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia. 54 61
17056558 2006
35
The internalization route resulting in successful gene expression depends on both cell line and polyethylenimine polyplex type. 54 61
16979385 2006
36
Activation of STAT3 by G alpha(s) distinctively requires protein kinase A, JNK, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. 54 61
17008315 2006
37
Invasion of host cells by JC virus identifies a novel role for caveolae in endosomal sorting of noncaveolar ligands. 54 61
16973546 2006
38
Leptin interferes with adrenocorticotropin/3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling, possibly through a Janus kinase 2-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-phosphodiesterase 3-cAMP pathway, to down-regulate cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 enzyme in human adrenocortical NCI-H295 cell line. 54 61
16684834 2006
39
Intranasal immunization of mice with recombinant lipidated P2086 protein reduces nasal colonization of group B Neisseria meningitidis. 54 61
16621173 2006
40
Comparison of adenovirus fiber, protein IX, and hexon capsomeres as scaffolds for vector purification and cell targeting. 54 61
16504233 2006
41
Coding GNAS mutations leading to hormone resistance impair in vitro agonist- and cholera toxin-induced adenosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate formation mediated by human XLalphas. 54 61
16484323 2006
42
The cholera toxin A1(3) subdomain is essential for interaction with ADP-ribosylation factor 6 and full toxic activity but is not required for translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol. 54 61
16552056 2006
43
Mutual enhancement of virulence by enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. 54 61
16495521 2006
44
Influence of exogenous reproductive hormones on specific antibody production in genital secretions after vaginal vaccination with recombinant cholera toxin B subunit in humans. 54 61
16467326 2006
45
Activation of large-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channels by cannabinoids. 54 61
16107501 2006
46
Gi protein-mediated translocation of serine/threonine phosphatase to the plasma membrane and apoptosis of ovarian cancer cell in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cetrorelix. 54 61
16390708 2006
47
Characterization of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Lilium daviddi pollen. 54 61
16085656 2005
48
beta-Adrenergic-responsive activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases in salivary cells: role of epidermal growth factor receptor and cAMP. 54 61
15689414 2005
49
CFTR in cystic fibrosis and cholera: from membrane transport to clinical practice. 54 61
15905150 2005
50
Isoproterenol induces actin depolymerization in human airway smooth muscle cells via activation of an Src kinase and GS. 54 61
15821021 2005

Variations for Cholera

Expression for Cholera

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cholera.

Pathways for Cholera

Pathways related to Cholera according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 59)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.79 PSMD4 NEU1 GNAI1 ERO1A CFTR ARF5
2
Show member pathways
13.55 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 EGF ARF6 ARF5
3
Show member pathways
13.25 EGF CFTR ARL1 ARF6 ARF5 ARF4
4
Show member pathways
13.24 PSMD4 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 EGF CAV1
5
Show member pathways
13.07 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 EGF CFTR ADCY1
6
Show member pathways
13.03 PSMD4 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 EGF ADCY1
7
Show member pathways
13 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 EGF CAV1 ADCY1
8
Show member pathways
12.96 PSMD4 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY1
9 12.81 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 EGF ADCY1
10
Show member pathways
12.74 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY10 ADCY1
11
Show member pathways
12.66 ARL1 ARF5 ARF4 ARF3 ARF1
12
Show member pathways
12.62 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY10 ADCY1
13
Show member pathways
12.61 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY1
14
Show member pathways
12.58 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 EGF ARF6 ADCY1
15
Show member pathways
12.54 GNAS GNAI1 EGF ADCY1
16
Show member pathways
12.54 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY1
17
Show member pathways
12.51 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY1
18
Show member pathways
12.51 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY1
19
Show member pathways
12.5 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 EGF CAV1 ADCY1
20
Show member pathways
12.46 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY1
21
Show member pathways
12.45 GNAS ERO1A CFTR ARF1
22 12.39 PSMD4 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1
23
Show member pathways
12.35 GNAS GNAI1 CAV1 ADCY1
24
Show member pathways
12.34 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY1
25 12.33 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY1
26 12.3 CAV1 ARF6 ARF5 ARF3 ARF1
27
Show member pathways
12.28 GNAS EGF CAV1 ADCY1
28
Show member pathways
12.24 PLCB1 GNAS EGF ARF6 ARF1 ADCY1
29
Show member pathways
12.13 GNAS GNAI1 CFTR ADCY1
30
Show member pathways
12.13 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY1
31 12.07 VIP GNAS GNAI1 CFTR ADCY10 ADCY1
32 12.05 VIP GNAS GNAI1 ADCY1
33
Show member pathways
12.02 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 CFTR ADCY1
34 12 PLCB1 GNAI1 ADCY10 ADCY1
35 11.95 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1
36 11.93 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY1
37
Show member pathways
11.91 PLCB1 GNAS ERO1A CFTR ARF6 ARF5
38 11.89 PLCB1 GNAS ADCY1
39 11.87 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1
40 11.87 PLCB1 GNAI1 EGF ADCY1
41 11.85 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY1
42 11.81 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY1
43 11.8 PLCB1 GNAS CFTR ADCY1
44 11.7 GNAS CFTR ADCY1
45 11.68 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1
46 11.67 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1
47 11.59 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1
48 11.55 GNAS GNAI1 ADCY1
49 11.51 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1
50 11.5 PLCB1 GNAS GNAI1 EGF ADCY1

GO Terms for Cholera

Cellular components related to Cholera according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 membrane GO:0016020 10.28 PLCB1 NEU1 GNAS GNAI1 ERO1A EGF
2 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.13 NEU1 GNAS GNAI1 EGF CFTR CAV1
3 Golgi apparatus GO:0005794 9.91 CAV1 ARL1 ARF6 ARF5 ARF4 ARF3
4 cytoplasm GO:0005737 9.83 PSMD4 PLCB1 NEU1 GNAS GNAI1 CFTR
5 lysosomal membrane GO:0005765 9.73 NEU1 GNAI1 EGF CFTR
6 perinuclear region of cytoplasm GO:0048471 9.73 GNAS CAV1 ARF5 ARF3 ARF1 ADCY10
7 glutamatergic synapse GO:0098978 9.55 PLCB1 ARF6 ARF4 ARF1 ADCY1
8 extracellular exosome GO:0070062 9.4 PLCB1 NEU1 GNAS GNAI1 EGF BPIFB1

Biological processes related to Cholera according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 intracellular protein transport GO:0006886 9.63 ARL1 ARF6 ARF5 ARF4 ARF3 ARF1
2 adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007189 9.61 VIP GNAS ADCY1
3 positive regulation of catalytic activity GO:0043085 9.58 GNAS CAV1 ARF1
4 retrograde vesicle-mediated transport, Golgi to ER GO:0006890 9.54 ARF5 ARF4 ARF3
5 cyclic nucleotide biosynthetic process GO:0009190 9.46 ADCY10 ADCY1
6 cAMP biosynthetic process GO:0006171 9.32 ADCY10 ADCY1
7 activation of phospholipase D activity GO:0031584 9.26 ARL1 ARF4
8 cellular response to forskolin GO:1904322 9.13 GNAI1 CFTR ADCY1
9 vesicle-mediated transport GO:0016192 9.1 ARL1 ARF6 ARF5 ARF4 ARF3 ARF1

Molecular functions related to Cholera according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 GTP binding GO:0005525 9.56 GNAS GNAI1 ARL1 ARF6 ARF5 ARF4
2 phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity GO:0016849 9.32 ADCY10 ADCY1
3 guanyl nucleotide binding GO:0019001 9.26 GNAS GNAI1
4 GTPase activity GO:0003924 9.23 GNAS GNAI1 ARL1 ARF6 ARF5 ARF4
5 adenylate cyclase activity GO:0004016 9.16 ADCY10 ADCY1

Sources for Cholera

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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