Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Categories: Blood diseases, Bone diseases, Genetic diseases, Nephrological diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Chronic Kidney Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Chronic Kidney Disease:

Name: Chronic Kidney Disease 12 29 6 42 3 15 37 62 17 32
Kidney Failure, Chronic 44 70
Chronic Renal Disease 12 15
Chronic Renal Failure 73 6
Ckd 12 3
Chronic Renal Failure Syndrome 12
Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 5 70
Renal Failure - Chronic 12
Chronic Kidney Diseases 70
Chronic Kidney Failure 12
Renal Failure Chronic 54
Crf 12


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:784
ICD9CM 34 585.6
MeSH 44 D007676
NCIt 50 C9438
SNOMED-CT 67 155856009
ICD10 32 N18 N18.5 N18.9
UMLS 70 C0022661 C1561643 C2316810

Summaries for Chronic Kidney Disease

MedlinePlus : 42 You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter your blood. They remove wastes and extra water, which become urine. They also keep the body's chemicals balanced, help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged and can't filter blood as they should. This damage can cause wastes to build up in your body. It can also cause other problems that can harm your health. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common causes of CKD. The kidney damage occurs slowly over many years. Many people don't have any symptoms until their kidney disease is very advanced. Blood and urine tests are the only way to know if you have kidney disease. Treatments cannot cure kidney disease, but they may slow kidney disease. They include medicines to lower blood pressure, control blood sugar, and lower cholesterol. CKD may still get worse over time. Sometimes it can lead to kidney failure. If your kidneys fail, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplantation. You can take steps to keep your kidneys healthier longer: Choose foods with less salt (sodium) Control your blood pressure; your health care provider can tell you what your blood pressure should be Keep your blood sugar in the target range, if you have diabetes Limit the amount of alcohol you drink Choose foods that are healthy for your heart: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy foods Lose weight if you are overweight Be physically active Don't smoke NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

MalaCards based summary : Chronic Kidney Disease, also known as kidney failure, chronic, is related to kidney disease and end stage renal disease, and has symptoms including cloudy (hemodialysis) (peritoneal) dialysis effluent An important gene associated with Chronic Kidney Disease is COL4A4 (Collagen Type IV Alpha 4 Chain), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis FSGS. The drugs Alprostadil and Fosinopril have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Bone and Adipose, and related phenotypes are cardiovascular system and growth/size/body region

Disease Ontology : 12 A kidney failure that is characterized by the gradual loss of kidney function.

CDC : 3 CKD is a condition in which the kidneys are damaged and cannot filter blood as well as they should. Because of this, excess fluid and waste from blood remain in the body and may cause other health problems, such as heart disease and stroke.

PubMed Health : 62 About chronic kidney disease: Our kidneys are vital organs that clean our blood and affect many different bodily functions. Various medical conditions can cause the kidneys to stop working properly for a short time – for example, if blood isn’t pumped around the body properly or if an enlarged prostate or kidney stones make urine build up in the kidneys. But if the kidneys still aren’t working at full capacity more than three months later or are permanently damaged, then the problem is considered to be chronic kidney disease. The most common causes in adults are diabetes and high blood pressure. Older people are especially prone to developing chronic kidney disease. It often goes unnoticed for a long time because poorly functioning kidneys don’t cause any problems at first. Treatment mostly aims to stop the kidney disease from getting worse, or at least delay the process. It is also important to treat complications such as anemia, acidosis or changes in bone metabolism. If the kidneys fail completely, dialysis or a kidney transplant can prolong the person’s life.

Wikipedia : 73 Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney... more...

Related Diseases for Chronic Kidney Disease

Diseases in the Kidney Disease family:

Acute Kidney Failure Renal Infectious Disease
Chronic Kidney Disease Ren-Related Kidney Disease

Diseases related to Chronic Kidney Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1565)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 kidney disease 33.7 UMOD PKD2 PKD1 NPHS2 MKS1 GATA3
2 end stage renal disease 33.7 UMOD PKD2 PKD1 NPHS2 GATA3 FGF23
3 secondary hyperparathyroidism 33.2 FGF23 EPO CASR ALB
4 proteinuria, chronic benign 33.2 NPHS2 COL4A5 COL4A4 ALB ACE
5 hyperparathyroidism 32.9 FGF23 EPO CASR ALB
6 calciphylaxis 32.8 FGF23 EPO CASR ALB
7 deficiency anemia 32.8 FGF23 EPO CRP CFH ALB ACE
8 hyperphosphatemia 32.7 FGF23 CRP CASR ALB
9 henoch-schoenlein purpura 32.7 CRP ALB ACE
10 diabetes mellitus 32.7 UMOD TUG1 FGF23 EPO CRP CASR
11 uremia 32.6 EPO CRP CASR ALB ACE
12 hypokalemia 32.6 CASR ALB ACE
13 vascular disease 32.6 EPO CRP APOA1 ALB ACE
14 type 2 diabetes mellitus 32.6 FGF23 EPO CRP CASR APOA1 ALMS1
15 hypoparathyroidism 32.5 GATA3 FGF23 CASR
16 cystic kidney disease 32.5 UMOD PKD2 PKD1 MKS1 ALB
17 congestive heart failure 32.5 EPO CRP ALB ACE
18 pierson syndrome 32.5 NPHS2 COL4A5 COL4A4
19 glomerulonephritis 32.5 NPHS2 COL4A5 COL4A4 CFH ALB ACE
20 hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness, and renal disease 32.4 NPHS2 GATA3 CASR
21 hyperuricemia 32.4 UMOD CRP ALB
22 peripheral vascular disease 32.4 EPO CRP APOA1 ALB ACE
23 arteries, anomalies of 32.4 CRP APOA1 ALB ACE
24 myocardial infarction 32.3 EPO CRP CFH APOA1 ALB ACE
25 coronary heart disease 1 32.2 CRP APOA1 ACE
26 sleep apnea 32.2 EPO CRP ALB ACE
27 nephrotic syndrome 32.2 NPHS2 CRP COL4A5 COL4A4 AXDND1 APOA1
28 hypertension, essential 32.2 UMOD PKD2 PKD1 NPHS2 FGF23 EPO
29 polycystic kidney disease 32.1 UMOD PKD2 PKD1 MKS1 FGF23 EPO
30 urinary tract infection 32.1 UMOD CRP ACE
31 hypothyroidism 32.1 CRP APOA1 ALMS1 ALB ACE
32 iga glomerulonephritis 32.1 NPHS2 CFH ALB ACE
33 atherosclerosis susceptibility 32.0 TUG1 CRP APOA1 ALB ACE
34 peripheral artery disease 32.0 CRP APOA1 ACE
35 interstitial nephritis 32.0 UMOD CRP ALB ACE
36 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 32.0 NPHS2 COL4A5 COL4A4 ALB ACE
37 iron deficiency anemia 32.0 FGF23 EPO CRP
38 acute kidney failure 32.0 UMOD CFH ALB
39 glomerular disease 32.0 ALB ACE
40 intermediate coronary syndrome 32.0 CRP APOA1 ACE
41 acute cystitis 31.9 UMOD CRP ALB ACE
42 bone resorption disease 31.9 FGF23 CRP ALB
43 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 31.9 GATA3 CRP CFH APOA1 ALB ACE
44 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease 31.9 PKD2 PKD1 FGF23 ALB ACE
45 sleep disorder 31.9 CRP ALB ACE
46 pyelonephritis 31.9 UMOD CRP ALB ACE
47 urinary tract obstruction 31.8 UMOD CRP ALB ACE
48 membranous nephropathy 31.8 NPHS2 ALB ACE
49 coronary stenosis 31.7 CRP APOA1 ALB ACE
50 urolithiasis 31.7 UMOD CASR ALB

Comorbidity relations with Chronic Kidney Disease via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show top 50) (show all 114)

Acquired Thrombocytopenia Active Peptic Ulcer Disease
Acute Cystitis Acute Kidney Failure
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute Pancreatitis
Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis Acute Vascular Insufficiency of Intestine
Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis Amyloidosis
Aortic Valve Disease 1 Bacteremia 2
Benign Essential Hypertension Benign Hypertensive Renal Disease
Benign Renovascular Hypertension Bladder Cancer
Bladder Neck Obstruction Bleeding Disorder, Platelet-Type, 11
Bronchitis Bronchopneumonia
Candidiasis Cardiac Arrest
Cardiogenic Shock Cerebral Atherosclerosis
Cerebrovascular Disease Chronic Intestinal Vascular Insufficiency
Chronic Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis Cystitis
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Dermatomycosis Diabetic Polyneuropathy
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Duodenitis
Encephalopathy Esophageal Candidiasis
Esophageal Disease Esophagitis
Familial Atrial Fibrillation First-Degree Atrioventricular Block
Generalized Atherosclerosis Goodpasture Syndrome
Gout Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
Heart Disease Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome
Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatorenal Syndrome
Hydronephrosis Hyperparathyroidism

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Chronic Kidney Disease:

Diseases related to Chronic Kidney Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Chronic Kidney Disease

UMLS symptoms related to Chronic Kidney Disease:

cloudy (hemodialysis) (peritoneal) dialysis effluent

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Chronic Kidney Disease:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.32 ACE ALB APOA1 CFH COL4A5 CRP
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.21 ACE ALMS1 CASR CFH COL4A4 COL4A5
3 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.21 ACE ALB ALMS1 APOA1 CASR CFH
4 cellular MP:0005384 10.2 ALB ALMS1 APOA1 CASR EPO GATA3
5 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.14 ACE ALB ALMS1 APOA1 CASR COL4A4
6 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.13 ACE ALMS1 CASR CFH COL4A4 COL4A5
7 immune system MP:0005387 10.06 ACE ALB ALMS1 CASR CFH COL4A4
8 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.03 ALB CASR COL4A4 FGF23 GATA3 MKS1
9 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.61 ACE ALB ALMS1 APOA1 EPO MKS1
10 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.47 ACE ALB ALMS1 CASR CFH COL4A4

Drugs & Therapeutics for Chronic Kidney Disease

PubMed Health treatment related to Chronic Kidney Disease: 62

The most suitable treatment for chronic kidney disease will depend on the cause and stage of the disease, as well as on the person’s life circumstances and preferences. If the kidneys are still working at a nearly normal level, treatment should aim to stop or slow down the progression of the disease. This is mainly done using medication to lower blood pressure levels and prevent cardiovascular disease . If you have diabetes , it's important to regulate your blood sugar levels. If complications such as anemia or bone metabolism disorders have already occurred, then more medications are used – such as medicines that contain iron or stimulate the production of blood , as well as medications called “phosphate binders.” If there is too much acid in your body, bicarbonates are used. In addition to the medication, the treatment will include a diet suited to the stage of the disease, drinking the right amounts of liquids and physical exercise . Dialysis or a kidney transplant are considered if the kidneys fail completely. In the vast majority of people with complete kidney failure , at least one of these options is possible. Some people make a conscious decision not to use either, accepting the fact that they could die soon afterwards. Palliative treatment may then be suitable for them – enabling a final phase of life that is as pleasant as possible.

Drugs for Chronic Kidney Disease (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 644)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Alprostadil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 745-65-3 149351 5280723
Fosinopril Approved Phase 4 98048-97-6 55891
Oxycodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 76-42-6 5284603
Digoxin Approved Phase 4 20830-75-5 30322 2724385
Capsaicin Approved Phase 4 404-86-4 1548943
Ursodeoxycholic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 128-13-2 31401
Nadroparin Approved, Investigational Phase 4
Darbepoetin alfa Approved, Investigational Phase 4 209810-58-2, 11096-26-7
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
Perindopril Approved Phase 4 107133-36-8, 82834-16-0 107807
Lactitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 585-86-4 157355
Telavancin Approved Phase 4 372151-71-8
Cinacalcet Approved Phase 4 226256-56-0 156419
Cilostazol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 73963-72-1 2754
Regadenoson Approved, Investigational Phase 4 313348-27-5 219024
Aminophylline Approved Phase 4 317-34-0 9433
Allopurinol Approved Phase 4 315-30-0 2094
Bortezomib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 179324-69-7 387447 93860
Ritonavir Approved, Investigational Phase 4 155213-67-5 392622
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 12035
Iodine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7553-56-2 807
Atracurium Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 64228-79-1 47319
Insulin aspart Approved Phase 4 116094-23-6 16132418
fluindione Approved, Investigational Phase 4 957-56-2
Basiliximab Approved, Investigational Phase 4 179045-86-4, 152923-56-3
Linagliptin Approved Phase 4 668270-12-0 10096344
Amiloride Approved Phase 4 2016-88-8, 2609-46-3 16231
Nifedipine Approved Phase 4 21829-25-4 4485
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 111025-46-8 4829
Bisoprolol Approved Phase 4 66722-44-9 2405
Colchicine Approved Phase 4 64-86-8 6167 2833
Asunaprevir Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Phase 4 630420-16-5
Deflazacort Approved, Investigational Phase 4 14484-47-0
Alendronate Approved Phase 4 121268-17-5, 66376-36-1 2088
Rilonacept Approved, Investigational Phase 4 501081-76-1 104924
Minocycline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 10118-90-8 5281021
Insulin glargine Approved Phase 4 160337-95-1
Taurolidine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19388-87-5
Nystatin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 1400-61-9 11953884
Liraglutide Approved Phase 4 204656-20-2 44147092
Argatroban Approved, Investigational Phase 4 74863-84-6 152951
alemtuzumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4 216503-57-0
Rocuronium Approved Phase 4 119302-91-9, 143558-00-3 441290
Pantoprazole Approved Phase 4 102625-70-7 4679

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 3116)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effects of an Exercise Program in Patients With Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease: a Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT01155128 Phase 4
2 Immunosuppression in Renal Transplantation in The Elderly: Time to Rethink. - nEverOld Study Unknown status NCT01631058 Phase 4 Everolimus
3 Renoprotection by Combining Pentoxifylline and Angiotensin Blockade in Chronic Kidney Disease Unknown status NCT01377285 Phase 4 ARB;Pentoxifylline;Placebo (for Pentoxifylline)
4 The Metabolic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Combined Ezetimibe and Simvastin Therapy, as Compared to Simvastatin Alone, in Patients With Chronic Proteinuric Nephropathy Unknown status NCT00861731 Phase 4 simvastatin;EZE/simvastatin;EZE/simvastatin
5 Open Randomized Phase IV Study on Intravenous Iron in Anemic Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Unknown status NCT00204256 Phase 4 Iron sucrose
6 The Change of Urinary Angiotensinogen Excretion After Valsartan Treatment in Chronic Kidney Diseases Patients With Persistent Proteinuria Unknown status NCT00858299 Phase 4 valsartan
7 Comparison of the Effects Between Keto-/Amino Acid Supplemented Low Protein Diet and Non-Supplemented Low Protein Diet in Patients With Stage Ⅴ Chronic Kidney Disease Unknown status NCT00364884 Phase 4 ketoaminoacid
8 Influence of Vitamin K2 Administration on Vessel Calcification Markers in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Unknown status NCT01101698 Phase 4 Vitamin K2+10μg cholecalciferol;Vitamin D
9 Assessment of the Effects of the Combination of Spironolactone to Conventional Pharmacotherapy in Dialysis Patients Unknown status NCT01128101 Phase 4 Spironolactone
10 Efficacy and Safety of Heparin-coated Surface-treated Polyacrylonitrile Membrane Hemofilter in Critical Ill CRRT Patients Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Patients Unknown status NCT02355873 Phase 4
11 Study of Vitamin D2 Virus 1,25(OH)2-Vitamin D3 and Normal Protein Diet Virus Low Protein Diet in the Treatment of CKD-MBD and Malnutrition for Progressive CKD Patients Unknown status NCT02005302 Phase 4 1,25(OH)2 Vitamin D3;Vitamin D2
12 Effect of Hydration With Sodium Bicarbonate for Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing an Emergent Coronary Procedure Unknown status NCT00716001 Phase 4 N-acetylcysteine
13 The Effects of AST-120 on Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Unknown status NCT01157260 Phase 4 Kremezin
14 Pulse Wave Velocity, Pulse Wave Morphology and Blocking of the Reninangiotensin System in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: An Interventional and Methodological Study Unknown status NCT00235287 Phase 4 Candesartan and enalapril;candesartan and enalapril;candesartan and enalapril;candesartan and enalapril
15 Evaluation of Nail Fold Microcirculation and Interventional Therapy in Patients With Chronic Renal Failure Unknown status NCT03682952 Phase 4 Alprostadil Injection;Beraprost sodium tablets
16 Effects of Cholecalciferol on Osteoprotegerin Levels and Other Clinical Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis: a Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02598635 Phase 4 Cholecalciferol;Placebo
17 A comParison on Platelet Resistance With Ticagrelor or Standard-Dose Clopidogrel Study Among SeVerE Chronic Kidney Disease/ End-Stage-Renal-Disease Patients With Recent Acute Coronary Syndrome. Unknown status NCT02459288 Phase 4 Clopidogrel first;Ticagrelor first
18 the Effect of Calcium Dobesilate on Non Dialysis Patients With Chronic Renal Failure Unknown status NCT03427944 Phase 4 Calcium Dobesilate group;Conventional Treatment group
19 Canadian Collaborative Group for the Prevention of Illness in Chronic Renal Disease. The Canadian Prevention of Renal and Cardiovascular Endpoints Trial Unknown status NCT00231803 Phase 4
20 NAC in Preventing CIN in CRF Patients Who Need Enhanced CT Scan in ED Unknown status NCT00501475 Phase 4 NAC Bicarbonate
21 Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Treatment Effectiveness of Guideline Indicated Anti-platelet Therapy for Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Unknown status NCT03150667 Phase 4 Ticagrelor;Clopidogrel
22 Simvastatin Effect on Endothelium Dependent Venodilation in Chronic Renal Failure Patients Treated by Peritoneal Dialysis Unknown status NCT00291863 Phase 4 Simvastatin
23 Comparison of Efficacy and Safety Between Benidipine and Hydrochlorothiazide in Fosinopril Treated Chronic Kidney Disease Patients With Hypertension: a Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02646397 Phase 4 Fosinopril;Benidipine;Hydrochlorothiazide
24 Effect of Aliskiren on Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity (MSNA) in Hypertensive Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Unknown status NCT00719316 Phase 4 Aliskiren
25 Clinical Trial Simulation Using ODE/PDE Hemodialysis Model for Quantifying Oxycodone's Removal in End-Stage Kidney Disease Unknown status NCT02452437 Phase 4 Oxycodone
26 Efficacy and Safety of Morning Intake of Simvast Controlled Release (CR) Tablet Versus Evening Intake of Zocor Tablet in Chronic Kidney Disease Stage(CKD)3, 4 and 5 Patients With Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Double-blind, Multicenter Phase 4 Trial (HM-SIM4) Unknown status NCT01564875 Phase 4 Simvast CR;Zocor
27 Effect of Vitamin D Supplement on Osteoprotegin Expression and Disease Progression in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 1 and 2 Unknown status NCT01561222 Phase 4 Calcitriol;placebo
28 Phase 4 Study of Sarpogrelate That Prevent Contrast-induced Nephropathy Unknown status NCT01165567 Phase 4 sarpogrelate
29 Safety and Efficacy of Polyclonal Antibodies in Simultaneous Pancreas Kidney Transplant Recipients: Single-centre, Prospective, Observational Study Unknown status NCT03470961 Phase 4 Anti-Tlymphocyte Globulins;Anti-Thymocyte Globulins
30 Effect of Valsartan vs Perindopril on HOMA-IR Index in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Unknown status NCT02299310 Phase 4 Valsartan;Perindopril
31 Efficacy and Safety of Abelmoschus Manihot for Chronic Kidney Disease:a Multicentre Open Study Unknown status NCT02231138 Phase 4 Abelmoschus manihot (AM)
32 Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Vascular Health in Chronic Kidney Disease Unknown status NCT02364648 Phase 4
33 Phase 4 Study of Oral Calcitriol for Reduction of Mild Proteinuria in Patients With CKD Unknown status NCT01820832 Phase 4 Calcitriol
34 Safety and Efficacy of Shenyankangfu Tablets for Chronic Kidney Disease Unknown status NCT02885857 Phase 4 Shenyan Kangfu Tablet
35 Intradialytic Exercise for Enhanced Dialysis Adequacy and Solute Removal in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT01481688 Phase 4
36 Additive Renoprotective Effects of Oral Calcitriol in Nondiabetic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Unknown status NCT01512862 Phase 4 Calcitriol;Placebo
37 COmparison of the Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes(OPT-CKD Trial) Unknown status NCT02578537 Phase 4 Ticagrelor;Clopidogrel
38 Research of Pure Red Cell Aplasia in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and in Use of Epoetin Alfa Produced by Immunobiological Technology Institute (Bio-Manguinhos) From Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Bio-Manguinhos / Fiocruz) Unknown status NCT02648126 Phase 4
39 Mechanisms of Low Protein Diet Supplemented With α-ketoacids on Autophagy and Improving Muscle Wasting in Chronic Kidney Disease: the Role of Autophagy in Muscle Wasting Unknown status NCT02568020 Phase 4 keto-amino acids
40 A Randomised Open Label, Blinded End Point Trial to Compare the Effects of Spironolactone With Chlortalidone on LV Mass in Stage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease (SPIRO-CKD) Unknown status NCT02502981 Phase 4 Spironolactone;Chlortalidone
41 Gut-kidney Axis: Renal Effects of Meditarranean Diet and Low-protein Diet With Ketoacids to Restore Physiological Intestinal Mibrobiota in Chronic Kidney Disease Unknown status NCT02302287 Phase 4
42 The Immunogenicity and Safety of the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine, Formulation 2013-2014, in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Not on Dialysis Unknown status NCT02105519 Phase 4
43 Study on the Effect of Hyperuricaemia on Chronic Renal Disease and Intervention Unknown status NCT03425708 Phase 4 20mg Febuxostat;40mg Febuxostat
44 Renal Toxicity of Iodixanol and Iopromide in Patients With Renal Dysfunction-a Multicentre, Single Blind, Randomized Controlled, Prospective Trial Unknown status NCT01580046 Phase 4 iodixanol;iopromide
45 Hemocontrol's Effectiveness in a RAndomized Controlled Trial on the Reduction of Cardiovascular Long-term EventS Unknown status NCT01515878 Phase 4
46 Impact of a Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist on Chronic Histological Changes in Renal Allograft Unknown status NCT01510795 Phase 4 spironolactone
47 Clinical Trial, Open, Parallel Groups , Value the Antiproteinuric Effects From Vitamin D Derivatives in Patient With Chronic Kidney Illness and the Lack of Vitamin D Unknown status NCT01442272 Phase 4 Hidroferol®;Paricalcitol: Zemplar®;Habitual medication
48 Interstitial Fibrosis in Protocol Biopsies of Renal Allografts: A Prospective, Randomised Trial of Sirolimus Versus Cyclosporine.(Fibrasic) Unknown status NCT00493194 Phase 4 sirolimus;cyclosporine;daclizumab
49 Protective Mechanisms of Aldosterone Antagonists and Their Effects on Cardiovascular Damage in Chronic Renal Failure: Clinical and Experimental Studies Unknown status NCT00277693 Phase 4 Spironolactone (drug)
50 A Pilot Study to Treat Patients With Chronic HCV Genotype 1 and ESRD Receiving Hemodialysis and Naïve to Prior HCV Therapy With Peginterferon Alfa-2b, the Maximally Tolerated Ribavirin Dose and Boceprevir Unknown status NCT01731301 Phase 4 Ribavirin;Peginterferon;Boceprevir

Search NIH Clinical Center for Chronic Kidney Disease

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :

Aluminum carbonate
basic aluminum carbonate gel
calcium acetate
Calcium Carbonate
Calcium gluceptate
dihydroxyaluminum sodium carbonate
Ethacrynate Sodium
Ethacrynic Acid
Magnesium Hydroxide

Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Chronic Kidney Disease cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.

Cochrane evidence based reviews: kidney failure, chronic

Genetic Tests for Chronic Kidney Disease

Genetic tests related to Chronic Kidney Disease:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Chronic Kidney Disease 29

Anatomical Context for Chronic Kidney Disease

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Chronic Kidney Disease:

Kidney, Bone, Endothelial, Bone Marrow, Liver, Heart, Neutrophil
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Chronic Kidney Disease:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Bone Bone Marrow Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
2 Adipose Subcutaneous White Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
3 Kidney Proximal Tubule Proximal Tubule Cells Affected by disease, potential therapeutic candidate
4 Adipose Subcutaneous White Adipose Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Publications for Chronic Kidney Disease

Articles related to Chronic Kidney Disease:

(show top 50) (show all 31322)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Body mass index combined with waist circumference can predict moderate chronic kidney disease: A retrospective study. 42 61
33761657 2021
Effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. 42 61
33663074 2021
Whole-genome sequencing of patients with rare diseases in a national health system. 6
32581362 2020
Trimetazidine reduces contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography and angioplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA). 42
33725824 2021
A prospective study of fibroblast growth factor-23 in children with chronic kidney disease. 61 54
19929273 2010
Insulin resistance as a novel therapeutic target in patients with chronic kidney disease treated with dialysis. 61 54
20150846 2010
Role of aldosterone in the progression of chronic kidney disease and potential use of aldosterone blockade in children. 54 61
19347366 2009
Inflammatory syndrome in chronic kidney disease: pathogenesis and influence on outcomes. 61 54
20025585 2009
[BNP and echocardiographic parameters in patients with chronic kidney disease and dialyzed patients]. 54 61
19947237 2009
Outcome predictability of biomarkers of protein-energy wasting and inflammation in moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease. 54 61
19535427 2009
Inflammation in chronic kidney disease: role in the progression of renal and cardiovascular disease. 61 54
19083024 2009
Impact of left ventricular end-diastolic wall stress on plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in heart failure with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. 54 61
19460838 2009
Impaired antioxidant activity of high-density lipoprotein in chronic kidney disease. 54 61
19138652 2009
Insulin resistance in chronic uremia. 61 54
19121765 2009
New acquisitions in therapy of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease and peritoneal dialysis patients: role of vitamin D receptor activators. 61 54
19494617 2009
[Insulin resistance and chronic kidney disease]. 61 54
18514051 2008
Vitamin D: an old prohormone with an emergent role in chronic kidney disease. 61 54
18587719 2008
[Peritoneal dialysis and insulin resistance in patients with chronic kidney disease due to nondiabetic nephropathy]. 54 61
18634374 2008
Association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chronic kidney disease and periodontitis. 54 61
17914260 2007
Adiponectin and chronic kidney disease. 54 61
17198925 2007
Stature in children with chronic kidney disease: analysis of NAPRTCS database. 54 61
16583244 2006
Arginine, arginine analogs and nitric oxide production in chronic kidney disease. 61 54
16932427 2006
FGF-23 and sFRP-4 in chronic kidney disease and post-renal transplantation. 54 61
16691036 2006
Biomarkers in chronic kidney disease: utility and issues towards better understanding. 61 54
16205471 2005
[Early diagnosis of chronic kidney diseases]. 61 54
15742164 2005
Adiponectin in chronic kidney disease is related more to metabolic disturbances than to decline in renal function. 61 54
15585515 2005
Potential cardiovascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease: AGEs, total homocysteine and metabolites, and the C-reactive protein. 54 61
15200442 2004
[Biological activity of FGF-23 and pathophysiologic role in chronic kidney disease]. 61 54
15577039 2004
Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. 61 54
14730511 2004
Roles of oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy in chronic kidney disease and hypertension. 61 54
15090865 2004
Circulating concentration of FGF-23 increases as renal function declines in patients with chronic kidney disease, but does not change in response to variation in phosphate intake in healthy volunteers. 61 54
14633152 2003
Leptin, ghrelin, and proinflammatory cytokines: compounds with nutritional impact in chronic kidney disease? 61 54
14681862 2003
Urinary calprotectin, NGAL, and KIM-1 in the differentiation of primarily inflammatory vs. non-inflammatory stable chronic kidney diseases. 61
33663323 2021
The effect of hyperkalemia and long inter-dialytic interval on morbidity and mortality in patients receiving hemodialysis: a systematic review. 61
33478329 2021
Evaluation of cerebral dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease using neuropsychometric and neurophysiological tests. 61
33757399 2021
The association of echocardiographic parameters on renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease. 61
33682579 2021
Optimal timing of coronary angiograms for patients with chronic kidney disease: association between the duration of kidney dysfunction and SYNTAX scores. 61
33538236 2021
Chronic kidney disease correlates with MRI findings of cerebral small vessel disease. 61
33478332 2021
Specific alterations in gut microbiota in patients with chronic kidney disease: an updated systematic review. 61
33406960 2021
Association between atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases risk and renal outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 61
33685340 2021
Herbal antioxidants in dialysis patients: a review of potential mechanisms and medical implications. 61
33593237 2021
MicroRNA-21-containing microvesicles from tubular epithelial cells promote cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. 61
33632070 2021
Elevated circulating growth differentiation factor 15 is related to decreased heart rate variability in chronic kidney disease patients. 61
33567936 2021
Survival outcomes and adverse events in patients with chronic kidney disease after coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis of propensity score-matching studies. 61
33781160 2021
Analysis of structural components of decellularized scaffolds in renal fibrosis. 61
33511316 2021
Associations of serum bisphenol A levels with incident chronic kidney disease risk. 61
33545483 2021
Effects of diuretics furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide on CKD-MBD: A prospective randomized study. 61
33490315 2021
Increased lipoxygenase and decreased cytochrome P450s metabolites correlated with the incidence of diabetic nephropathy: Potential role of eicosanoids from metabolomics in type 2 diabetic patients. 61
33605471 2021
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 inhibition reverses deleterious indoxyl sulfate-mediated endothelial effects. 61
33631173 2021
Curcumin analogue C66 attenuates obesity-induced renal injury by inhibiting chronic inflammation. 61
33761621 2021

Variations for Chronic Kidney Disease

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Chronic Kidney Disease:

6 (show top 50) (show all 54)
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 GATA3 NM_001002295.2(GATA3):c.1051-1G>C SNV Pathogenic 430696 rs112417755 GRCh37: 10:8115701-8115701
GRCh38: 10:8073738-8073738
2 PKD1 NM_001009944.3(PKD1):c.2079dup (p.Pro694fs) Duplication Pathogenic 374141 rs1057518923 GRCh37: 16:2165396-2165397
GRCh38: 16:2115395-2115396
3 COL4A4 NM_000092.5(COL4A4):c.4603_4604del (p.Gln1535fs) Deletion Pathogenic 915852 GRCh37: 2:227872939-227872940
GRCh38: 2:227008223-227008224
4 COL4A5 NM_033380.3(COL4A5):c.3614G>T (p.Gly1205Val) SNV Pathogenic 523547 rs1556446493 GRCh37: X:107911558-107911558
GRCh38: X:108668328-108668328
5 MKS1 NM_001165927.1(MKS1):c.1085_1087del (p.Ser362del) Deletion Pathogenic 217677 rs754279998 GRCh37: 17:56285514-56285516
GRCh38: 17:58208153-58208155
6 PKD2 NM_000297.4(PKD2):c.357_364delinsTAGGACG (p.Pro120fs) Indel Pathogenic 373955 rs1057518797 GRCh37: 4:88929242-88929249
GRCh38: 4:88008090-88008097
7 COL4A4 NM_000092.5(COL4A4):c.2906C>G SNV Pathogenic 449549 rs35138315 GRCh37: 2:227917083-227917083
GRCh38: 2:227052367-227052367
8 COL4A4 NM_000092.5(COL4A4):c.2164+2T>G SNV Likely pathogenic 977307 GRCh37: 2:227924850-227924850
GRCh38: 2:227060134-227060134
9 NPHS2 NM_014625.3(NPHS2):c.413G>A (p.Arg138Gln) SNV Likely pathogenic 5360 rs74315342 GRCh37: 1:179530462-179530462
GRCh38: 1:179561327-179561327
10 NPHS2 , AXDND1 NM_144696.6(AXDND1):c.3032-1891_3032-1890del Deletion Likely pathogenic 188823 rs749740335 GRCh37: 1:179521755-179521756
GRCh38: 1:179552620-179552621
11 CFH NM_000186.4(CFH):c.2517C>A SNV Likely pathogenic 591005 rs1362306576 GRCh37: 1:196706057-196706057
GRCh38: 1:196736927-196736927
12 ALMS1 NM_015120.4(ALMS1):c.1735del (p.Arg579fs) Deletion Likely pathogenic 374506 rs777476179 GRCh37: 2:73675386-73675386
GRCh38: 2:73448259-73448259
13 SLC13A5 NM_177550.4(SLC13A5):c.231+2T>G SNV Likely pathogenic 183313 rs730882222 GRCh37: 17:6610345-6610345
GRCh38: 17:6707026-6707026
14 FN1 NM_212482.3(FN1):c.1070G>A (p.Gly357Glu) SNV Uncertain significance 791471 rs140926439 GRCh37: 2:216289015-216289015
GRCh38: 2:215424292-215424292
15 UMOD NM_003361.4(UMOD):c.1243C>T (p.Arg415Cys) SNV Uncertain significance 884577 GRCh37: 16:20355434-20355434
GRCh38: 16:20344112-20344112
16 FN1 NM_212482.3(FN1):c.1775G>A (p.Arg592His) SNV Uncertain significance 790514 rs147831535 GRCh37: 2:216284009-216284009
GRCh38: 2:215419286-215419286
17 EHHADH NM_001966.4(EHHADH):c.2108C>T (p.Ser703Phe) SNV Uncertain significance 774610 rs55752621 GRCh37: 3:184910078-184910078
GRCh38: 3:185192290-185192290
18 DSTYK NM_015375.3(DSTYK):c.2776G>T (p.Asp926Tyr) SNV Uncertain significance 915849 GRCh37: 1:205116700-205116700
GRCh38: 1:205147572-205147572
19 FN1 NM_212482.4(FN1):c.3130G>A (p.Val1044Met) SNV Uncertain significance 915850 GRCh37: 2:216269235-216269235
GRCh38: 2:215404512-215404512
20 APOA1-AS , APOA1 NM_000039.2(APOA1):c.388_390AAG[1] (p.Lys131del) Microsatellite Uncertain significance 636899 rs532489785 GRCh37: 11:116706935-116706937
GRCh38: 11:116836219-116836221
21 TBX18 NM_001080508.3(TBX18):c.574G>T (p.Val192Leu) SNV Uncertain significance 915854 GRCh37: 6:85469998-85469998
GRCh38: 6:84760280-84760280
22 ANLN NM_018685.5(ANLN):c.575C>G (p.Ser192Trp) SNV Uncertain significance 915855 GRCh37: 7:36445877-36445877
GRCh38: 7:36406268-36406268
23 EHHADH NC_000003.12:g.185204731_185204732AG[1] Microsatellite Uncertain significance 915857 GRCh37: 3:184922519-184922520
GRCh38: 3:185204731-185204732
24 FN1 NM_212482.3(FN1):c.5954C>A (p.Pro1985His) SNV Uncertain significance 721814 rs148388245 GRCh37: 2:216240375-216240375
GRCh38: 2:215375652-215375652
25 APOA1 NM_000039.3(APOA1):c.625G>A (p.Gly209Ser) SNV Uncertain significance 915860 GRCh37: 11:116706703-116706703
GRCh38: 11:116835987-116835987
26 CFHR1 NM_002113.3(CFHR1):c.727C>G SNV Uncertain significance 915861 GRCh37: 1:196799749-196799749
GRCh38: 1:196830619-196830619
27 FN1 NM_212482.4(FN1):c.7408G>C (p.Ala2470Pro) SNV Uncertain significance 915862 GRCh37: 2:216226304-216226304
GRCh38: 2:215361581-215361581
28 ARHGDIA NM_004309.6(ARHGDIA):c.*243G>A SNV Uncertain significance 915863 GRCh37: 17:79826509-79826509
GRCh38: 17:81868633-81868633
29 PKD1 NM_001009944.3(PKD1):c.12460C>T (p.Arg4154Cys) SNV Uncertain significance 803159 rs115538130 GRCh37: 16:2140180-2140180
GRCh38: 16:2090179-2090179
30 COL4A1 NM_001845.6(COL4A1):c.161C>T (p.Pro54Leu) SNV Uncertain significance 196327 rs34004222 GRCh37: 13:110866346-110866346
GRCh38: 13:110213999-110213999
31 FREM1 NM_144966.5(FREM1):c.1640C>G (p.Ala547Gly) SNV Uncertain significance 366157 rs201056172 GRCh37: 9:14842412-14842412
GRCh38: 9:14842414-14842414
32 MFF-DT , COL4A3 NM_000091.5(COL4A3):c.1886C>T SNV Uncertain significance 452348 rs139361545 GRCh37: 2:228137792-228137792
GRCh38: 2:227273076-227273076
33 ZNF423 NM_001271620.2(ZNF423):c.2071C>T (p.Arg691Cys) SNV Uncertain significance 645949 rs757246232 GRCh37: 16:49670812-49670812
GRCh38: 16:49636901-49636901
34 COL4A4 NM_000092.4(COL4A4):c.3055G>C (p.Glu1019Gln) SNV Uncertain significance 374041 rs1057518854 GRCh37: 2:227915788-227915788
GRCh38: 2:227051072-227051072
35 COL4A4 NM_000092.4(COL4A4):c.4217-15T>C SNV Uncertain significance 255039 rs200926310 GRCh37: 2:227877028-227877028
GRCh38: 2:227012312-227012312
36 CEL NM_001807.5(CEL):c.1966G>C (p.Ala656Pro) SNV Uncertain significance 128688 rs587780309 GRCh37: 9:135946855-135946855
GRCh38: 9:133071468-133071468
37 SLC9A3R1 NM_004252.5(SLC9A3R1):c.458G>A (p.Arg153Gln) SNV Uncertain significance 5271 rs41282065 GRCh37: 17:72758167-72758167
GRCh38: 17:74762028-74762028
38 CFHR5 NM_030787.3(CFHR5):c.622T>C (p.Cys208Arg) SNV Uncertain significance 279752 rs41299613 GRCh37: 1:196964861-196964861
GRCh38: 1:196995731-196995731
39 ETFB NM_001985.3(ETFB):c.292C>T (p.Arg98Cys) SNV Uncertain significance 203697 rs147353781 GRCh37: 19:51856469-51856469
GRCh38: 19:51353215-51353215
40 WT1 , LOC107982234 NM_024426.6(WT1):c.576G>T (p.Gln192His) SNV Uncertain significance 915856 GRCh37: 11:32456331-32456331
GRCh38: 11:32434785-32434785
41 CFHR1 NM_002113.3(CFHR1):c.790+1G>A SNV Uncertain significance 915864 GRCh37: 1:196799813-196799813
GRCh38: 1:196830683-196830683
42 CFHR1 NM_002113.3(CFHR1):c.911A>G SNV Uncertain significance 915865 GRCh37: 1:196801047-196801047
GRCh38: 1:196831917-196831917
43 GANAB NM_198334.3(GANAB):c.925C>T (p.Arg309Cys) SNV Uncertain significance 716421 rs1063445 GRCh37: 11:62400108-62400108
GRCh38: 11:62632636-62632636
44 ACTN4 NM_004924.6(ACTN4):c.928C>T (p.Arg310Trp) SNV Uncertain significance 915866 GRCh37: 19:39207741-39207741
GRCh38: 19:38717101-38717101
45 SOX17 NC_000008.11:g.54459704_54459709GCACCA[5] Microsatellite Uncertain significance 915867 GRCh37: 8:55372258-55372259
GRCh38: 8:54459698-54459699
46 PKD1 NM_001009944.3(PKD1):c.9898G>A (p.Gly3300Arg) SNV Uncertain significance 427112 rs777024498 GRCh37: 16:2149887-2149887
GRCh38: 16:2099886-2099886
47 CFHR5 NM_030787.4(CFHR5):c.486dup (p.Glu163fs) Duplication Uncertain significance 402534 rs565457964 GRCh37: 1:196963258-196963259
GRCh38: 1:196994128-196994129
48 FN1 NM_212482.3(FN1):c.4486C>T (p.Arg1496Trp) SNV Uncertain significance 779411 rs139078629 GRCh37: 2:216251538-216251538
GRCh38: 2:215386815-215386815
49 MFF-DT , COL4A3 NM_000091.5(COL4A3):c.4700T>G (p.Ile1567Ser) SNV Uncertain significance 829912 rs371452712 GRCh37: 2:228173979-228173979
GRCh38: 2:227309263-227309263
50 PASK NM_015148.4(PASK):c.3533+1G>A SNV Uncertain significance 252572 rs140030739 GRCh37: 2:242051654-242051654
GRCh38: 2:241112239-241112239

Expression for Chronic Kidney Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Chronic Kidney Disease.

Pathways for Chronic Kidney Disease

Pathways related to Chronic Kidney Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.67 NPHS2 COL4A5 COL4A4

GO Terms for Chronic Kidney Disease

Cellular components related to Chronic Kidney Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.96 UMOD FGF23 EPO CRP COL4A5 COL4A4
2 basolateral plasma membrane GO:0016323 9.73 UMOD PKD2 PKD1 CASR
3 cilium GO:0005929 9.72 UMOD PKD2 PKD1 MKS1 ALMS1
4 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.55 FGF23 COL4A5 COL4A4 APOA1 ALB
5 ciliary membrane GO:0060170 9.54 UMOD PKD2 PKD1
6 cation channel complex GO:0034703 9.46 PKD2 PKD1
7 collagen type IV trimer GO:0005587 9.4 COL4A5 COL4A4
8 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.32 UMOD FGF23 EPO CRP COL4A5 COL4A4
9 polycystin complex GO:0002133 8.96 PKD2 PKD1

Biological processes related to Chronic Kidney Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.89 PKD2 GATA3 FGF23 CRP CASR
2 response to estrogen GO:0043627 9.61 GATA3 EPO APOA1
3 cellular response to vitamin D GO:0071305 9.55 FGF23 CASR
4 protein heterotetramerization GO:0051290 9.54 PKD2 PKD1
5 placenta blood vessel development GO:0060674 9.52 PKD2 PKD1
6 detection of mechanical stimulus GO:0050982 9.51 PKD2 PKD1
7 cytoplasmic sequestering of transcription factor GO:0042994 9.48 PKD2 PKD1
8 cellular phosphate ion homeostasis GO:0030643 9.46 UMOD FGF23
9 branching morphogenesis of an epithelial tube GO:0048754 9.43 PKD1 MKS1 CASR
10 phosphate ion homeostasis GO:0055062 9.4 UMOD FGF23
11 mesonephric tubule development GO:0072164 9.37 PKD2 PKD1
12 kidney development GO:0001822 9.35 UMOD PKD2 PKD1 GATA3 ACE
13 mesonephric duct development GO:0072177 9.32 PKD2 PKD1
14 cell-cell signaling by wnt GO:0198738 9.16 PKD2 PKD1
15 metanephric ascending thin limb development GO:0072218 8.8 UMOD PKD2 PKD1

Sources for Chronic Kidney Disease

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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