MCID: CTS003
MIFTS: 53

Coats Disease

Categories: Blood diseases, Cardiovascular diseases, Eye diseases, Fetal diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Coats Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Coats Disease:

Name: Coats Disease 57 11 19 58 75 53 14
Exudative Retinopathy 11 28 5 71 33
Retinal Telangiectasis 57 19 43 33
Leber Miliary Aneurysm 19 58
Coats' Disease 11 75
Congenital Retinal Telangiectasia 58
Coats' Syndrome 11

Characteristics:


Prevelance:

<1/1000000 (United Kingdom) 58

Age Of Onset:

Childhood 58

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare neurological diseases
Rare eye diseases
Developmental anomalies during embryogenesis


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:7765
OMIM® 57 300216
ICD9CM 34 362.12
MeSH 43 D058456
SNOMED-CT 68 193359003
MESH via Orphanet 44 D058456
ICD10 via Orphanet 32 H35.0
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0154832
Orphanet 58 ORPHA190
MedGen 40 C0154832
UMLS 71 C0154832

Summaries for Coats Disease

GARD: 19 Coats disease is an eye disorder characterized by abnormal development of the blood vessels in the retina (retinal telangiectasia). Most people begin showing symptoms in childhood. Early signs and symptoms vary but may include vision loss, "crossed eyes" (strabismus), and a white mass in the pupil behind the lens of the eye (leukocoria). Over time, Coats disease may also lead to retinal detachment, glaucoma, and clouding of the lens of the eye (cataracts). In most cases, only one eye is affected. Coats disease is not inherited and the underlying cause is not known. It has been theorized that some cases may be due to somatic genetic changes (acquired, not inherited) in the NDP gene.

MalaCards based summary: Coats Disease, also known as exudative retinopathy, is related to revesz syndrome and dyskeratosis congenita autosomal recessive. An important gene associated with Coats Disease is FZD4 (Frizzled Class Receptor 4), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Chromosome Maintenance and Clear cell renal cell carcinoma pathways. The drugs Bevacizumab and Angiogenesis Inhibitors have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, retina and endothelial, and related phenotypes are strabismus and abnormal retinal vascular morphology

Orphanet: 58 Coats disease (CD) is an idiopathic disorder characterized by retinal telangiectasia with deposition of intraretinal or subretinal exudates, potentially leading to retinal detachment and unilateral blindness. CD is classically an isolated and unilateral condition affecting otherwise healthy young children.

Wikipedia: 75 Coats' disease is a rare congenital, nonhereditary eye disorder, causing full or partial blindness,... more...

More information from OMIM: 300216

Related Diseases for Coats Disease

Diseases related to Coats Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 213)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 revesz syndrome 32.8 WRAP53 TINF2 NOP10 NHP2 DKC1 CTC1
2 dyskeratosis congenita autosomal recessive 32.1 WRAP53 NOP10 NHP2
3 telangiectasis 31.6 VEGFA NDP CTD
4 retinal detachment 31.5 ZNF408 VEGFA TSPAN12 RHO NDP FZD4
5 macular retinal edema 31.3 VEGFA RHO KDR
6 leukocoria 31.1 ZNF408 TSPAN12 NDP FZD4
7 retinal vascular disease 30.9 ZNF408 VEGFA TSPAN12 RHO NDP KDR
8 vitreoretinopathy 30.8 ZNF408 VEGFA TSPAN12 NDP FZD4
9 macular dystrophy, dominant cystoid 30.4 VEGFA RHO
10 exudative vitreoretinopathy 30.3 ZNF408 VEGFA TSPAN12 RCBTB1 PRSS23 NDP
11 microvascular complications of diabetes 5 30.3 VEGFA RHO KDR
12 norrie disease 30.3 ZNF408 VEGFA TSPAN12 RCBTB1 PRSS23 NDP
13 exudative vitreoretinopathy 1 30.3 ZNF408 VEGFA TSPAN12 RHO PRSS23 NDP
14 retinal vascular occlusion 30.2 VEGFA RHO KDR
15 persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous 30.2 ZNF408 VEGFA TSPAN12 NDP FZD4
16 retinal ischemia 30.2 VEGFA RHO KDR
17 chorioretinal scar 30.2 VEGFA RHO
18 retinal perforation 30.2 VEGFA RHO
19 retinitis pigmentosa 30.2 ZNF408 VEGFA TSPAN12 RHO RCBTB1 NDP
20 peripheral retinal degeneration 30.2 ZNF408 TSPAN12 RHO
21 retinal telangiectasia 30.0 ZNF408 WRAP53 VEGFA TSPAN12 TINF2 RCBTB1
22 fundus dystrophy 30.0 ZNF408 VEGFA TSPAN12 RHO RCBTB1 PRSS23
23 eye disease 29.9 VEGFA TSPAN12 RHO NDP KDR FZD4
24 aplastic anemia 29.8 WRAP53 TINF2 NOP10 NHP2 DKC1
25 dyskeratosis congenita 29.8 WRAP53 TINF2 NOP10 NHP2 DKC1 CTC1
26 cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts 1 11.3
27 idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 3 11.2
28 idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 1 11.2
29 pediatric-onset glaucoma of genetic origin 11.0
30 retinoblastoma 10.6
31 neovascular glaucoma 10.5
32 strabismus 10.4
33 microcephaly with spastic quadriplegia 10.4 RNF14 PCDH12
34 conjunctival vascular disease 10.4 VEGFA KDR
35 diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia 10.4 RNF14 PCDH12
36 diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia syndrome 1 10.4 RNF14 PCDH12
37 blind hypotensive eye 10.4
38 pineocytoma 10.4 RHO ENO2
39 angiokeratoma circumscriptum 10.4 VEGFA KDR
40 carcinoid syndrome 10.3 VEGFA ENO2
41 breast leiomyosarcoma 10.3 VEGFA ENO2
42 large cell carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype 10.3 VEGFA ENO2
43 retinitis 10.3
44 degeneration of macula and posterior pole 10.3 VEGFA RHO KDR
45 congenital granular cell tumor 10.3 VEGFA ENO2
46 vitreoretinal dystrophy 10.3 ZNF408 TSPAN12
47 cardiovascular organ benign neoplasm 10.3 VEGFA KDR ENO2
48 merkel cell carcinoma 10.3 VEGFA KDR ENO2
49 vitreous disease 10.3 VEGFA RHO NDP FZD4
50 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 1 10.3 NOP10 NHP2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Coats Disease:



Diseases related to Coats Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Coats Disease

Human phenotypes related to Coats Disease:

58 30 (show all 11)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 strabismus 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0000486
2 abnormal retinal vascular morphology 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0008046
3 glaucoma 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0000501
4 retinal detachment 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0000541
5 abnormal macular morphology 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0001103
6 cataract 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0000518
7 aplasia/hypoplasia of the iris 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0008053
8 abnormal anterior chamber morphology 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0000593
9 leukocoria 30 HP:0000555
10 retinal telangiectasia 30 HP:0007763
11 exudative retinal detachment 30 HP:0012231

Clinical features from OMIM®:

300216 (Updated 08-Dec-2022)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Coats Disease:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.23 CTC1 DKC1 FZD4 KDR NDP RHO

Drugs & Therapeutics for Coats Disease

Drugs for Coats Disease (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 28)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Bevacizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 3 216974-75-3 135329020
2 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 3
3 Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological Phase 3
4 Endothelial Growth Factors Phase 3
5 Mitogens Phase 3
6
Ranibizumab Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 347396-82-1
7 Anecortave Investigational Phase 2 10184-70-0
8
Aflibercept Approved 862111-32-8 124490314
9
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Early Phase 1 302-25-0
10
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Early Phase 1 1177-87-3 3680
11
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Early Phase 1 50-02-2 3003 5743
12
Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Early Phase 1 52-21-1
13
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Early Phase 1 50-24-8 4894 5755
14
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Early Phase 1 2921-57-5 1875
15
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Early Phase 1 83-43-2 4159 6741
16
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Early Phase 1 2920-86-7 4897
17 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Early Phase 1
18 Neuroprotective Agents Early Phase 1
19 Hormones Early Phase 1
20 Hormone Antagonists Early Phase 1
21 Antiemetics Early Phase 1
22 Anesthetics Early Phase 1
23 glucocorticoids Early Phase 1
24 BB 1101 Early Phase 1
25 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Early Phase 1
26
Methylprednisolone Acetate Early Phase 1 584547
27 Gastrointestinal Agents Early Phase 1
28 Protective Agents Early Phase 1

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial on the Interest of Intravitreal Injections of Anti-VEGF as Initial and Adjuvant Treatment in Coats Disease Recruiting NCT03940690 Phase 3 Anti-VEGF injections of bevacizumab
2 Treatment of Exudative and Vasogenic Chorioretinal Diseases Including Variants of AMD and Other CNV Related Maculopathy With Intravitreal Injection of Lucentis (Ranibizumab Injection) Completed NCT00470977 Phase 1, Phase 2 ranibizumab injection (0.5 mg)
3 A Phase 2, Open-label, Multi-centre Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Intravitreal THR-317 for the Treatment of Macular Telangiectasia Type 1 (MacTel 1) Completed NCT03669393 Phase 2 THR-317 8mg
4 Ranibizumab in Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia, Type 2. A Prospective Interventional Non-randomized Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Intravitreal Ranibizumab in Type 2 Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia. Completed NCT00504400 Phase 2 Intravitreal injection ranibizumab
5 Treatment of Congenital Telangiectasia (Coat's Disease) With Open-label Anecortave Acetate (15mg.) Completed NCT00211315 Phase 2 anecortave acetate
6 Treatment of Macular Edema Caused by Leber's Miliary Aneurysms Using Intravitreal Aflibercept and Peripheral Laser Photocoagulation Unknown status NCT03908723
7 Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings After Intravitreal Ranibizumab in Patients With Coats Disease Completed NCT04310631 Ranibizumab Injection
8 Coats Plus Syndrome and LCC Syndrome: Series of 10 Pediatric Cases. Review of Literature and Natural History Completed NCT04089995
9 The Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Sustained Release Dexamethasone Intracanalicular Insert (DEXTENZA) in Pediatric Patients Following Retinal Surgery or Laser Treatment Under Anesthesia. (TENDER) Not yet recruiting NCT05620901 Early Phase 1 Dextenza 0.4Mg Ophthalmic Insert;Pred Forte

Search NIH Clinical Center for Coats Disease

Cochrane evidence based reviews: retinal telangiectasis

Genetic Tests for Coats Disease

Genetic tests related to Coats Disease:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Exudative Retinopathy 28

Anatomical Context for Coats Disease

Organs/tissues related to Coats Disease:

MalaCards : Eye, Retina, Endothelial, Bone Marrow, Bone, Brain

Publications for Coats Disease

Articles related to Coats Disease:

(show top 50) (show all 837)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Coats' disease of the retina (unilateral retinal telangiectasis) caused by somatic mutation in the NDP gene: a role for norrin in retinal angiogenesis. 53 62 57
10484772 1999
2
Homozygous PCDH12 variants result in phenotype of cerebellar ataxia, dystonia, retinopathy, and dysmorphism. 62 5
30459466 2019
3
Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in eyes with Coats' disease. 62 57
23221067 2013
4
Neovascular glaucoma from advanced Coats disease as the initial manifestation of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy in a 2-year-old child. 62 57
17563001 2007
5
Coats' disease diagnosed in adulthood. 62 57
15882905 2005
6
Immunopathologic features of inflammatory coats disease. 62 57
15710836 2005
7
Review: coats disease: the 2001 LuEsther T. Mertz lecture. 62 57
11884883 2002
8
Fetal loss in homozygous mutant Norrie disease mice: a new role of Norrin in reproduction. 53 62
16035034 2005
9
Advanced Coats' disease. 53 62
1808814 1991
10
Clinicopathological Correlations in Enucleated Globes of Late-Stage Coats Disease with a Review of the Literature. 62
36175755 2022
11
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) in a child with novel microarray-defined deletion of 11q14 previously diagnosed as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). 62
36444989 2022
12
Neovascular Glaucoma in Children: A case series and a review of the literature. 62
35132889 2022
13
Subthreshold micropulse laser for adult onset Coats' associated exudative maculopathy. 62
33765847 2022
14
Longitudinal characterization and treatment response of retinal arterial macroaneurysms in adult-onset coats disease. 62
35859699 2022
15
Coats plus in prematurity. 62
35416114 2022
16
Coats disease in India: clinical presentation and outcome in 675 patients (690 Eyes). 62
35987971 2022
17
A Novel Approach to Subretinal Fluid Drainage in Coats'-Related Exudative Retinal Detachment. 62
35858234 2022
18
Coats Disease in 9 Patients: A Hispanic Case Series. 62
34911122 2022
19
TWO-YEAR RESULTS OF INTRAVITREAL INJECTIONS OF AFLIBERCEPT IN COATS DISEASE: A CASE REPORT. 62
32541440 2022
20
Coats Disease and Premature Telomere Shortening. 62
34928768 2022
21
Coats disease in adolescence and adulthood with preserved vision after laser photocoagulation monotherapy: two case reports. 62
35850730 2022
22
EVIDENCE AGAINST A CONTRALATERAL COATS PHENOTYPE BY OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY. 62
35213527 2022
23
Multimodal imaging of unusual macular macroaneurysm rupture after navigated retinal laser in a patient with adult onset Coats disease. 62
35282602 2022
24
Fovea-threatening and fovea-involving peripheral Coats disease: effects of posture and intervention. 62
35715849 2022
25
Genetic evaluation in phenotypically discordant monozygotic twins with Coats Disease. 62
35679086 2022
26
Neovascularization of the optic disc and peripheral retinal ischemia in a child with a novel variant in ALMS1 (Alström syndrome). 62
35355858 2022
27
The Masquerading Retinopathy of Revesz Syndrome. 62
35724369 2022
28
Pseudoretinoblastoma: Distribution based on gender, age, and laterality. 62
35570796 2022
29
Treatment of Advanced Coats' Disease With Combination Therapy of Laser Photocoagulation, Intravitreal Ranibizumab, and Sub-Tenon Methylprednisolone Acetate. 62
34928773 2022
30
Plentiful melanin pigment containing histiocyte-like cells in Coats disease: Awareness avoids diagnostic pitfall. 62
35158406 2022
31
Unilateral Xanthocoria and Retinal Vascular Anomalies in a 3-Year-Old Boy: Retinoblastoma or Coats Disease? 62
35603949 2022
32
Imaging Findings of Pediatric Orbital Masses and Tumor Mimics. 62
35245105 2022
33
Commentary: Advanced Coats' disease - Is it worth chasing the goal of globe salvage? 62
35502092 2022
34
Long-term follow-up of a case of Coats disease in a 10-year-old boy with spontaneous peeling of preretinal macular fibrosis: a case report. 62
35477388 2022
35
Wide-field Fundus Imaging and Fluorescein Angiography Findings in Various Pseudoretinoblastoma Conditions. 62
35446191 2022
36
Changing trends in pseudoretinoblastoma diagnoses: A 10 year review from the United Kingdom. 62
35484797 2022
37
Unilateral peripheral vascular retinal disease associated with a developmental arcade vessel anomaly in adult-onset Coats' disease. 62
35198825 2022
38
Dexamethasone intravitreal implant as an adjuvant treatment for pediatric patients with Coats' disease. 62
35417520 2022
39
Secondary vasoproliferative tumor in adult-onset Coats disease. 62
33798454 2022
40
Coats disease masquerading as acute posterior uveitis in a young adult. 62
34528375 2022
41
Coats' disease - Prognostic factors for globe and vision salvage in children, a long-term experience. 62
35086222 2022
42
Retinal arteriolar macroaneurysms with supravalvular pulmonic stenosis in the United Arab Emirates. 62
34519236 2022
43
EN BLOC RESECTION OF RETINAL VASOPROLIFERATIVE TUMOR USING 23G VITRECTOMY. A CASE REPORT. 62
35922148 2022
44
Etiology of white pupillary reflex in pediatric age group. 62
35531443 2022
45
Phenotype of Coats disease in females. 62
35141419 2022
46
Updating Understanding of Macular Microvascular Abnormalities and Their Correlations With the Characteristics and Progression of Macular Edema or Exudation in Coats' Disease. 62
35492340 2022
47
Clinical Study of Intravitreal Injection of Anti-VEGF Drugs Combined with Triamcinolone Acetonide in the Treatment of Coats Disease. 62
35756410 2022
48
Coats Plus syndrome: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in pediatric gastrointestinal hemorrhage. 62
35286046 2022
49
Coats disease in female population: A comparison of clinical presentation and outcomes. 62
35991629 2022
50
Novel compound heterozygous STN1 variants are associated with Coats Plus syndrome. 62
34110109 2021

Variations for Coats Disease

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Coats Disease:

5
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 RHO NM_000539.3(RHO):c.891C>G (p.Ser297Arg) SNV Pathogenic
523376 rs142285818 GRCh37: 3:129251570-129251570
GRCh38: 3:129532727-129532727
2 FZD4, PRSS23 NM_012193.4(FZD4):c.1282_1285del (p.Asp428fs) MICROSAT Pathogenic
224625 rs80358295 GRCh37: 11:86662513-86662516
GRCh38: 11:86951471-86951474
3 FZD4, PRSS23 NM_012193.4(FZD4):c.313A>G (p.Met105Val) SNV Pathogenic
224624 rs80358284 GRCh37: 11:86663485-86663485
GRCh38: 11:86952443-86952443
4 RCBTB1 NM_018191.4(RCBTB1):c.707del (p.Asn236fs) DEL Likely Pathogenic
224622 rs777630688 GRCh37: 13:50126318-50126318
GRCh38: 13:49552182-49552182
5 PCDH12, RNF14 NM_016580.4(PCDH12):c.2008G>T (p.Glu670Ter) SNV Likely Pathogenic
619128 rs531630376 GRCh37: 5:141335409-141335409
GRCh38: 5:141955844-141955844
6 RCBTB1 NM_018191.4(RCBTB1):c.1172+1G>A SNV Likely Pathogenic
224621 rs869312819 GRCh37: 13:50118872-50118872
GRCh38: 13:49544736-49544736
7 NDP-AS1, NDP NM_000266.4(NDP):c.-77A>G SNV Uncertain Significance
224623 rs869312820 GRCh37: X:43817968-43817968
GRCh38: X:43958722-43958722

Expression for Coats Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Coats Disease.

Pathways for Coats Disease

GO Terms for Coats Disease

Cellular components related to Coats Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 chromosome, telomeric region GO:0000781 10.01 WRAP53 TINF2 NHP2 CTC1
2 box H/ACA snoRNP complex GO:0031429 9.73 DKC1 NHP2 NOP10
3 Cajal body GO:0015030 9.72 WRAP53 NOP10 NHP2 DKC1
4 sno(s)RNA-containing ribonucleoprotein complex GO:0005732 9.67 NOP10 NHP2
5 box H/ACA telomerase RNP complex GO:0090661 9.63 DKC1 NHP2 NOP10
6 telomerase holoenzyme complex GO:0005697 9.56 WRAP53 NOP10 NHP2 DKC1
7 box H/ACA scaRNP complex GO:0072589 9.1 NOP10 NHP2 DKC1

Biological processes related to Coats Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 vasculogenesis GO:0001570 10 VEGFA KDR FZD4
2 telomere capping GO:0016233 9.85 TINF2 CTC1
3 positive regulation of establishment of protein localization to telomere GO:1904851 9.84 WRAP53 DKC1
4 vascular wound healing GO:0061042 9.8 VEGFA KDR
5 retina vasculature morphogenesis in camera-type eye GO:0061299 9.78 NDP FZD4
6 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 signaling pathway GO:0036324 9.76 KDR VEGFA
7 telomere maintenance via telomerase GO:0007004 9.76 WRAP53 NOP10 NHP2 DKC1
8 ribosome biogenesis GO:0042254 9.73 NOP10 NHP2 DKC1
9 positive regulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis by VEGF-activated vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0038033 9.73 KDR VEGFA
10 positive regulation of telomerase RNA localization to Cajal body GO:1904874 9.73 NOP10 NHP2 DKC1
11 scaRNA localization to Cajal body GO:0090666 9.71 DKC1 WRAP53
12 pseudouridine synthesis GO:0001522 9.69 NOP10 DKC1
13 extracellular matrix-cell signaling GO:0035426 9.67 NDP FZD4
14 Norrin signaling pathway GO:0110135 9.62 NDP FZD4
15 snRNA pseudouridine synthesis GO:0031120 9.43 NOP10 NHP2 DKC1
16 rRNA pseudouridine synthesis GO:0031118 9.1 NOP10 NHP2 DKC1

Molecular functions related to Coats Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 box H/ACA snoRNA binding GO:0034513 9.43 NOP10 NHP2 DKC1
2 telomerase RNA binding GO:0070034 9.23 WRAP53 NOP10 NHP2 DKC1

Sources for Coats Disease

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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