MCID: CCC002
MIFTS: 46

Coccidiosis

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Immune diseases, Infectious diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Coccidiosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Coccidiosis:

Name: Coccidiosis 12 44 15 17 72
Intestinal Coccidiosis 12
Enteric Coccidiosis 72

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2113
MeSH 44 D003048
NCIt 50 C34493
SNOMED-CT 68 62005008
UMLS 72 C0009187 C1299919

Summaries for Coccidiosis

Disease Ontology : 12 A parasitic protozoa infectious disease that occurs in the intestinal tract of animals and humans caused by Coccidia protozoa. Immunocompromised persons are at greater risk of developing the infection.

MalaCards based summary : Coccidiosis, also known as intestinal coccidiosis, is related to toxoplasmosis and intestinal disease. An important gene associated with Coccidiosis is CD40LG (CD40 Ligand), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Cytokine Signaling in Immune system. The drugs Fluconazole and Miconazole have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, testes and small intestine, and related phenotype is endocrine/exocrine gland.

Wikipedia : 75 Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract of animals caused by coccidian protozoa. The... more...

Related Diseases for Coccidiosis

Diseases related to Coccidiosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 269)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 toxoplasmosis 32.3 TNF IL4 IL10 IFNG CD40LG
2 intestinal disease 30.9 TNF IL2 IL10
3 allergic hypersensitivity disease 30.7 IL4 IL10 IFNG
4 bacterial infectious disease 30.6 TNF IL10 IFNG
5 gastroenteritis 30.6 TNF IL4 IL10
6 herpes zoster 30.6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
7 immune deficiency disease 30.3 IL4 IL2 IL10 CD40LG
8 gastrointestinal system disease 30.2 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG
9 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 30.2 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG CD4
10 leishmaniasis 30.1 TNF IL4 IL10 IFNG
11 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 29.9 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG CD4
12 parasitic protozoa infectious disease 29.2 TNF MT-CYB IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
13 malaria 28.9 TNF MT-CYB IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
14 cryptosporidiosis 11.6
15 sarcocystosis 11.5
16 coccidioidomycosis 11.5
17 cyclosporiasis 11.2
18 cystoisosporiasis 11.2
19 diarrhea 10.8
20 transient hypogammaglobulinemia 10.7 TNF IL10
21 metal allergy 10.7 CD8A CD4
22 punctate inner choroidopathy 10.7 TNF IL10
23 ventilation pneumonitis 10.7 TNF CD4
24 oral tuberculosis 10.7 TNF IL2
25 cephalosporin allergy 10.7 IL10 IFNG
26 variola major 10.6 IL2 IFNG
27 african tick-bite fever 10.6 IFNG CD40LG
28 fixed drug eruption 10.6 IL2 IFNG
29 polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia 10.6 CD8A CD4
30 multifocal choroiditis 10.6 TNF IL10
31 choroiditis 10.6 TNF IL10
32 virus associated hemophagocytic syndrome 10.6 IL4 IL2
33 staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome 10.6 TNF IFNG
34 streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome 10.6 TNF IL2
35 sporotrichosis 10.6 IL10 IFNG CD40LG
36 autoimmune myocarditis 10.5 TNF IFNG
37 berylliosis 10.5 IL2 IFNG
38 pneumonia 10.5 TNF IL10 CD40LG
39 autoimmune vasculitis 10.5 IL4 IL2
40 posterior scleritis 10.5 TNF MRAP
41 chronic active epstein-barr virus infection 10.5 IL2 IL10 IFNG
42 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis 10.5 IL10 IFNG CD40LG
43 chronic beryllium disease 10.5 TNF IFNG
44 juvenile ankylosing spondylitis 10.5 TNF MRAP
45 melkersson-rosenthal syndrome 10.5 TNF CD8A CD4
46 idiopathic neutropenia 10.5 TNF IL10 CD40LG
47 b-cell growth factor 10.5 IL4 IFNG
48 pustulosis of palm and sole 10.5 TNF MRAP
49 farmer's lung 10.5 TNF IL2
50 trichosporonosis 10.5 TNF IFNG

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Coccidiosis:



Diseases related to Coccidiosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Coccidiosis

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Coccidiosis:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.23 CD4 CD40LG CD8A IFNG IL10 IL2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Coccidiosis

Drugs for Coccidiosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 19)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Fluconazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 86386-73-4 3365
2
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 22916-47-8 4189
3 14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors Phase 4
4 Hormones Phase 4
5 Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors Phase 4
6 Antifungal Agents Phase 4
7 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4
8 Steroid Synthesis Inhibitors Phase 4
9 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
10 Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inhibitors Phase 4
11 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
12 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
13
Posaconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 171228-49-2 147912
14 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3
15 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3
16 Vaccines Phase 2
17 Immunologic Factors Phase 2
18 Nikkomycin Phase 1, Phase 2
19
Methotrexate Approved 1959-05-2, 59-05-2 126941

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 18)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial of Fluconazole as Early Empiric Treatment of Coccidioidomycosis Pneumonia (Valley Fever) in Adults Presenting With Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Endemic Areas (FLEET-Valley Fever) Terminated NCT02663674 Phase 4 Fluconazole
2 Safety, Sensitivity and Specificity of Spherule-derived Coccidioidin in Naive Adults, in Adults With a History of Pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis and in Adults With a History of Pulmonary Histoplasmosis Completed NCT00690092 Phase 3
3 A Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Two-Arm Study of Posaconazole vs Fluconazole in the Treatment of Coccidioidomycosis Completed NCT00423267 Phase 3 Posaconazole;Fluconazole
4 Bridging Safety & Immunogenicity Study of GSK Biologicals' Candidate Malaria Vaccine RTS,S/AS01E (0.5 mL Dose) to RTS,S/AS02D (0.5 mL Dose) Administered IM According to a 0, 1, 2-Month Schedule in Gabonese Children Aged 18 Months to 4 Years Completed NCT00307021 Phase 2
5 Parts A&B: Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine, Inactivated, Dried (TSI-GSD 200), A Phase 2 Study Completed NCT00584194 Phase 2
6 A Phase IIb Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Study of the Safety, Immunogenicity and Proof-of-concept of RTS,S/AS02D, a Candidate Malaria Vaccine, When Incorporated Into an Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Regimen That Includes DTPw/Hib in Infants Living in a Malaria-endemic Region. Completed NCT00289185 Phase 2
7 Safety and Immunogenicity of Live-Attenuated MP-12 Rift Valley Fever Vaccine in Humans, and Genetic Characterization of Virus Isolates Recovered From the Blood of Vaccinated Volunteers: A Phase II Study Completed NCT00415051 Phase 2
8 A Phase 2 Open Label Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine, Inactivated, Dried, TSI-GSD 200, Lot 7, Run 2, in Adult Subjects at Risk of Exposure to Rift Valley Fever Virus Recruiting NCT03609398 Phase 2
9 Long-Term Open-Label Primary Vaccination and Booster Dose Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine, Inactivated, Dried (TSI-GSD 200) in At-Risk Adults Enrolling by invitation NCT00869713 Phase 2
10 Phase I/II Evaluation of the Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Preliminary Effectiveness of Nikkomycin Z in the Treatment of Patients With Uncomplicated Coccidioides Pneumonia Terminated NCT00614666 Phase 1, Phase 2 nikkomycin Z
11 Sertraline in Addition to Standard of Care Treatment for Coccidioidomycosis Withdrawn NCT02908334 Phase 2 Sertraline
12 Risk of Coccidioidomycosis in Patients Receiving Anti-TNF and Other Biologic Agents for an Inflammatory Arthritis Completed NCT00796809
13 A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Fluconazole in the Prevention of Active Coccidioidomycosis and Other Systemic Fungal Infections in HIV-Infected Patients Living in the Coccidioidal Endemic Area Completed NCT00002325 Fluconazole
14 Late Outcomes of Rift Valley Fever in Kenya: Ijara Clinical Survey Completed NCT00287014
15 The Pathogenesis and Genetics of Disseminated or Refractory Coccidiodomycosis Recruiting NCT02190266
16 An Observational Study to Assess the Prevalence and Outcomes of Primary Pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis in Persons Aged > / = 14 Years Presenting With Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Endemic Areas (SAnds-PPC) Recruiting NCT03908632
17 Improving the Appearance of Skin and Hair in Patients Undergoing Valley Fever Treatment Active, not recruiting NCT03618992
18 Study of Patients With Parasitic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract Terminated NCT00001162

Search NIH Clinical Center for Coccidiosis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: coccidiosis

Genetic Tests for Coccidiosis

Anatomical Context for Coccidiosis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Coccidiosis:

41
Liver, Testes, Small Intestine, T Cells, Skin, Colon, Kidney

Publications for Coccidiosis

Articles related to Coccidiosis:

(show top 50) (show all 2359)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Oral antibody to interleukin-10 receptor 2, but not interleukin-10 receptor 1, as an effective Eimeria species immunotherapy in broiler chickens. 38
30880340 2019
2
Maduramicin inactivation of Akt impairs autophagic flux leading to accumulated autophagosomes-dependent apoptosis in skeletal myoblast cells. 38
31325628 2019
3
Differential immune response to Eimeria maxima infection in fast- and slow-growing broiler genotypes. 38
31230360 2019
4
Histoplasmosis and multicentric lymphoma in a Nubian goat. 38
31378198 2019
5
Morphological and molecular diagnosis of Eimeria sp. that caused fatality in a red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) in Korea. 38
30980896 2019
6
Bovine coccidiosis cases of beef and dairy cattle in Indonesia. 38
31303235 2019
7
Dietary Non-Drug Feed Additive as an Alternative for Antibiotic Growth Promoters for Broilers During a Necrotic Enteritis Challenge. 38
31412542 2019
8
Selection and characterization of a precocious line of Eimeria media. 38
31407118 2019
9
Efficacy of a commercial herbal formula in chicken experimental coccidiosis. 38
31300024 2019
10
Correction: Coccidiosis in sheep. 38
31320575 2019
11
Combined coccidiosis and iron injection for piglets. 38
31296713 2019
12
Eimeria tenella ROP kinase EtROP1 induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibits host cell apoptosis. 38
30941872 2019
13
Anticoccidial drugs of the livestock industry. 38
31152233 2019
14
The antibiotic robenidine exhibits guanabenz-like cytoprotective properties by a mechanism independent of protein phosphatase PP1:PPP1R51A. 38
31337709 2019
15
Effects of reducing growth rate via diet dilution on bone mineralization, performance and carcass yield of coccidia-infected broilers. 38
31347655 2019
16
Effect of different challenge models to induce necrotic enteritis on the growth performance and intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens. 38
30877749 2019
17
X-ray evaluation of intestinal dysmotility induced by Eimeria pragensis infection in C57BL/6 mice. 38
31118353 2019
18
Prediction of Transformation Products of Monensin by Electrochemistry Compared to Microsomal Assay and Hydrolysis. 38
31357593 2019
19
Competitive electrochemical immunosensor for maduramicin detection by multiple signal amplification strategy via hemin@Fe-MIL-88NH2/AuPt. 38
31382098 2019
20
Metabolic and tissular effects of artemisinin supplemented diets in broiler chicken. 38
31269339 2019
21
Prevalence of Eimeria Species in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Egypt and Variability in Structure of Eimeria cameli Oocysts. 38
31059381 2019
22
Gastric coccidiosis in Thoracocharax stellatus caused by Goussia guamaensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Amazon region. 38
30933363 2019
23
Comparison between a commercial blend of functional oils and monensin on the performance and microbiota of coccidiosis-challenged broilers. 38
31247639 2019
24
Impairment of the phosphotransfer network and performance in broiler chickens experimentally infected by Eimeria spp.: The role of the oxidative stress. 38
30654027 2019
25
Role of ArsEFG in Roxarsone and Nitarsone Detoxification and Resistance. 38
31059239 2019
26
Eimeria maxima-induced transcriptional changes in the cecal mucosa of broiler chickens. 38
31164143 2019
27
Interactions between dietary calcium and phosphorus level, and vitamin D source on bone mineralization, performance, and intestinal morphology of coccidia-infected broilers1. 38
31222321 2019
28
Effects of dietary amino acid density and feed allocation during the starter period on 41 days of age growth performance and processing characteristics of broiler chickens given coccidiosis vaccination at hatch1. 38
31162615 2019
29
The effects of coarse corn and refined functional carbohydrates on the live performance and cecal Salmonella prevalence in coccidiosis-vaccinated broilers1. 38
31180121 2019
30
A review of Eimeria antigen identification for the development of novel anticoccidial vaccines. 38
31065831 2019
31
Laboratory Growth and Genetic Manipulation of Eimeria tenella. 38
30811108 2019
32
Eimeria spp. in broiler rabbit: seasonal prevalence in the backyard farms of the State of Mexico. 38
31274182 2019
33
Anticoccidial and antioxidant effects of plants derived polyphenol in broilers exposed to induced coccidiosis. 38
30864034 2019
34
Epidemiological assessment of clinical poultry cases through the government veterinary hospital-based passive surveillance system in Bangladesh: a case study. 38
30565184 2019
35
Coccidiosis in sheep. 38
31048522 2019
36
A blend of fatty acids, organic acids, and phytochemicals induced changes in intestinal morphology and inflammatory gene expression in coccidiosis-vaccinated broiler chickens. 38
31064006 2019
37
Effects of pre-starter and starter diets varying in amino acid density given to broiler chickens that received coccidiosis vaccination at hatch1. 38
31064007 2019
38
Zinc source modulates intestinal inflammation and intestinal integrity of broiler chickens challenged with coccidia and Clostridium perfringens. 38
30668786 2019
39
The decrease of lasalocid residue in the edible tissues by silymarin supplementation of chicken diet. 38
30973080 2019
40
Intestinal injury caused by Eimeria spp. impairs the phosphotransfer network and gain weight in experimentally infected chicken chicks. 38
30815727 2019
41
Eimeria tenella: specific EtAMA1-binding peptides inhibit sporozoite entry into host cells. 38
31149727 2019
42
The influence of indigestible protein on the performance and meat quality of broilers vaccinated for coccidiosis. 38
30995312 2019
43
Differential gene response to coccidiosis in modern fast growing and slow growing broiler genotypes. 38
30981300 2019
44
Comparison of the host cells apoptosis induced by precocious strains and virulent strains of Eimeria tenella. 38
31329963 2019
45
Glycerol monolaurate in the diet of broiler chickens replacing conventional antimicrobials: Impact on health, performance and meat quality. 38
30735801 2019
46
Housefly larvae (Musca domestica) significantly accelerates degradation of monensin by altering the structure and abundance of the associated bacterial community. 38
30553153 2019
47
Effect of functional oils on the immune response of broilers challenged with Eimeria spp. 38
30955505 2019
48
The complete mitochondrial genome of Eimeria anseris from the wintering greater white-fronted goose in Shengjin Lake, China, and phylogenetic relationships among Eimeria species. 38
30778751 2019
49
Deciphering desirable immune responses from disease models with resistant and susceptible chickens. 38
30534980 2019
50
Assessing the prevalence and economic significance of coccidiosis individually and in combination with concurrent infections in Pakistani commercial poultry farms. 38
30476223 2019

Variations for Coccidiosis

Expression for Coccidiosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Coccidiosis.

Pathways for Coccidiosis

Pathways related to Coccidiosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 49)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.99 TNF LEAP2 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
2
Show member pathways
13.32 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG CD40LG
3
Show member pathways
13.24 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 CD40LG CD4
4
Show member pathways
12.8 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG ICOSLG
5
Show member pathways
12.58 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG CD4
6
Show member pathways
12.57 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG CD4
7
Show member pathways
12.53 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG ICOSLG
8 12.52 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG CD8A
9
Show member pathways
12.47 TNF IL4 IL2 IFNG
10
Show member pathways
12.4 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG CD8A
11
Show member pathways
12.36 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
12
Show member pathways
12.36 IL2 ICOSLG CD40LG CD4
13
Show member pathways
12.31 TNF IL4 IL2 IFNG
14
Show member pathways
12.27 TNF IL4 IL10 IFNG CD40LG
15
Show member pathways
12.25 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
16 12.11 ICOSLG CD8A CD40LG CD4
17
Show member pathways
12.06 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG CD4
18
Show member pathways
12.06 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG CD4
19 12 TNF IL4 IL2 IFNG
20
Show member pathways
11.99 IL4 IL2 IFNG CD8A CD4
21
Show member pathways
11.98 TNF IL4 IFNG
22 11.93 TNF IL4 IL10
23 11.89 TNF IL4 CD8A CD4
24 11.87 TNF IL10 IFNG
25 11.82 IL2 IL10 IFNG
26 11.77 IL4 IL2 IFNG
27
Show member pathways
11.77 TNF IL4 IL2 IFNG CD40LG
28 11.76 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG CD8A
29 11.73 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
30
Show member pathways
11.68 TNF IL2 IFNG CD40LG
31 11.67 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG CD8A CD4
32
Show member pathways
11.66 TNF IL2 IFNG CD8A
33 11.65 IL4 IL10 CD40LG
34 11.57 IL10 CD40LG CD4
35 11.55 TNF IL2 IFNG
36 11.55 TNF IL10 IFNG CD40LG
37 11.52 TNF IL4 IL10
38 11.51 TNF IL2 IFNG
39 11.49 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG CD4
40 11.4 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG CD8A
41 11.38 CD8A CD40LG CD4
42 11.37 TNF IL10 IFNG
43 11.34 IL4 IL2 IFNG CD40LG
44 11.3 TNF IL4 IFNG
45 11.23 IL2 IFNG CD4
46 11.23 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
47 11.22 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 CD40LG
48 10.99 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 CD40LG
49 10.56 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG CD4

GO Terms for Coccidiosis

Cellular components related to Coccidiosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.76 TNF LEAP2 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
2 external side of plasma membrane GO:0009897 9.02 TNF ICOSLG CD8A CD40LG CD4
3 T cell receptor complex GO:0042101 8.96 CD8A CD4

Biological processes related to Coccidiosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 25)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 adaptive immune response GO:0002250 9.88 IL2 IFNG ICOSLG CD4
2 regulation of immune response GO:0050776 9.84 IL4 ICOSLG CD8A CD40LG
3 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 9.8 TNF IL2 IFNG CD4
4 B cell differentiation GO:0030183 9.74 IL4 IL10 CD40LG
5 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.73 IL4 IL2 IFNG
6 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.72 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 CD4
7 positive regulation of T cell differentiation GO:0045582 9.62 IL4 IL2
8 positive regulation of kinase activity GO:0033674 9.62 IL2 CD4
9 regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation GO:0045589 9.61 IL2 IFNG
10 positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis GO:0051044 9.61 TNF IFNG
11 positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034116 9.6 TNF IL10
12 negative regulation of growth of symbiont in host GO:0044130 9.59 TNF IL10
13 positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes GO:0048304 9.58 IL4 IL2
14 endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:0072577 9.55 TNF IL10
15 positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process GO:0045348 9.52 IL4 IL10
16 negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response GO:0002740 9.51 TNF IL10
17 regulation of immunoglobulin secretion GO:0051023 9.48 TNF CD40LG
18 type 2 immune response GO:0042092 9.46 IL4 IL10
19 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.46 IL4 IL2 CD40LG CD4
20 regulation of isotype switching GO:0045191 9.43 IL4 IL10
21 receptor biosynthetic process GO:0032800 9.4 TNF IL10
22 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 9.37 TNF IFNG
23 positive regulation of vitamin D biosynthetic process GO:0060557 9.26 TNF IFNG
24 T cell activation GO:0042110 9.26 IL4 ICOSLG CD8A CD4
25 immune response GO:0006955 9.23 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG CD8A

Molecular functions related to Coccidiosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.1 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG CD40LG

Sources for Coccidiosis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 TGDB
71 Tocris
72 UMLS
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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