MCID: CLN044
MIFTS: 42

Colon Adenoma

Categories: Cancer diseases, Gastrointestinal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Colon Adenoma

MalaCards integrated aliases for Colon Adenoma:

Name: Colon Adenoma 12 15
Adenomatous Polyp of Colon 73

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050912
UMLS 73 C0850572

Summaries for Colon Adenoma

Disease Ontology : 12 A colonic benign neoplasm that has material basis in epithelial tissue with glandular origin.

MalaCards based summary : Colon Adenoma, also known as adenomatous polyp of colon, is related to colonic benign neoplasm and colorectal cancer. An important gene associated with Colon Adenoma is GSTT2 (Glutathione S-Transferase Theta 2 (Gene/Pseudogene)), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Endometrial cancer and Pathways in cancer. The drugs Simethicone and Adjuvants, Anesthesia have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include colon, testes and bone, and related phenotypes are Increased cell death HMECs cells and cellular

Related Diseases for Colon Adenoma

Diseases related to Colon Adenoma via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 46)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 colonic benign neoplasm 29.7 KRAS LGR5
2 colorectal cancer 11.5
3 polyposis syndrome, hereditary mixed, 1 11.0
4 polyposis syndrome, hereditary mixed, 2 11.0
5 familial adenomatous polyposis 3 11.0
6 familial adenomatous polyposis 4 11.0
7 adenoma 10.7
8 periampullary adenoma 10.5 APC KRAS
9 hyperplastic polyposis syndrome 10.5 APC KRAS
10 attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis 10.5 APC OGG1
11 mutyh-associated polyposis 10.4 APC KRAS
12 barrett's adenocarcinoma 10.2 GSTT2 KRAS OGG1
13 colorectal adenoma 10.2 APC KRAS VDR
14 adenocarcinoma 10.2
15 intestinal benign neoplasm 10.2 APC KRAS LGR5
16 lynch syndrome 10.0 APC KRAS OGG1
17 familial adenomatous polyposis 9.9
18 gastric cancer 9.7
19 colitis 9.7
20 ganglioneuroma 9.7
21 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent 9.6
22 polyposis, skin pigmentation, alopecia, and fingernail changes 9.6
23 retinoblastoma 9.6
24 chondrosarcoma 9.6
25 myasthenia gravis 9.6
26 insulin-like growth factor i 9.6
27 ulcerative colitis 9.6
28 colorectal adenocarcinoma 9.6
29 sarcoma 9.6
30 colon adenocarcinoma 9.6
31 pancreatitis 9.6
32 thyroiditis 9.6
33 appendicitis 9.6
34 duodenitis 9.6
35 myeloid sarcoma 9.6
36 autoimmune pancreatitis 9.6
37 autoimmune retinopathy 9.6
38 familial colorectal cancer 9.6
39 malakoplakia 9.6
40 myasthenia gravis congenital 9.6
41 adenosquamous pancreas carcinoma 9.6 HIF1A KRAS
42 lung adenoid cystic carcinoma 9.5 FBXW7 KRAS
43 adamantinoma of long bones 9.2 APC CASP3 HIF1A KRAS
44 gastric adenocarcinoma 9.2 APC CASP3 HIF1A KRAS
45 lung cancer susceptibility 3 8.9 APC CASP3 HIF1A KRAS OGG1
46 wilms tumor 1 8.8 CASP3 FBXW7 KRAS

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Colon Adenoma:



Diseases related to Colon Adenoma

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Colon Adenoma

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Colon Adenoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased cell death HMECs cells GR00103-A-0 9.02 CASP3 FBXW7 GSTT2 HIF1A VDR

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Colon Adenoma:

46 (show all 12)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 10.1 HIF1A CASP3 FBXW7 APC LGR5 OGG1
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.06 HIF1A CASP3 KLK6 FBXW7 APC LGR5
3 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.05 APC HIF1A CASP3 CTBP1 FBXW7 VDR
4 craniofacial MP:0005382 10.02 CASP3 KRAS FBXW7 APC HIF1A VDR
5 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10 HIF1A CASP3 KRAS FBXW7 APC VDR
6 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.98 HIF1A CASP3 FBXW7 APC LGR5 VDR
7 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.97 APC HIF1A CASP3 CTBP1 FBXW7 LGR5
8 integument MP:0010771 9.91 HIF1A CASP3 KRAS FBXW7 APC LGR5
9 muscle MP:0005369 9.73 HIF1A CASP3 CTBP1 APC VDR KRAS
10 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.63 HIF1A KRAS FBXW7 APC OGG1 LGR5
11 nervous system MP:0003631 9.61 HIF1A CASP3 KLK6 CTBP1 KRAS FBXW7
12 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.1 HIF1A CASP3 APC LGR5 VDR KRAS

Drugs & Therapeutics for Colon Adenoma

Drugs for Colon Adenoma (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 97)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Simethicone Approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 8050-81-5
2 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 4
3 Anesthetics Phase 4
4 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
5 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
6 Bromides Phase 4
7 Butylscopolammonium Bromide Phase 4
8 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
9 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4
10 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 4
11 Mydriatics Phase 4
12 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
13 Parasympatholytics Phase 4
14 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
15 Scopolamine hydrobromide Phase 4 114-49-8
16 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
17 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4,Not Applicable
18 Emollients Phase 4,Not Applicable
19 Cola Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
20
Bisacodyl Approved Phase 3 603-50-9
21
Magnesium citrate Approved Phase 3 3344-18-1
22
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-78-2 2244
23
Sulindac Approved, Investigational Phase 3 38194-50-2 5352 1548887
24
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 3 169590-42-5 2662
25
Vitamin C Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3,Not Applicable 50-81-7 5785 54670067
26
Citric Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 77-92-9 311
27
Ergocalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 50-14-6 5280793
28
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 1406-16-2
29
Vitamin D3 Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 67-97-0 6221 5280795
30
Ornithine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 70-26-8, 3184-13-2 6262
31 Antioxidants Phase 3,Not Applicable
32 Micronutrients Phase 3,Not Applicable
33 Protective Agents Phase 3,Not Applicable
34 Trace Elements Phase 3,Not Applicable
35 Vitamins Phase 3,Not Applicable
36 Nonoxynol Phase 2, Phase 3
37 Cathartics Phase 3,Not Applicable
38 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 3,Phase 1
39 Laxatives Phase 3,Not Applicable
40 Picosulfate sodium Phase 3
41 Anticoagulants Phase 3
42 Calcium, Dietary Phase 3,Phase 1
43 Chelating Agents Phase 3
44 Liver Extracts Phase 2, Phase 3
45 Bone Density Conservation Agents Phase 3,Phase 1
46 Ergocalciferols Phase 3
47 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 3,Not Applicable
48 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 3,Not Applicable
49 Analgesics Phase 3,Not Applicable
50 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 3,Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 85)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Does the Hyoscine N-Butylbromide Administered During Colonoscopy Increase the Adenoma Detection Rate? Unknown status NCT01609855 Phase 4 Hyoscine Butyl Bromide 20mg/2 ml i.v.;Saline 2 ml i.v.
2 Effect of Simethicone on Screening Colonoscopy Recruiting NCT03119168 Phase 4 Simethicone Solution
3 Evaluation of Colonoscopy With a Specific Device for the Detection of Adenomas Recruiting NCT03436004 Phase 4
4 Evaluation of Computer-assisted, Non-cathartic CT Colonography Completed NCT01200303 Phase 2, Phase 3
5 Comparison of Low Volume PEG-Asc and Lower Volume PEG-Asc With Bisacodyl Completed NCT02980562 Phase 3 Polyethylene Glycols;Bisacodyl
6 A Randomized Prospective Trial Comparing Low-volume Bowel Preparation Methods Completed NCT02250196 Phase 3 PEG-Asc;SPMC 2
7 A Randomized Prospective Trial Comparing Polyethylene Glycol and Sodium Picosulphate With Magnesium Citrate Completed NCT01778192 Phase 3 Polyethylene glycol;Polyethylene glycol;Sodium picosulphate with magnesium citrate;Sodium picosulphate with magnesium citrate
8 Long-term Follow-up Study Designed to Evaluate the Relative Risk of Two Colonoscopy Schedules for Patients With Small Polyps Completed NCT00032344 Phase 3
9 Effect of 2 Doses of EPA on Apoptosis and Cell Proliferation on Colon Mucosa Completed NCT00432913 Phase 2, Phase 3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)
10 Clinical Trial of Vitamin D3 to Reduce Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women Completed NCT01052051 Phase 3
11 S0820, Adenoma and Second Primary Prevention Trial Recruiting NCT01349881 Phase 3 Eflornithine placebo & sulindac placebo;eflornithine & sulindac placebo;Eflornithine placebo & sulindac;Eflornithine plus sulindac
12 APACC Study:Prospective Study on Aspirin Efficacy in Reducing Colorectal Adenoma Recurrence Terminated NCT00224679 Phase 3 Aspirin
13 Rosuvastatin in Treating Patients With Stage I or Stage II Colon Cancer That Was Removed By Surgery Terminated NCT01011478 Phase 3 rosuvastatin
14 Celecoxib in Preventing Polyps in Patients Who Have Undergone Surgery for Stage I Colon Cancer Terminated NCT00087256 Phase 3 Celecoxib
15 Minimizing the Risk of Metachronous Adenomas of the Colorectum With Green Tea Extract -MIRACLE- Unknown status NCT01360320 Phase 2
16 Detection and Classification of Colon Polyps Completed NCT00825292 Phase 2
17 Study of the Immune Response of MUC1 (Mucin1) Peptide Vaccine for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Suspended NCT01720836 Phase 1, Phase 2
18 Study of Performance of Confocal Endomicroscope With Fluorescein Imaging Agent in the Colon Recruiting NCT03220711 Phase 1 Fluorescein
19 Aquamin and Prevention of Colon Cancer Active, not recruiting NCT02647671 Phase 1 Aquamin®;Calcium Carbonate;Placebo
20 Study of QRH-882260 Heptapeptide Application in the Colon Terminated NCT03148119 Phase 1 QRH-882260 Heptapeptide
21 Usefulness of Calprotectin for Colon Adenoma Screening Unknown status NCT01719198
22 Effect of a Tracking Program on Colon Adenoma Surveillance and Adherence to Guideline Recommendations Unknown status NCT01713881
23 The Impact of Split Dose of Low-volume Polyethylene Glycol on Adenoma Detection Rate Unknown status NCT02178033 Not Applicable Split dose low-volume PEG solution
24 Feasibility, Safety and Outcome of Transrectal Hybrid-NOTES Anterior Resection Unknown status NCT01992406
25 Early Detection of Tumors of the Digestive Tract by Confocal Endomicroscopy Unknown status NCT02284802 Not Applicable
26 Diagnosis of Colonic Adenomas by Bright Narrow Band Imaging (B-NBI) Completed NCT01422577 Not Applicable
27 Comparison of Colon Adenoma Detection Rate Using Two Distal Colonoscope Attachments Completed NCT02665741 Not Applicable
28 Dynamic Position Change in Colonic Adenoma Detection Completed NCT01366079 Not Applicable
29 Side Specific Withdrawal Times for Colonoscopy: Impact on Adenoma Detection in the Proximal and Distal Colon Completed NCT02819492
30 Effect of Video Monitor Size on Adenoma Detection Rate Completed NCT01952418 Not Applicable
31 A Follow-up Colonoscopy Examination in Patients Who Had Previously Undergone Screening Colonoscopy Completed NCT00280332
32 Prevalence and Topography of Adenomas in 40-49 Year Old Patients With a Family History of Colon Cancer Completed NCT02289053
33 Physical Activity Intervention With People at Increased Risk of Developing Colon Cancer Completed NCT02724306 Not Applicable
34 High Definition Endoscopy and Virtual Chromoendoscopy Versus Standard Resolution Endoscopy in Detection of Colon Polyps Completed NCT03243669 Not Applicable
35 Plasma ctDNA in Patients Undergoing Diagnostic Colonoscopy Completed NCT02665299
36 The Effect of Taking Break During Colonoscopy Session on Adenoma Detection, a Prospective, Randomized Control Study Completed NCT01989650 Not Applicable
37 Soft Coagulation for the Prevention of Adenoma Recurrence Completed NCT01789749 Not Applicable
38 Narrow Band Imaging for Diagnosis of Proximal Serrated Polyps Completed NCT01725321
39 Accuracy of the Optical Diagnosis of Small Colonic Polyps Using the Nice Classification Completed NCT02009774
40 Detection in Tandem Endocuff Cap Trial Completed NCT03254498 Not Applicable
41 Water-aided Colonoscopy vs Air Insufflation Colonoscopy in Colorectal Cancer Screening Completed NCT02041507 Not Applicable
42 PeerScope B System™ Clinical Protocol Completed NCT01483040 Not Applicable
43 To Investigate Risk of Colorectal Neoplasms in First-degree Relatives of Patients With Non-advanced Adenomas Completed NCT02521727
44 Colonoscopic Adenoma and Advanced Neoplasia Detection Rates According to Age Completed NCT03361904
45 CRC Screening Using mSEPT9 (Methylated Septin 9) in Chinese Population Completed NCT02540850
46 Oral Iohexol for Fecal/Fluid Tagging for CT Colonography: A Study to Improve Image Quality by Preventing Colonic Bubbles Completed NCT01790139 Not Applicable Oral simethicone
47 Study of a Screening Blood Test to Determine Patients' Potential Risk of Adenomatous or Advanced Colon Polyps (ACPs) Completed NCT01062035
48 Comparison Between White Light Endoscopy and Bright Narrow Band Imaging in Diagnosis Colonic Adenomas. Recruiting NCT01737567 Not Applicable
49 Impacts of Inspection During Instrument Insertion on Colonoscopy Quality Recruiting NCT03444090 Not Applicable
50 LCI (Linked Color Imaging) for Adenoma Detection in the Right Colon Recruiting NCT03279783 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Colon Adenoma

Genetic Tests for Colon Adenoma

Anatomical Context for Colon Adenoma

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Colon Adenoma:

41
Colon, Testes, Bone, Lung, Liver, Appendix, Monocytes

Publications for Colon Adenoma

Articles related to Colon Adenoma:

(show top 50) (show all 135)
# Title Authors Year
1
Frequency of Mismatch Repair Protein Deficiency in a Puerto Rican Population with Colonic Adenoma and Adenocarcinoma. ( 29976631 )
2018
2
Identification, isolation and characterization of human LGR5-positive colon adenoma cells. ( 29467240 )
2018
3
The tumour microenvironment creates a niche for the self-renewal of tumour-promoting macrophages in colon adenoma. ( 29422500 )
2018
4
Chemopreventive Potential of<i>In Vitro</i>Fermented Raw and Roasted Hazelnuts in LT97 Colon Adenoma Cells. ( 29277760 )
2018
5
Colon adenoma with 2 too-long stalks (with video). ( 29223383 )
2017
6
In vitro-fermented raw and roasted walnuts induce expression of CAT and GSTT2 genes, growth inhibition, and apoptosis in LT97 colon adenoma cells. ( 29241580 )
2017
7
Influence of roasting on the chemopreventive potential of in vitro fermented almonds in LT97 colon adenoma cells. ( 28583046 )
2017
8
Conventional colon adenomas harbor various disturbances in microsatellite stability and contain micro-serrated foci with microsatellite instability. ( 28234922 )
2017
9
Altered microRNA profiles during early colon adenoma progression in a porcine model of familial adenomatous polyposis. ( 29221194 )
2017
10
Effect of a Polyp Tracking and Notification Program on Colon Adenoma Surveillance and Compliance to Guideline Recommendations. ( 27483534 )
2016
11
SEPT9 and SHOX2 DNA methylation status and its utility in the diagnosis of colonic adenomas and colorectal adenocarcinomas. ( 27660666 )
2016
12
Mutational Profiles Reveal an Aberrant TGF-I^-CEA Regulated Pathway in Colon Adenomas. ( 27100181 )
2016
13
Colon Adenoma Implicating Myasthenia Gravis: A Case Report of a Patient with Postcolectomy Complications. ( 27610255 )
2016
14
Insertion water exchange increases right colon adenoma and hyperplastic polyp detection rates during withdrawal. ( 27017108 )
2016
15
Effect of Insulin and Metformin Combination Treatment on Colon Adenoma and Advanced Adenoma Among DM II. ( 27256336 )
2016
16
Mucins and associated glycan signatures in colon adenoma-carcinoma sequence: Prospective pathological implication(s) for early diagnosis of colon cancer. ( 26898938 )
2016
17
Circulating Biomarkers of Gut Barrier Function: Correlates and Nonresponse to Calcium Supplementation among Colon Adenoma Patients. ( 26677212 )
2016
18
Cell-surface markers for colon adenoma and adenocarcinoma. ( 26894861 )
2016
19
CX43 Expression in Colonic Adenomas and Surrounding Mucosa Is a Marker of Malignant Potential. ( 27798912 )
2016
20
Low Serum Vitamin D: A Surrogate Marker for Advanced Colon Adenoma? ( 26905602 )
2016
21
Chemopreventive potential of in vitro fermented nuts in LT97 colon adenoma and primary epithelial colon cells. ( 27996158 )
2016
22
Colon adenoma features and their impact on risk of future advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer. ( 28035253 )
2016
23
Increased MACC1 levels in tissues and blood identify colon adenoma patients at high risk. ( 27439755 )
2016
24
Thyroid, Renal, and Breast Carcinomas, Chondrosarcoma, Colon Adenomas, and Ganglioneuroma: A New Cancer Syndrome, FAP, or Just Coincidence. ( 27087812 )
2016
25
Influence of miRNA-106b and miRNA-135a on butyrate-regulated expression of p21 and Cyclin D2 in human colon adenoma cells. ( 26559563 )
2015
26
Changes in immunoexpression of p53, Ki-67, Ets-1, APAF-1 and PTEN in serrated and conventional colon adenomas. ( 26743285 )
2015
27
Diagnostic relevance of autoantibody detection against inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in colon cancer and colon adenoma. ( 26137273 )
2015
28
Serum levels of retinol-binding protein 4 and risk of colon adenoma. ( 25712946 )
2015
29
Elevated co-expression of KITENIN and the ErbB4 CYT-2 isoform promotes the transition from colon adenoma to carcinoma following APC loss. ( 26527747 )
2015
30
Black raspberries suppress colonic adenoma development in ApcMin/+ mice: relation to metabolite profiles. ( 26246425 )
2015
31
Sporadic nonampullary duodenal adenoma/carcinoma is associated with not only colon adenoma/carcinoma but also gastric cancer: association of location of duodenal lesions with comorbid diseases. ( 25582657 )
2015
32
Sequential expression of miR-182 and miR-503 cooperatively targets FBXW7, contributing to the malignant transformation of colon adenoma to adenocarcinoma. ( 25269767 )
2014
33
Water exchange screening colonoscopy with or without indigo carmine in detecting overall and proximal colon adenoma - a randomized controlled trial. ( 24963458 )
2014
34
Post-translational Glycoprotein Modifications Regulate Colon Cancer Stem Cells and Colon Adenoma Progression in Apcmin/+ Mice through Altered Wnt Receptor Signaling. ( 25274627 )
2014
35
Regression of Colonic Adenomas After Treatment With Sulindac in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: A Case With a 2-Year Follow-up Without a Prophylactic Colectomy. ( 25210691 )
2014
36
PARP-1 expression is increased in colon adenoma and carcinoma and correlates with OGG1. ( 25526641 )
2014
37
Colon adenoma surveillance: it takes a program. ( 25127945 )
2014
38
Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) expression in the progression of colon adenoma to carcinoma. ( 25153391 )
2014
39
Colorectal cancer: Male hormones increase the incidence of colonic adenomas. ( 25404279 )
2014
40
The transcription factor GATA6 enables self-renewal of colon adenoma stem cells by repressing BMP gene expression. ( 24952462 )
2014
41
Inflammation of colon adenoma in the setting of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis. ( 24629174 )
2014
42
Chemopreventive efficacy of raloxifene, bexarotene, and their combination on the progression of chemically induced colon adenomas to adenocarcinomas in rats. ( 24080207 )
2013
43
Differential expression of colon cancer associated transcript1 (CCAT1) along the colonic adenoma-carcinoma sequence. ( 23594791 )
2013
44
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome complicated with multiple gastric cancers and multiple colon adenomas. ( 23826450 )
2013
45
Chronic inflammation-derived nitric oxide causes conversion of human colonic adenoma cells into adenocarcinoma cells. ( 23948305 )
2013
46
Oligonol inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and colonic adenoma formation in mice. ( 23394584 )
2013
47
No Association between Circulating Levels and Genetic Variants of IL-6 and TNF-I+ and Colon Adenoma. ( 24235998 )
2013
48
Proteomics of differential extraction fractions enriched for chromatin-binding proteins from colon adenoma and carcinoma tissues. ( 24361553 )
2013
49
Immunochemical fecal occult blood test for detection of advanced colonic adenomas and colorectal cancer: comparison with colonoscopy results. ( 24319453 )
2013
50
Adult ileal duplication revealed by a colon adenoma. ( 23778950 )
2013

Variations for Colon Adenoma

Expression for Colon Adenoma

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Colon Adenoma.

Pathways for Colon Adenoma

GO Terms for Colon Adenoma

Biological processes related to Colon Adenoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity GO:0045736 9.16 APC CASP3
2 vasculature development GO:0001944 8.96 FBXW7 HIF1A
3 positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity GO:0051000 8.62 HIF1A KRAS

Molecular functions related to Colon Adenoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding GO:0001076 8.62 HIF1A VDR

Sources for Colon Adenoma

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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