Conversion Disorder (FND)

Categories: Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Conversion Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Conversion Disorder:

Name: Conversion Disorder 12 74 52 43 15 71
Hysterical Neurosis, Conversion Type 12
Functional Neurological Disorder 52
Conversion Hysteria or Reaction 12
Conversion Hysterical Neurosis 12
Functional Movement Disorder 52
Dissociative Disorder 71
Fnd 52


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Disease Ontology 12 DOID:1768
ICD9CM 34 300.11
MeSH 43 D003291
ICD10 32 F44
UMLS 71 C0009946 C0012746

Summaries for Conversion Disorder

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Conversion disorder is a disorder in which a person experiences blindness , paralysis , or other symptoms affecting the nervous system that cannot be explained solely by a physical illness or injury. Symptoms usually begin suddenly after a period of emotional or physical distress or psychological conflict. Conversion disorder is thought to be caused by the body's reaction to a stressful physical or emotional event. Some research has identified potential neurological changes that may be related to symptoms of the disorder. Diagnosis of conversion disorder is based on identifying particular signs that are common among people with the disorder, as well as performing tests to rule out other causes of the symptoms. Treatment may include psychotherapy , hypnosis , and stress management training to help reduce symptoms. Treatment of any underlying psychological disorder is also recommended. The affected body part may require physical or occupational therapy until symptoms resolve.

MalaCards based summary : Conversion Disorder, also known as hysterical neurosis, conversion type, is related to basilar artery occlusion and choreatic disease, and has symptoms including waxy flexibility An important gene associated with Conversion Disorder is COMT (Catechol-O-Methyltransferase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are A-beta Pathways: Plaque Formation and APP Metabolism and Biogenic Amine Synthesis. The drugs Sertraline and Psychotropic Drugs have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and cortex, and related phenotypes are Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) and Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2)

Disease Ontology : 12 A somatoform disorder that involves numbness, blindness, paralysis or fits without a neurological cause.

Wikipedia : 74 Conversion disorder (CD), or functional neurologic symptom disorder, is a diagnostic category used in... more...

Related Diseases for Conversion Disorder

Diseases related to Conversion Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 250)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 basilar artery occlusion 29.9 PLG PLAT
2 choreatic disease 29.8 PNKD GCH1
3 tic disorder 29.6 PNKD COMT
4 hypochondriasis 29.4 PIR MEA1
5 frontonasal dysplasia 1 12.2
6 psychogenic movement 11.7
7 six2-related frontonasal dysplasia 11.2
8 dissociative disorder 10.9
9 dissociative amnesia 10.7
10 dissociative seizures 10.7
11 basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease 10.3 PLG PLAT
12 anterior cerebral artery infarction 10.3 PLG PLAT
13 ligneous conjunctivitis 10.3 PLG PLAT
14 acute cor pulmonale 10.3 PLG PLAT
15 acute pulmonary heart disease 10.3 PLG PLAT
16 marantic endocarditis 10.3 PLG PLAT
17 brain stem infarction 10.3 PLG PLAT
18 thoracic outlet syndrome 10.3 PLG PLAT
19 neutropenia 10.3
20 inferior myocardial infarction 10.3 PLG PLAT
21 intracranial embolism 10.3 PLG PLAT
22 basilar artery insufficiency 10.3 PLG PLAT
23 vitreous detachment 10.3 PLG PLAT
24 central retinal artery occlusion 10.3 PLG PLAT
25 middle cerebral artery infarction 10.3 PLG PLAT
26 carotid artery thrombosis 10.3 PLG PLAT
27 occlusion precerebral artery 10.3 PLG PLAT
28 obstructive hydrocephalus 10.3 PLG PLAT
29 encephalopathy, familial, with neuroserpin inclusion bodies 10.3 PLG PLAT
30 post-thrombotic syndrome 10.3 PLG PLAT
31 intracranial thrombosis 10.3 PLG PLAT
32 schizotypal personality disorder 10.3 PIR COMT
33 thrombophilia due to activated protein c resistance 10.2 PLG PLAT
34 carotid artery occlusion 10.2 PLG PLAT
35 thrombophlebitis 10.2 PLG PLAT
36 somatization disorder 10.2
37 phobic disorder 10.2 PIR COMT
38 seizure disorder 10.2
39 central retinal vein occlusion 10.2 PLG PLAT
40 coronary thrombosis 10.2 PLG PLAT
41 myelodysplastic syndrome 10.2
42 follicular lymphoma 10.2
43 47,xyy 10.2
44 hemidystonia 10.2 PNKD GCH1
45 multifocal dystonia 10.2 PNKD GCH1
46 visual epilepsy 10.2
47 agoraphobia 10.2 PIR COMT
48 segmental dystonia 10.2 PNKD GCH1
49 dystonia 1, torsion, autosomal dominant 10.2 PNKD GCH1
50 intermediate coronary syndrome 10.2 PLG PLAT

Comorbidity relations with Conversion Disorder via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Acute Cystitis Anxiety
Dysthymic Disorder Esophagitis
Hypertension, Essential Hypothyroidism
Major Depressive Disorder Schizophreniform Disorder
Transient Cerebral Ischemia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Conversion Disorder:

Diseases related to Conversion Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Conversion Disorder

UMLS symptoms related to Conversion Disorder:

waxy flexibility

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Conversion Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 12)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-134 9.47 ALX3
2 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-139 9.47 PEG10
3 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-142 9.47 PIR
4 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-156 9.47 PEG10
5 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-18 9.47 ALX3 PEG10 PIR
6 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-184 9.47 PIR
7 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-195 9.47 ALX3
8 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-204 9.47 PEG10
9 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-206 9.47 PEG10
10 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-212 9.47 ALX3
11 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-79 9.47 PIR
12 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-84 9.47 PIR

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Conversion Disorder:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.5 ALX3 COMT GAD1 PLAT PLG TNFSF11
2 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.17 ALX3 COMT GAD1 PLAT PLG TNFSF11

Drugs & Therapeutics for Conversion Disorder

Drugs for Conversion Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 42)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Sertraline Approved Phase 4 79617-96-2 68617
2 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
3 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
4 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
5 Serotonin Agents Phase 4
6 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-67-9 5202
Citalopram Approved 59729-33-8 2771
Dopamine Approved 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational 129722-12-9 60795
Olanzapine Approved, Investigational 132539-06-1 4585
Risperidone Approved, Investigational 106266-06-2 5073
13 Orange Approved
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
15 Antiparkinson Agents
16 Muscarinic Antagonists
17 Cholinergic Agents
18 Cholinergic Antagonists
19 Quetiapine Fumarate 111974-72-2
20 Parasympatholytics
21 Fluorides
22 Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
23 Radiopharmaceuticals
24 Antipsychotic Agents
25 Central Nervous System Depressants
26 Tranquilizing Agents
27 Autonomic Agents
28 Antiemetics
29 Gastrointestinal Agents
30 Dopamine agonists
31 Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists
32 Dopamine Agents
33 Dopamine Antagonists
34 Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists
35 Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists
36 Serotonin Receptor Agonists
37 Serotonin Antagonists
38 Pharmaceutical Solutions
39 Chlorhexidine gluconate
40 Liver Extracts
41 Anticonvulsants
42 Detox adjuvant

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 39)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Treatment for Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures: A Pilot, 12 Week, Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind, Clinical Trial of Sertraline in the Treatment of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in NES Completed NCT00159965 Phase 4 sertraline;placebo
2 Medication and Psychotherapy Treatment Trial for Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures Completed NCT00835627 Phase 4 sertraline
3 Patients With Conversion Gait Disorder - Effect on Treatment and Common Gait Patterns. Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT01422278 Phase 1, Phase 2
4 A Psychopathological Study of Dissociative Disorders in Psychiatric Inpatients at an Acute Stage Unknown status NCT01388140
5 The Pathophysiology of Functional Neurological Disorders Unknown status NCT02905877
6 The Interest of a Specific Combined Treatment (Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy) in Patients With Dissociative Disorders Unknown status NCT00630981 Pharmacological treatment (Quetiapine and/or Escitalopram)
7 Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Dissociative Seizures: A Randomised Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT00688727
8 Effectiveness of Therapeutic Treatment: Hot and Cold Self-regulation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Dissociative Disorder, and Borderline Personality Disorder Completed NCT02459340
9 Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels in Patients With Conversion Disorder Completed NCT00971360
10 BOLD-fMRI of the Perception of Volition in Functional Movement Disorders Completed NCT00448084
11 Treatment of Functional Movement Disorders With Psychotherapy Completed NCT01778517
13 Evaluation Via PET Scan of Metabolic Anomolies Associated With the 6 Month Clinical Evolution of Patients Suffering From Motor Conversion Disorder Completed NCT02329626
14 TMS and Attentional Bias in Functional Motor Disorder Completed NCT02102906
15 Randomised Feasibility Study of a Physiotherapy Programme for Patients With Functional Motor Symptoms (FMS). Completed NCT02275000
16 Neuropsychiatric Correlates of Psychogenic Movement Disorder and Non-Epileptic Seizure Completed NCT00255411
17 Prevalence of Dissociative Disorders in Children in a Population Supported in the Medico-social and Health Structures in Provence Alpes Cote d'Azur Completed NCT01512641
18 Assessment of Incidence of Adverse Events in a Naive Pediatric Population Treated With an (Typical and Atypical) Antipsychotic Drug Over 12 Months Follow-up Completed NCT02007928
19 Prevalence of Salivary Hypofunction in Patients With Globus Pharyngeus Completed NCT00381771
20 Psychotherapy and Psychobiology of Somatoform Disorders (Globus Sensations): A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT01590992
21 Brain Networks Responsible for Self-Agency: An fMRI Study Completed NCT00246831
22 Stabilizing Group Treatment of Complex Trauma: A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT02450617
23 Auricular Acupuncture For The Treatment Of Non-Epileptic Seizures Completed NCT01919307
24 COgnitive Behavioural Therapy Versus Standardised Medical Care for Adults With Dissociative Non-Epileptic Seizures: A Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial (CODES) Completed NCT02325544
25 Mirror Box Therapy as a Treatment Option for Functional Movement Disorders Recruiting NCT03660098
26 Study of the Ability of a New Technique to Effectively Diagnose Movement Disorders Recruiting NCT03661021
27 Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Prognosis in Motor Functional Neurological Disorders Recruiting NCT03398070
28 Pilot Study of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Informed Physical Therapy Intervention in Functional Neurological Disorders Recruiting NCT03731078
29 Specificity of Early Maladaptive Schemas in Functional Movement Disorders Recruiting NCT03717376
30 Exploration and Characterization of the Phenotypic and Genetic Profile of Patients With Early Onset Schizophrenia Associated With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their First-degree Relatives (GenAuDiss). Recruiting NCT02565524
31 Non-invasive Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Patients With Functional Movement Disorders Recruiting NCT03263013
32 Safety and Feasibility of Virtual Reality Therapy for Functional Neurological Symptom/Conversion Disorder Recruiting NCT02764476
33 Dissociative Experience During the Offence in Sex Offenders : Clinical and Prognosis Correlates Recruiting NCT02949479
34 Study of Subjective Perception of Motor Control During Psychogenic Disorders : Brain Mechanisms and Functional Imaging. Recruiting NCT02843932
35 Neurobiological Studies of Functional Movement Disorders and Non-Epileptic Seizures Recruiting NCT00500994
36 Neuroimaging Biomarker for Seizures Recruiting NCT03441867
37 A Feasibility Study for a Psycho-education Intervention for People With a Functional Neurological Disorder. Active, not recruiting NCT03857347
38 BLB Study Back or Leg Pain and Bladder Symptoms Study Active, not recruiting NCT03325374
39 Efficacy of Dorso-lateral Prefrontal Cortex Stimulation by tDCS in Patients With Motor Conversion Disorder - Multicentre Randomized Double Blind Assay Not yet recruiting NCT04097184

Search NIH Clinical Center for Conversion Disorder

Cochrane evidence based reviews: conversion disorder

Genetic Tests for Conversion Disorder

Anatomical Context for Conversion Disorder

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Conversion Disorder:

Brain, Testes, Cortex, Spinal Cord, Prefrontal Cortex, Liver, Myeloid

Publications for Conversion Disorder

Articles related to Conversion Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 867)
# Title Authors PMID Year
[Conversion disorder: from DSM IV to DSM 5 or from a psychiatric to a neurological diagnosis]. 61 52
26402892 2015
[Evoked potentials and regional cerebral blood flow changes in conversion disorder: a case report and review]. 61 52
18330748 2008
Conversion Disorder after a Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection. 61
31207138 2020
Childhood sexual abuse predicts treatment outcome in conversion disorder/functional neurological disorder. An observational longitudinal study. 61
32031757 2020
Dealing with the unknown. Functional neurological disorder (FND) and the conversion of cultural meaning. 61
31911360 2020
Functional Neurological (Conversion) Disorder: A Core Neuropsychiatric Disorder. 61
31964243 2020
Quetiapine Abuse Fourteen Years Later: Where Are We Now? A Systematic Review. 61
31573374 2020
Clinical Features and Long-Term Outcomes of Living Donors of Liver Transplantation Who Developed Psychiatric Disorders. 61
32001667 2020
Children with Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures. 61
31929715 2019
Concurrent Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia and Hemi-Laryngopharyngeal Spasm (HeLPS): A Case Report and a Review of the Literature. 61
31832655 2019
The clenched fist syndrome: case report of a clinical rarity of special interest for psychiatrists and hand surgeons. 61
31703662 2019
Individual differences in social network size linked to nucleus accumbens and hippocampal volumes in functional neurological disorder: A pilot study. 61
31394458 2019
Modification of both functional neurological symptoms and neuroimaging patterns with a good anatomoclinical concordance: a case report. 61
31684891 2019
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Evaluating Psychogenic Pseudosyncope - A novel diagnostic approach. 61
31596496 2019
Diagnosis of Conversion Disorder Using Diffusion Tensor Tractography and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in a Patient with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. 61
31652549 2019
Functional neurological symptoms masquerading as Wernicke encephalopathy following bariatric surgery. 61
31656438 2019
Long-term outcomes of childhood sexual abuse: an umbrella review. 61
31519507 2019
Characteristics of Conversion Disorder in an Urban Academic Children's Medical Center. 61
31267759 2019
Clinicians and Cognitive Bias: A Case of Frontotemporal Dementia Misdiagnosed as Conversion Disorder. 61
31474126 2019
To tPA or Not to tPA: Two Medical-Legal Misadventures of Diagnosing a Cerebrovascular Accident as a Stroke Mimic. 61
31404351 2019
Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Nepal: Findings from the Pilot Study. 61
31455924 2019
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome misdiagnosed as conversion disorder. 61
31413052 2019
Vasculo-Behçet disease complicated by conversion disorder diagnosed with 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT). 61
31327803 2019
Metopic Craniosynostosis, Paroxysmal Dyskinesias, and Conversion Disorder (Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures) in an Early Adolescent with Depression: Challenges of Diagnosis and Treatment. 61
31348714 2019
[A patient with unexplained neurological symptoms]. 61
31483585 2019
Corticolimbic fast-tracking: enhanced multimodal integration in functional neurological disorder. 61
30850473 2019
Schizoaffective Disorder That Is Induced By Electrical Voltage That Is Treated with Risperidone. 61
31777630 2019
Secure Attachment and Depression Predict 6-Month Outcome in Motor Functional Neurological Disorders: A Prospective Pilot Study. 61
30342702 2019
Treatment of Functional Gait Abnormality in a Rehabilitation Setting: Emphasizing the Physical Interventions for Treating the Whole Child. 61
31832259 2019
Personality and Psychopathology in Patients With Mixed Sensory-Motor Functional Neurological Disorder (Conversion Disorder): A Pilot Study. 61
31206424 2019
Conversion Disorder Manifesting as Functional Visual Loss. 61
31003815 2019
Conversion disorder and the trouble with trauma. 61
31044689 2019
Upper extremity conversion disorder in children. 61
30685281 2019
[Stiff-person syndrome mistaken for conversive disorder: a common error]. 61
31859834 2019
Conversion Disorder (Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder) Masquerading as Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Report. 61
31423372 2019
Atypical Prodromal Symptoms Help to Distinguish Patients With Psychogenic Nonsyncopal Collapse Among Youth Referred for Fainting. 61
30922770 2019
Interdisciplinary Treatment of Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder in an Inpatient Rehabilitation Setting: A Case Report. 61
30609292 2019
Comment on Lubna Kanwal Dar et al ( J Pak Med Assoc 2018; 68: 1776-81) Traumatic experiences and dissociation in patients with conversion disorder. 61
31000874 2019
Response to comment on Lubna Kanwal Dar et al ( J Pak Med Assoc 2018; 68:1776-81) Traumatic experiences and dissociation in patients with conversion disorder. 61
31000875 2019
The Fainting Assessment Inventory: A 10-Item Instrument Developed to Screen for Psychogenic Nonsyncopal Collapse Among Youth Referred for Syncope. 61
30921250 2019
Median Neuropathy After Blood Draw Mimics Painful Clenched Fist Syndrome in a Child. 61
30957563 2019
Functional neuroimaging of recovery from motor conversion disorder: A case report. 61
29601954 2019
Cognitive-behavioural treatment of functional neurological symptoms (conversion disorder) in children and adolescents: A case series. 61
30594458 2019
[Hashimoto thyroiditis, therapeutic options and extrathyroidal options - an up-to-date overview]. 61
30919217 2019
Characteristics of patients with motor functional neurological disorder in a large UK mental health service: a case-control study. 61
30773149 2019
The role of the anterior and midcingulate cortex in the neurobiology of functional neurologic disorder. 61
31731915 2019
The Four-Cluster Spectrum of Mind-Body Interrelationships: An Integrative Model. 61
30881314 2019
Evaluation Of Mean Platelet Volume, Red Cell Distributed Width And Neutrophil To Lymphocyte Ratio In Conversion Disorder. 61
31632035 2019
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with increased aquaporin-4 microparticles prior to autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid: a case report. 61
30696485 2019
Structural alterations in functional neurological disorder and related conditions: a software and hardware problem? 61
31146322 2019

Variations for Conversion Disorder

Expression for Conversion Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Conversion Disorder.

Pathways for Conversion Disorder

Pathways related to Conversion Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.52 PLG PLAT
Show member pathways
10.3 GAD1 COMT
3 9.74 PLG PLAT

GO Terms for Conversion Disorder

Cellular components related to Conversion Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neuron projection terminus GO:0044306 8.62 GCH1 GAD1

Biological processes related to Conversion Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 fibrinolysis GO:0042730 9.26 PLG PLAT
2 response to pain GO:0048265 9.16 GCH1 COMT
3 neuromuscular process controlling posture GO:0050884 8.96 PNKD GCH1
4 trans-synaptic signaling by BDNF, modulating synaptic transmission GO:0099183 8.62 PLG PLAT

Sources for Conversion Disorder

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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