CROUP
MCID: CRP002
MIFTS: 44

Croup (CROUP)

Categories: Immune diseases, Oral diseases, Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Croup

MalaCards integrated aliases for Croup:

Name: Croup 12 74 42 43 15 17 71
Laryngotracheobronchitis 12 71
Acute Laryngotracheobronchitis 12
Acute Obstructive Laryngitis 12
Croup Syndrome 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9395
ICD9CM 34 464.4
MeSH 43 D003440
NCIt 49 C26735
SNOMED-CT 67 71186008
ICD10 32 J05.0
UMLS 71 C0010380 C0023077

Summaries for Croup

MedlinePlus : 42 Croup is an inflammation of the vocal cords (larynx) and windpipe (trachea). It causes difficulty breathing, a barking cough, and a hoarse voice. The cause is usually a virus, often parainfluenza virus. Other causes include allergies and reflux. Croup often starts out like a cold. But then the vocal cords and windpipe become swollen, causing the hoarseness and the cough. There may also be a fever and high-pitched noisy sounds when breathing. The symptoms are usually worse at night, and last for about three to five days. Children between the ages of 6 months and 3 years have the highest risk of getting croup. They may also have more severe symptoms. Croup is more common in the fall and winter. Most cases of viral croup are mild and can be treated at home. Rarely, croup can become serious and interfere with your child's breathing. If you are worried about your child's breathing, call your health care provider right away.

MalaCards based summary : Croup, also known as laryngotracheobronchitis, is related to laryngitis and tracheitis, and has symptoms including stridor, inspiratory stridor and snoring. An important gene associated with Croup is CD14 (CD14 Molecule), and among its related pathways/superpathways are NF-kappaB Signaling and NF-kappa B signaling pathway. The drugs Epinephrine and Racepinephrine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include trachea, lung and testes, and related phenotype is immune system.

Disease Ontology : 12 A respiratory system infectious disease that involves inflammation, edema, and subsequent obstruction of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. The disease is caused by viruses, bacteria, allergies and inhaled irritants. It is marked by episodes of difficult breathing and hoarse metallic cough in infants and young children. Croup is caused by parainfluenza virus (types 1 and 2), Influenza A and B viruses, Measles virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus.

Wikipedia : 74 Croup, also known as laryngotracheobronchitis, is a type of respiratory infection that is usually caused... more...

Related Diseases for Croup

Diseases related to Croup via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 110)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 laryngitis 30.8 CRP CD40LG
2 tracheitis 30.7 SLC22A4 CRP
3 epiglottitis 30.5 SLC22A4 CRP CD40LG
4 toxic shock syndrome 30.2 CRP CD40LG CD14
5 aspiration pneumonitis 10.4 SLC22A4 CRP
6 hernia, hiatus 10.3 SLC22A4 CRP
7 japanese spotted fever 10.2 CRP CD40LG
8 chronic orbital inflammation 10.2 CRP CD40LG
9 neuroretinitis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
10 splenic abscess 10.2 CRP CD40LG
11 ecthyma 10.2 CRP CD40LG
12 meningovascular neurosyphilis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
13 viral exanthem 10.2 CRP CD40LG
14 tertiary syphilis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
15 acalculous cholecystitis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
16 optic papillitis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
17 opportunistic bacterial infectious disease 10.2 CRP CD40LG
18 gastrointestinal tuberculosis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
19 multinucleated neurons, anhydramnios, renal dysplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hydranencephaly 10.2
20 bronchopneumonia 10.2
21 measles 10.2
22 cerebritis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
23 granulomatous hepatitis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
24 viral laryngitis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
25 aspergillosis 10.2
26 invasive aspergillosis 10.2
27 klebsiella pneumonia 10.2 CRP CD40LG
28 mikulicz disease 10.2 CRP CD40LG
29 mononeuritis of upper limb and mononeuritis multiplex 10.2 CRP CD40LG
30 mononeuritis multiplex 10.2 CRP CD40LG
31 subacute bacterial endocarditis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
32 ornithosis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
33 cat-scratch disease 10.2 CRP CD40LG
34 parotid disease 10.2 CRP CD40LG
35 late congenital syphilis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
36 bacterial conjunctivitis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
37 aortitis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
38 splenic infarction 10.2 CRP CD40LG
39 bartonellosis 10.2 CRP CD40LG
40 mastoiditis 10.1 CRP CD40LG
41 abdominal tuberculosis 10.1 CRP CD40LG
42 cervical adenitis 10.1 CRP CD40LG
43 maxillary sinusitis 10.1 CRP CD40LG
44 toxocariasis 10.1 CRP CD40LG
45 hydrops of gallbladder 10.1 CRP CD40LG
46 pyuria 10.1 CRP CD40LG
47 central retinal artery occlusion 10.1 CRP CD40LG
48 scleral disease 10.1 CRP CD40LG
49 acute interstitial pneumonia 10.1 IFIH1 CRP
50 lung abscess 10.1 CRP CD40LG

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Croup:



Diseases related to Croup

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Croup

UMLS symptoms related to Croup:


stridor, inspiratory stridor, snoring, coughing

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Croup:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune system MP:0005387 9.32 ACE2 CD14 CD40LG CLNK CRP DDX58

Drugs & Therapeutics for Croup

Drugs for Croup (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 69)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 51-43-4 5816
2
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 4 329-65-7 838
3
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
4
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
5
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
6
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
7 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
8
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 53-03-2 5865
9
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3
10
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
11
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7
12 Adrenergic beta-Agonists Phase 4
13 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
14 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
15 Epinephryl borate Phase 4
16 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
17 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 4
18 Mydriatics Phase 4
19 Sympathomimetics Phase 4
20 Hormones Phase 4
21 Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 4
22 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4
23 Protective Agents Phase 4
24 glucocorticoids Phase 4
25 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
26 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
27 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
28 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4
29 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
30 Antiemetics Phase 4
31
protease inhibitors Phase 4
32 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 4
33 BB 1101 Phase 4
34
Hydroxychloroquine Approved Phase 3 118-42-3 3652
35
Fluticasone Approved, Experimental Phase 3 90566-53-3 62924
36
Ergocalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 50-14-6 5280793
37
Vitamin D3 Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 67-97-0 5280795 6221
38
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 1406-16-2
39 Respiratory System Agents Phase 3
40 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 3
41 Bronchodilator Agents Phase 3
42 Trace Elements Phase 3
43 Ergocalciferols Phase 3
44 Vitamins Phase 3
45 Nutrients Phase 3
46 Calciferol Phase 3
47 Micronutrients Phase 3
48 Calcium, Dietary Phase 3
49 Vitamin D2 Phase 3
50
Beclomethasone Phase 3 4419-39-0 20469

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 28)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Effect and Safety of Low Dose Nebulized Epinephrine in the Treatment of Croup Unknown status NCT01664507 Phase 4 conventional dose epinephrine;low dose epinephrine
2 Community Care for Croup (RCT) Completed NCT01042145 Phase 4 Prednisone;Dexamethasone
3 Single Dose Oral Dexamethasone Versus Multi-dose Prednisolone in the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Asthma in Children Who Attend the Emergency Department Completed NCT03698630 Phase 4 Prednisolone Sodium Phosphate;Dexamethasone
4 Comparison of Dexamethasone Oral Preparations to Assess Palatability and Adverse Effects in Children With Asthma and Croup Recruiting NCT03705273 Phase 4 Dexamethasone IV for PO;Dexamethasone crushed tablets
5 Nebulized Corticosteroid for Post Extubation Stridor in Children: A Randomized Double Blind Controlled Trial Completed NCT02523820 Phase 3 fluticasone propionate;Placebo
6 A Randomized Clinical Trial to Improve Prescribing Patterns in Ambulatory Pediatrics Completed NCT00368823 Phase 3
7 Efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) for Prevention of COVID-19 in Asymptomatic Individual at Risk for SARS-CoV-2 Infection-A Open Level Control Clinical Trial Recruiting NCT04408456 Phase 3 HCQ
8 Randomized Trial: Maternal Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Childhood Asthma (VDAART) Active, not recruiting NCT00920621 Phase 3
9 Multicentre, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Two-arm Parallel Groups Study Design to Demonstrate the Efficacy and Tolerability of a Single Dose of BDP Suspension for Nebulisation 1600 µg vs Placebo in the Treatment of Children Aged 6 Months to 3 Years With a Clinical Diagnosis of Moderate Croup Terminated NCT00938353 Phase 3 beclomethasone dipropionate suspension for nebulisation 800 mcg/2 ml;Placebo solution for nebulisation 2 ml
10 Management of Recurrent Croup: Comparison Between Inhaled Fluticasone and Oral Prednisolone Terminated NCT01748162 Phase 3 Fluticasone;Prednisolone IF needed
11 Efficacy of Optimal Versus 'Traditional' Delivery of Humidity in Children With Croup Completed NCT00230841 Phase 2
12 Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center Recruiting NCT03674294 Phase 2 Aprepitant;Palonosetron;Dexamethasone;Placebo Oral Tablet
13 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Study of DAS181 in Patients With Parainfluenza Infection Withdrawn NCT01441024 Phase 2 DAS181
14 A Phase I Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of the Recombinant Live-Attenuated Human Metapneumovirus Vaccine, rHMPV-Pa Lot HMPV #101A, Delivered as Nose Drops to Adults 18 to 49 Years of Age, HMPV-Seropositive Children 12 to 59 Months of Age, and HMPV-Seronegative Infants and Children 6 to 59 Months of Age Completed NCT01255410 Phase 1
15 Phase 1 Study to Determine the Safety, Infectivity, Immunogenicity and Tolerability of 2 Doses of Live Attenuated Recombinant Cold-passaged (cp) 45 Human Parainfluenza Type 3 Virus Vaccine, rHPIV3cp45, Lot PIV3#102A, Delivered as Nose Drops to HPIV3-Seronegative Infants and Children 6 to 36 Months of Age, at a 6 Month Interval Completed NCT01254175 Phase 1
16 A Phase I Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of the Recombinant Live-Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Type 1 Virus Vaccine, rHPIV1 84/del170/942A, Lot PIV1 #104A, Delivered as Nose Drops to Adults 18 to 49 Years of Age, HPIV1-Seropositive Children 15 to 59 Months of Age, and HPIV1-Seronegative Infants and Children 6 to 59 Months of Age Completed NCT00641017 Phase 1
17 Prolonged Immunization With Autologous CD40 Ligand and IL-2-Expressing Tumor Cells for Treatment of B-Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (B-CLL) Completed NCT00458679 Phase 1
18 A Phase I Study of Unmodified Live Intranasal Sendai Virus Vaccine in Children and Toddlers: Assessment of Safety and Immunogenicity Active, not recruiting NCT00186927 Phase 1
19 Treatment of B-CLL With Autologous IL2 and CD40 Ligand-Expressing Tumor Cells + Lenalidomide Terminated NCT01604031 Phase 1 Lenalidomide
20 Diagnosing Respiratory Disease in Children Using Smartphone Recordings of Cough Sounds 2 Completed NCT03392363
21 Diagnosing Respiratory Disease in Children Using Smartphone Recordings of Cough Sounds Completed NCT02973282
22 Efficacy of Single Injection of Dexamethasone for Acute Bronchiolitis in Children Younger Than 2 Years Old: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Trial Completed NCT00122785 dexamethasone
23 Effects of Lactobacillus Casei in the Prevention of Upper Respiratory and Diarrheal Diseases Among Adults Completed NCT02541539
24 Comparison Between Two Endotracheal Tube Cuff Inflation Methods; Flow Volume Loop Guided vs. Just Seal by Stethoscope Guided in Pediatric Patients Completed NCT03902756
25 Supporting Oral Self-care of Patients With Periodontitis Through Brief Motivational Interview Active, not recruiting NCT04023500
26 Pilotonderzoek Naar Het Gebruik Van Telemedicine Bij Het Beoordelen Van Het Benauwde Kind in de Huisartsenpraktijk English: The Use of Telemedicine in the General Practitioners Office for a Child With Respiratory Symptoms: a Pilot Study Not yet recruiting NCT04168554
27 A Cluster Controlled Trial Comparing Three Methods of Disseminating Practice Terminated NCT00147849
28 Helium-oxygen Gas Mixtures Delivered by a High Flow Nasal Cannula in Bronchiolitis Terminated NCT02373683

Search NIH Clinical Center for Croup

Cochrane evidence based reviews: croup

Genetic Tests for Croup

Anatomical Context for Croup

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Croup:

40
Trachea, Lung, Testes, Kidney, Liver, Skin, T Cells

Publications for Croup

Articles related to Croup:

(show top 50) (show all 1727)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Prednisolone vs dexamethsone in croup. 61 42
31843117 2020
2
Acute subglottic laryngitis. Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical picture. 42 61
31680234 2019
3
Acute Upper Airway Obstruction. 42
31722154 2019
4
Bridging bronchus (pseudocarina) and left pulmonary artery sling: A case report and literature review. 61
32534300 2020
5
Children's Respiratory Infections in Tianjin Area, China: Associations with Home Environments and Lifestyles. 61
32517360 2020
6
Subglottic cauterization: An atypical approach for atypical croup. 61
31429936 2020
7
Lineal Discrimination of Horses and Mules. A Sympatric Case from Arauca, Colombia. 61
32294995 2020
8
Dexamethasone or prednisolone for croup. 61
32354725 2020
9
Trends in Regionalization of Emergency Care for Common Pediatric Conditions. 61
32169895 2020
10
Side effects and complications of injection laryngoplasty for treatment of congenital type 1 laryngeal clefts. 61
31968273 2020
11
Assessing the appropriateness of paediatric antibiotic overuse in Australian children: a population-based sample survey. 61
32331515 2020
12
Vaccination Status and Adherence to Quality Measures for Acute Respiratory Tract Illnesses. 61
32041781 2020
13
Health gradients in emergency visits and hospitalisations for paediatric respiratory diseases: A population-based retrospective cohort study. 61
32010997 2020
14
Effects of parental smoking and indoor tobacco smoke exposure on respiratory outcomes in children. 61
32152374 2020
15
Emergency Endotracheal Intubation With a Rigid Stylet of an Infant With Severe Subglottic Stenosis. 61
32216977 2020
16
Genome-wide association study applied to type traits related to milk yield in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). 61
31759604 2020
17
Distribution of Superficial Body Temperature in Horses Ridden by Two Riders with Varied Body Weights. 61
32098105 2020
18
Baseline Performance of Real-World Clinical Practice Within a Statewide Emergency Medicine Quality Network: The Michigan Emergency Department Improvement Collaborative (MEDIC). 61
31256906 2020
19
The Relationship between Croup and Gastroesophageal Reflux: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 61
32040207 2020
20
Banat donkey, a neglected donkey breed from the central Balkans (Serbia). 61
32175186 2020
21
Capacitive resistive electric transfer modifies gait pattern in horses exercised on a treadmill. 61
31918723 2020
22
Use OF NBI for the assessment of clinical signs of rhino-pharyngo-laryngeal reflux in pediatric age: Preliminary results. 61
31670195 2020
23
Acute obstructive fibrinous laryngotracheobronchitis induced by severe glyphosate surfactant intoxication: A case report. 61
32076481 2020
24
Characteristics of human parainfluenza virus type 4 infection in hospitalized children in Korea. 61
31705838 2020
25
Mother's Own Milk Feeding and Severity of Respiratory Illness in Acutely Ill Children: An Integrative Review. 61
31670137 2020
26
Not All Stridor Is Croup. 61
30256321 2020
27
Endogenous Glucocorticoid Response to Single-Dose Dexamethasone for Croup in Children: A Pharmacodynamic Study. 61
28398936 2020
28
An Unwelcome Party Guest: A Laryngeal Foreign Body Masquerading as Croup. 61
31597527 2019
29
Defining atypical croup: A case report and review of the literature. 61
31542653 2019
30
Efficacy of low-dose nebulized epinephrine as treatment for croup: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. 61
30878411 2019
31
Assessing the adherence to guidelines in the management of croup in Australian children: a population-based sample survey. 61
31665290 2019
32
Prednisolone versus dexamethasone for croup. 61
31846157 2019
33
Inpatient use of racemic epinephrine for children admitted with croup. 61
31342466 2019
34
Morphometric measurements and zootechnical indices of the Pantanal in race horses of different ages and gender. 61
31079335 2019
35
Management and outcomes of patients presenting to the emergency department with croup: Can we identify which patients can safely be discharged from the emergency department? 61
30779245 2019
36
When Acute Stridor Is More Than Croup. 61
31303337 2019
37
Vaccination Status and Resource Use During Hospital Visits for Respiratory Illnesses. 61
31624218 2019
38
Atypical juvenile histiocytosis with novel KIF5B-ALK gene fusion mimicking subglottic hemangioma. 61
31351348 2019
39
Point-of-care lung ultrasound in children with non-cardiac respiratory distress or tachypnea. 61
31189496 2019
40
Epidemiological analysis of croup in the emergency department using two national datasets. 61
31442871 2019
41
Initial radiographic tracheal ratio in predicting clinical outcomes in croup in children. 61
31784540 2019
42
A novel management proposal for intrinsic brainstem neurenteric cysts: case report. 61
31628284 2019
43
The Runaway Croup Train: Off the Pathway and Through the Woods. 61
31492686 2019
44
Stridor Secondary to Acquired Subglottic Cyst: Rarity Makes it Missed. 61
31741928 2019
45
Rein Tension in Transitions and Halts during Equestrian Dressage Training. 61
31547540 2019
46
Apparent Digestibility of Nutrients, Blood Parameters and Body Development of Dewormed and Not Dewormed Weanlings. 61
31443829 2019
47
Rate of Airway Intervention for Croup at a Tertiary Children's Hospital 2015-2016. 61
31416651 2019
48
Prednisolone Versus Dexamethasone for Croup: a Randomized Controlled Trial. 61
31416827 2019
49
Influenza A-induced croup in an adult. 61
31516811 2019
50
[Miraculously cure of croup?] 61
32233331 2019

Variations for Croup

Expression for Croup

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Croup.

Pathways for Croup

Pathways related to Croup according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.97 PIM2 IFIH1 DDX58 CD40LG
2 11.15 DDX58 CD40LG CD14
3 10.3 CD40LG CD14 ACE2

GO Terms for Croup

Biological processes related to Croup according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 response to virus GO:0009615 9.61 PIM2 IFIH1 DDX58
2 cellular response to exogenous dsRNA GO:0071360 9.46 IFIH1 DDX58
3 positive regulation of interferon-alpha production GO:0032727 9.4 IFIH1 DDX58
4 positive regulation of interferon-alpha secretion GO:1902741 9.37 IFIH1 DDX58
5 positive regulation of response to cytokine stimulus GO:0060760 9.32 IFIH1 DDX58
6 detection of virus GO:0009597 9.26 IFIH1 DDX58
7 positive regulation of interferon-beta secretion GO:0035549 9.16 IFIH1 DDX58
8 cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor signaling pathway in response to virus GO:0039528 8.96 IFIH1 DDX58
9 regulation of type III interferon production GO:0034344 8.62 IFIH1 DDX58

Sources for Croup

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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