MCID: CTN007
MIFTS: 62

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Categories: Infectious diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis:

Name: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis 12 15 17 32
Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis 12 17 71
Asian Desert Cutaneous Leishmaniasis 12 71
Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous 43 71
Ethiopian Cutaneous Leishmaniasis 71
Leishmaniasis Diffuse Cutaneous 54
Leishmaniasis Cutaneous 54
Leproid Leishmaniasis 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9111
MeSH 43 D016773
NCIt 49 C34768
SNOMED-CT 67 240637006
ICD10 32 B55.1
UMLS 71 C0023283 C0023285 C0085311 more

Summaries for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Disease Ontology : 12 A leishmaniasis that involves skin infection caused by Leishmania species, resulting in one or more cutaneous lesions.

MalaCards based summary : Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, also known as diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, is related to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and cytokine deficiency. An important gene associated with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is IFNG (Interferon Gamma), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and PEDF Induced Signaling. The drugs Lidocaine and Anthelmintics have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, testes and t cells, and related phenotypes are hematopoietic system and cellular

Wikipedia : 74 Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis affecting humans. It is a skin... more...

Related Diseases for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Diseases related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 653)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 mucocutaneous leishmaniasis 32.5 TNF MPI LMLN IL5 IL4 IL2
2 cytokine deficiency 31.3 IL5 IL13
3 erysipelas 30.9 TNF IL6 IL2
4 lymphadenitis 30.8 TNF TLR4 SLC11A1 IL10 IFNG
5 syphilis 30.8 TNF IL6 IFNG
6 herpes zoster 30.8 TNF TLR2 IL2 IL10 IFNG
7 lepromatous leprosy 30.8 TNF TLR2 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
8 sarcoidosis 1 30.7 TNF SLC11A1 IL2 IL13 IFNG
9 blepharitis 30.7 TNF IL6 IL4
10 tuberculoid leprosy 30.7 TLR2 IL2 IL10 IFNG
11 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 30.7 TNF NOS2 IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
12 spondylitis 30.6 TNF IL6 IL10 IFNG
13 leishmaniasis 30.6 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 SLC11A1 PGD
14 exanthem 30.6 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
15 buruli ulcer 30.6 SLC11A1 IL10 IFNG
16 dacryoadenitis 30.5 IL4 IL13 IL10
17 folliculitis 30.5 TNF IL5 IL4 IFNG
18 aseptic meningitis 30.5 TNF IL10 IFNG
19 alpha/beta t-cell lymphopenia with gamma/delta t-cell expansion, severe cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity 30.4 IL10 IFNG FOXP3
20 amebiasis 30.4 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL4
21 alopecia 30.4 TNF IL4 IL2 IFNG
22 pulmonary sarcoidosis 30.3 TNF IL2 IFNG
23 panuveitis 30.3 TNF IL6 IL10
24 rosacea 30.3 TNF TLR2 IL6
25 crohn's colitis 30.3 TNF NOS2 IL2 IFNG
26 pericarditis 30.3 TNF IL6 IFNG
27 bacterial infectious disease 30.2 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 SLC11A1 IL6
28 strongyloidiasis 30.2 IL5 IL13 IFNG
29 keratitis, hereditary 30.2 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6
30 elephantiasis 30.2 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
31 skin disease 30.1 TNF TLR2 IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2
32 purpura 30.1 TNF IL6 IL4 IL10 IFNG
33 neuritis 30.1 TNF IL6 IL4 IL10 IFNG
34 trichinosis 30.1 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
35 takayasu arteritis 30.1 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10
36 uveitis 30.1 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
37 african tick-bite fever 30.1 TNF IL6 IL13 IL10 IFNG
38 human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease 30.1 TNF TLR9 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
39 mucositis 30.1 NOS2 IL2 IL10
40 typhoid fever 30.1 TNF TLR4 SLC11A1 IL6 IFNG
41 allergic hypersensitivity disease 30.1 TNF IL5 IL4 IL2 IL13 IL10
42 hypereosinophilic syndrome 30.0 IL5 IL4 IL2 IL13 IL10 IFNG
43 graft-versus-host disease 30.0 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
44 chagas disease 30.0 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 NOS2 IL6
45 sleeping sickness 30.0 PGD NOS2 LMLN IL6 IL10
46 melioidosis 29.9 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL10 IFNG
47 schistosomiasis 29.9 TNF IL5 IL4 IL2 IL13 IL10
48 visceral leishmaniasis 29.9 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 SLC11A1 PGD
49 chickenpox 29.8 TNF TLR9 TLR2 IL6 IL4 IL2
50 severe combined immunodeficiency 29.8 IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2 IL13 IL10

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis:



Diseases related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis:

45 (show all 20)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.48 FCER2 FOXP3 G6PD GPI IFNG IL10
2 cellular MP:0005384 10.46 FCER2 FOXP3 G6PD IFNG IL10 IL13
3 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.45 FCER2 FOXP3 IFNG IL10 IL13 IL2
4 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.44 FCER2 FOXP3 G6PD GPI IFNG IL10
5 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.43 FOXP3 G6PD GPI IFNG IL10 IL13
6 immune system MP:0005387 10.43 FCER2 FOXP3 GPI IFNG IL10 IL13
7 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.41 FCER2 FOXP3 G6PD GPI IFNG IL10
8 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.37 FOXP3 G6PD GPI IFNG IL10 IL2
9 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.27 FOXP3 IFNG IL10 IL13 IL2 IL4
10 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 10.27 FOXP3 GPI IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4
11 integument MP:0010771 10.21 FOXP3 IFNG IL10 IL13 IL4 IL6
12 nervous system MP:0003631 10.14 G6PD IFNG IL10 IL13 IL4 IL6
13 neoplasm MP:0002006 10.13 IFNG IL10 IL2 IL5 IL6 NOS2
14 muscle MP:0005369 10.06 IFNG IL10 IL13 IL6 NOS2 TLR2
15 reproductive system MP:0005389 10 FOXP3 IFNG IL10 IL13 IL2 IL4
16 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.97 FOXP3 GPI IFNG IL10 IL13 IL2
17 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.97 FOXP3 GPI IFNG IL10 IL13 IL2
18 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.92 FOXP3 IFNG IL4 IL6 NOS2 TLR2
19 skeleton MP:0005390 9.7 IFNG IL10 IL13 IL4 IL6 MPI
20 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.28 FOXP3 IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4 IL6

Drugs & Therapeutics for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Drugs for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 64)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
2 Anthelmintics Phase 4
3 Antimony Sodium Gluconate Phase 4
4 Anesthetics Phase 4
5
Pentamidine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 100-33-4 4735
6
Imiquimod Approved, Investigational Phase 3 99011-02-6 57469
7
Pentoxifylline Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 6493-05-6 4740
8
carbamide peroxide Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 124-43-6
9
Aluminum sulfate Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 10043-01-3
10
Sargramostim Approved, Investigational Phase 3 83869-56-1, 123774-72-1
11
Zinc Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 7440-66-6 32051
12
Zinc sulfate Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 7733-02-0
13
Paromomycin Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 7542-37-2, 1263-89-4 165580
14
Miltefosine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 58066-85-6 3600
15
Clotrimazole Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 23593-75-1 2812
16
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 22916-47-8 4189
17
Fluconazole Approved, Investigational Phase 3 86386-73-4 3365
18
Azithromycin Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 83905-01-5 447043 55185
19
Nitric Oxide Approved Phase 3 10102-43-9 145068
20 Molgramostim Investigational Phase 3 99283-10-0
21
BCG vaccine Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3
22
meglumine antimoniate Experimental, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 133-51-7
23 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 3
24 interferons Phase 3
25 Immunologic Factors Phase 3
26 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
27 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
28 Radiation-Protective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
29 Vaccines Phase 2, Phase 3
30 Dermatologic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
31 Antifungal Agents Phase 3
32 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3
33 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3
34 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3
35 Antioxidants Phase 3
36 Vasodilator Agents Phase 3
37 Protective Agents Phase 3
38 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
39 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 3
40 Hormone Antagonists Phase 3
41 Hormones Phase 3
42 Respiratory System Agents Phase 3
43 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 3
44 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 3
45 Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors Phase 3
46 Bronchodilator Agents Phase 3
47
Allopurinol Approved Phase 2 315-30-0 2094
48
Coal tar Approved Phase 2 8007-45-2
49
Amphotericin B Approved, Investigational Phase 2 1397-89-3 5280965 14956
50 Methyl 5-aminolevulinate Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 96)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Low-dose Pentavalent Antimony Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Old Age Patients Infected With Leishmania (Viannia) Braziliensis in Bahia State, Brazil. An Open Uncontrolled Trial. Completed NCT00818818 Phase 4 Meglumine antimoniate
2 Pharmacokinetics of Miltefosine in Children and Adults: Implications for the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia. Completed NCT01462500 Phase 4 Miltefosine
3 Phase IV Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Low-Dose Pentavalent Antimony Compared to the Standard Dose in Patients With Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia)Braziliensis Completed NCT00317980 Phase 4 Meglumine antimoniate;Meglumine antimoniate
4 An Open Label Study of RFH Therapy as Treatment for CL Caused by Leishmania Tropica in India Completed NCT01661296 Phase 4 Sodium stibogluconate
5 Randomized Clinical Trial of the Efficacy and Tolerability of Oral Miltefosine Versus Parenteral Antimony for the Treatment of Pediatric Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia Unknown status NCT00487253 Phase 3 Miltefosine;Meglumine antimoniate
6 Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial of Imiquimod (Aldara) Versus Placebo Used in Combination With Pentavalent Antimony (Glucantime) in Peruvian Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients Completed NCT00257530 Phase 3 Imiquimod
7 Double-blind Placebo Controlled Trial Using Pentoxifylline Associated With Pentavalent Antimony in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Completed NCT01381055 Phase 2, Phase 3 Pentoxifylline;Placebo
8 Topical Paromomycin Cream For Bolivian Cutaneous Eishmaniasis: A Controlled Study Completed NCT03096457 Phase 2, Phase 3 Paromomycin Sulfate;Pentamidine Isethionate
9 Phase 2 Study Electrothermocauterisation of Afghan Patients With Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis With and Without Pharmaceutical Chlorite Listed in the German Drug Codex (DAC N-055) Completed NCT00947362 Phase 2, Phase 3 DAC N-055;saline
10 Evaluation of Efficacy of Intra-lesional Injections of Glucantime Once Weekly in Comparison With Twice Weekly in the Treatment of Acute Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) Completed NCT04340128 Phase 3 Meglumine antimoniate;Meglumine antimoniate
11 A Pivotal, Randomized, Double-blind, Vehicle-controlled Study to Evaluate WR 279,396 and Paromomycin Alone to Treat Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (in Tunisia) Completed NCT00606580 Phase 3 WR 279,396 topical cream;Paromomycin Alone topical cream;Vehicle placebo cream
12 Miltefosine and GM-CSF in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: a Randomized and Controlled Trial Completed NCT03023111 Phase 3 Sbv;Miltefosine plus placebo;Miltefosine plus GM-CSF
13 Therapeutic Gain of Adding the Immunomodulator Pentoxifylline to the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Completed NCT01464242 Phase 2, Phase 3 Meglumine antimonate;Placebo;Pentoxifylline
14 A Randomized, Double-blind, Pivotal Phase 3 Study of WR 279,396 (Paromomycin + Gentamicin Topical Cream) and Paromomycin Alone Topical Cream for the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama Completed NCT01790659 Phase 3 WR 279,396;Paromomycin
15 Phase 3, Clinical Trials of Drug Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Completed NCT00351520 Phase 3 Miltefose
16 Phase III Clinical Trial for American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis: Comparison of Standard and Alternative Antimonial Dosage in Patients With American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Completed NCT01301924 Phase 2, Phase 3 Meglumine antimoniate
17 Phase 3 Open-label Study of Efficacy and Safety of Miltefosine or Thermotherapy vs Glucantime for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia. Completed NCT00471705 Phase 3 Miltefosine;Glucantime®
18 A Randomized, Safety, Immunogenicity & Efficacy Study of Autoclaved Leishmania Major Plus BCG vs. BCG (Double Blind) or Placebo (Open), in Healthy High Risk Iranian Volunteers With Positive Response to Leishmanin (LST>0) Completed NCT00429780 Phase 2, Phase 3
19 A Randomized, Safety, Immunogenicity & Efficacy Study of Autoclaved Leishmania Major Plus BCG vs. BCG (Double Blind) or Placebo (Open), in Healthy High Risk Iranian Volunteers With no Response to Leishmanin Completed NCT00429715 Phase 2, Phase 3
20 Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers, Using a Nitric Oxide Releasing Patch: PATHON Completed NCT00428727 Phase 3 Controlled nitric oxide releasing patch;placebo patch
21 A Randomized, Double Blind, Controlled Study to Determine the Efficacy of Zinc Supplementation on Diarrhea Incidence in an Adult Population in Western Kenya. Completed NCT01166815 Phase 2, Phase 3
22 Oral Miltefosine Plus Topical Paromomycin In American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Recruiting NCT03829917 Phase 2, Phase 3 Miltefosine and Paromomycin;miltefosine;paromomycin
23 Randomised, Open Label, Multicentre, Non-inferiority Clinical Trial for New Treatment Modalities for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania Tropica, in Pakistan Not yet recruiting NCT04268524 Phase 3
24 Phase 3 Randomized Trial Comparing Fluconazole to Meglumine Antimoniate in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by L. Braziliensis and L. Guyanensis Terminated NCT01953744 Phase 3 Fluconazole;Meglumine Antimoniate
25 Effectiveness, Safety and Feasibility of Thermotherapy With the Hand-held Exothermic Crystallization Thermotherapy for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (HECT-CL), Device for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Quetta, Pakistan Terminated NCT03208543 Phase 3
26 Open Label Randomized Study to Assess Safety and Efficacy of Azithromycin Versus Meglumine Antimoniate to Treat Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Terminated NCT00682656 Phase 2, Phase 3 Glucantime®;Zithromax ®
27 Double Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial, to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a Controlled Nitric Oxide Releasing Patch Versus Meglumine Antimoniate in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Terminated NCT00317629 Phase 3 controlled nitric oxide releasing patch;meglumine antimoniate
28 Phase 2 Study of the Efficacy of Daylight Activated Photodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Unknown status NCT00840359 Phase 2
29 EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF A SHORT COURSE OF THE COMBINATION OF MILTEFOSINE AND ANTIMONY TO TREAT CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN BOLIVIA Unknown status NCT00537953 Phase 2 Miltefosine , meglumine antimoniate
30 Miltefosine to Treat Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Bolivia Completed NCT00233545 Phase 2 miltefosine;antimony
31 Miltefosine Combined With Intralesional Pentamidine for Leishmania Braziliensis Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Bolivia Completed NCT03445897 Phase 2 miltefosine plus intralesional pentamidine
32 Treatment of Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis With Miltefosine Completed NCT01050907 Phase 2 miltefosine
33 Topical Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis With WR 279,396: a Phase 2 Study in the Old World Completed NCT00703924 Phase 2 WR 279,396;Placebo
34 An Open-Label Study to Examine the Safety and Efficacy, of WR 279,396 (Paromomycin + Gentamicin Topical Cream) for the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in France Completed NCT01988909 Phase 2 WR 279,396
35 Reduced Doses of Antimony Plus Recombinant Human GM-CSF Compared With Antimony in Standard Doses for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: a Randomized, Single-blind, Placebo-controlled, Pilot Study Completed NCT00973128 Phase 2 GMCSF plus Antimony reduced dose;Meglumine antimoniate
36 A Phase 2, Randomized, Open-Label, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of the LEISH-F2 + MPL-SE Vaccine in the Treatment of Patients With Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Completed NCT01011309 Phase 2 Sodium stibogluconate
37 Clinical Trial to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Orally Administered Miltefosine in Brazilian Patients With Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Compared to the Standard Care as Active Control Completed NCT00600548 Phase 2 Miltefosine.;Meglumine antimoniate.;Miltefosine.;Meglumine antimoniate.
38 A Phase I/II Randomized Comparison of Localized Heat Therapy Versus Sodium Stibogluconate (Pentostam) for the Treatment of Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (HSRRB Log No. A-12364) Completed NCT00884377 Phase 2 Sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam)
39 Transition-state Analog Inhibitor of Human Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase as an Adjunct in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Therapy: a Randomized and Controlled Trial Completed NCT03294161 Phase 2 Immucillin DI4G;Meglumine antimoniate
40 Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of Topical 3% Amphotericin B Cream for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia Completed NCT01845727 Phase 1, Phase 2 Topical Amphotericin B at 3%
41 A Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of the Leish-111f + MPL-SE Vaccine Compared to the Leish-111f Protein Alone in Montenegro Skin Test-Negative Healthy Adults Completed NCT00121862 Phase 2
42 Phase II Open Randomized Clinical & Health Economic Trial Comparing Intralesional Antimony Therapy Versus Wound Care Management in Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients in Northern Afghanistan Completed NCT00996463 Phase 2 Sodium Stibogluconate;DAC N-055
43 Phase II Randomized Study of Allopurinol Versus Glucantime Versus Allopurinol/Glucantime for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Brazil Completed NCT00004755 Phase 2 allopurinol;glucantime
44 A Blinded, Placebo Controlled Study Evaluating Safety, False-Positive Reactions and Sensitizing Properties of Leishmania Tropica Skin Test Antigen (LtSTA) Completed NCT00633009 Phase 2
45 Treatment of Bolivian Cutaneous Leishmaniasis With a Combination of Oral Miltefosine Plus Topical Imiquimod 5% Completed NCT01380314 Phase 2 Miltefosine + Imiquimod;Miltefosine 150 mg x day + Placebo
46 Topical Treatment of Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis With WR279396 (Paromomycin/Gentamicin Ointment): Efficacy and Tolerance of a Regimen Using an Occlusive Polyurethane Dressing Completed NCT01536795 Phase 2 WR279 396 with Tegaderm Dressing;WR 279, 396 with Gauze and Tape Dressing
47 Double-blind, Randomized, Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Efficacy Trial of WR 279,396 (Paromomycin + Gentamicin Topical Cream) and Paromomycin Topical Cream for the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama Completed NCT01083576 Phase 2 WR 279,396 (15% paromomycin + 0.5% gentamicin topical cream);Paromomycin Alone Cream (15% paromomycin topical cream)
48 Double-blind, Randomized, Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Efficacy Trial of WR 279,396 (Paromomycin + Gentamicin Topical Cream) and Paromomycin Topical Cream for the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peru Completed NCT01032382 Phase 2 WR 279,396 (15% paromomycin + 0.5% gentamicin topical cream);Paromomycin Alone Cream (15% paromomycin topical cream)
49 A Randomized, Open Label, Multicenter Study to Determine the Efficacy and Safety of Combining Thermotherapy and a Short Course of Miltefosine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the New World¨ Completed NCT02687971 Phase 2 Miltefosine
50 Efficacy and Safety of Single, Double and Triple Dose Pentamidine (7mg/kg) for Patients With Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by L. Guyanensis: a Pilot Study Completed NCT02919605 Phase 2 Single dose of Pentamidine;Two doses of Pentamidine;Three doses of Pentamidine

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Meglumine

Cochrane evidence based reviews: leishmaniasis, cutaneous

Genetic Tests for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Anatomical Context for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis:

40
Skin, Testes, T Cells, Neutrophil, Monocytes, Lymph Node, B Cells

Publications for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Articles related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis:

(show top 50) (show all 7109)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Correlation of parasitic load with interleukin-4 response in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica. 61 54
19799628 2009
2
Etiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis and anthropophilic vectors in Juruti, Pará State, Brazil. 54 61
19851628 2009
3
Immunophenotypic pattern and cytokine profiles of dry type cutaneous leishmaniasis. 61 54
19566354 2009
4
Th1/Th2 immune responses are associated with active cutaneous leishmaniasis and clinical cure is associated with strong interferon-gamma production. 54 61
19480861 2009
5
Polymorphisms of cytochrome b gene in Leishmania parasites and their relation to types of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in Pakistan. 54 61
18271802 2008
6
Can interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 balance be associated with severity of human Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection? 61 54
17614975 2007
7
Immunopathology of leishmaniasis: an update. 54 61
17880757 2007
8
Atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis cases display elevated antigen-induced interleukin-10. 54 61
17518946 2007
9
IFNG +874T/A polymorphism is not associated with American tegumentary leishmaniasis susceptibility but can influence Leishmania induced IFN-gamma production. 54 61
17456233 2007
10
Surrogate markers of immunity to Leishmania major in leishmanin skin test negative individuals from an endemic area re-visited. 61 54
17049693 2006
11
Differential effects of antigens from L. braziliensis isolates from disseminated and cutaneous leishmaniasis on in vitro cytokine production. 54 61
16638143 2006
12
Evaluation of In Vitro Production of IFN-gamma, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13 by Blood Cells in Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesions. 61 54
17301418 2005
13
The dendritic cell receptor DC-SIGN discriminates among species and life cycle forms of Leishmania. 54 61
14707095 2004
14
Characterization of the immune response to Leishmania infantum recombinant antigens. 54 61
12593967 2003
15
Up-regulation of Th1-type responses in mucosal leishmaniasis patients. 54 61
12438348 2002
16
Interferon-gamma treatment induces granulomatous tissue reaction in a case of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis. 61 54
12142611 2002
17
LACK-specific CD4(+) T cells that induce gamma interferon production in patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis during an early stage of infection. 61 54
12011006 2002
18
Evaluation of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha as immunological markers of clinical outcome in cutaneous leishmaniasis. 54 61
11873254 2002
19
High intralesional interleukin-10 messenger RNA expression in localized cutaneous leishmaniasis is associated with unresponsiveness to treatment. 61 54
11740743 2001
20
Flow cytometric determination of cellular sources and frequencies of key cytokine-producing lymphocytes directed against recombinant LACK and soluble Leishmania antigen in human cutaneous leishmaniasis. 54 61
11292745 2001
21
Interleukin (IL)-13 is the predominant Th2 cytokine in localized cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions and renders specific CD4+ T cells unresponsive to IL-12. 54 61
11237813 2001
22
Identification and characterization of T cell-stimulating antigens from Leishmania by CD4 T cell expression cloning. 61 54
11123329 2001
23
Treatment of two patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana modifies the immunohistological profile but not the disease outcome. 61 54
10632987 1999
24
T-cell response in human leishmaniasis. 61 54
10065635 1999
25
Isoenzyme characterization of Leishmania isolated from human cases with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis from the State of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. 61 54
9574789 1998
26
Biochemical analysis and immunogenicity of Leishmania major amastigote fractions in cutaneous leishmaniasis. 61 54
9367403 1997
27
Successful therapy of chronic, nonhealing murine cutaneous leishmaniasis with sodium stibogluconate and gamma interferon depends on continued interleukin-12 production. 54 61
9234779 1997
28
Leishmania aethiopica derived from diffuse leishmaniasis patients preferentially induce mRNA for interleukin-10 while those from localized leishmaniasis patients induce interferon-gamma. 61 54
9041358 1997
29
Variation of cytokine patterns related to therapeutic response in diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. 61 54
8932768 1996
30
In situ expression of interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 in active human cutaneous leishmaniasis. 61 54
8880134 1996
31
Successful treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis using systemic interferon-gamma. 54 61
8832954 1996
32
Characterization of the immune response in subjects with self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis. 54 61
7573712 1995
33
Interferon-gamma and host antimicrobial defense: current and future clinical applications. 61 54
7977435 1994
34
Recombinant soluble interleukin-4 (IL-4) receptor acts as an antagonist of IL-4 in murine cutaneous Leishmaniasis. 54 61
7927664 1994
35
Dichotomy of the human T cell response to Leishmania antigens. II. Absent or Th2-like response to gp63 and Th1-like response to lipophosphoglycan-associated protein in cells from cured visceral leishmaniasis patients. 61 54
8004810 1994
36
Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines in chronic lesions of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. 54 61
8112853 1994
37
Efficacy of a short course (10 days) of high-dose meglumine antimonate with or without interferon-gamma in treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in Guatemala. 54 61
8011819 1994
38
CD23 and IgE expression during the human immune response to cutaneous leishmaniasis: possible role in monocyte activation. 54 61
8008965 1994
39
Cytokine patterns in the pathogenesis of human leishmaniasis. 54 61
8473490 1993
40
The role of interferon-gamma in the treatment of visceral and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. 54 61
8433014 1993
41
[Unilateral chronic granulomatous blepharitis as a leading symptom of Oriental cutaneous leishmaniasis in Germany. Giesma stain as rapid diagnosis and initial description of systemic therapy with gamma-interferon]. 54 61
1578880 1992
42
Production of interferon gamma in cultures of whole blood obtained in the course of and after healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis. 54 61
1796880 1991
43
A randomized trial comparing a pentavalent antimonial drug and recombinant interferon-gamma in the local treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. 61 54
1909469 1991
44
Interferon gamma therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis. 61 54
2111977 1990
45
[Leishmaniasis: effect of factors present in serum]. 61 54
2133319 1990
46
Unbalanced production of LTB4/PGE2 driven by diabetes increases susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis. 61
32525457 2020
47
Microautophagy upregulation in cutaneous lymph nodes of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum. 61
32447515 2020
48
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Syrian Refugee Children: a Case Series. 61
32251258 2020
49
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Presenting as Macrocheilitis in a Postliver Transplant Pediatric Patient. 61
31688701 2020
50
Microscopic and molecular evidence in support of rodent as a reservoir for dissemination of Leishmaniasis. 61
32144860 2020

Variations for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Expression for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

LifeMap Discovery
Genes differentially expressed in tissues of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis patients vs. healthy controls: 35 (show top 50) (show all 174)
# Gene Description Tissue Up/Dn Fold Change (log2) P value
1 CXCL9 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 Skin + 6.42 0.000
2 CXCL10 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 Skin + 6.16 0.000
3 IDO1 indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 Skin + 5.97 0.000
4 GZMB granzyme B (granzyme 2, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase 1) Skin + 5.88 0.000
5 GBP5 guanylate binding protein 5 Skin + 5.82 0.000
6 PIP prolactin-induced protein Skin - 5.80 0.000
7 GNLY granulysin Skin + 5.77 0.000
8 MMP1 matrix metallopeptidase 1 Skin + 5.47 0.000
9 DCD dermcidin Skin - 5.36 0.000
10 GZMA granzyme A (granzyme 1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase 3) Skin + 5.30 0.000
11 SCGB1D2 secretoglobin, family 1D, member 2 Skin - 5.14 0.000
12 CCL8 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 Skin + 5.01 0.000
13 NKG7 natural killer cell granule protein 7 Skin + 4.99 0.000
14 GZMK granzyme K (granzyme 3; tryptase II) Skin + 4.89 0.000
15 SCGB2A2 secretoglobin, family 2A, member 2 Skin - 4.87 0.000
16 IGLL1 immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 1 Skin + 4.82 0.000
17 CCL5 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 Skin + 4.78 0.000
18 MMP3 matrix metallopeptidase 3 Skin + 4.69 0.000
19 CCL3L3 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3-like 3 Skin + 4.67 0.000
20 UBD ubiquitin D Skin + 4.67 0.000
21 ADAMDEC1 ADAM-like, decysin 1 Skin + 4.65 0.000
22 EPSTI1 epithelial stromal interaction 1 (breast) Skin + 4.53 0.000
23 JCHAIN joining chain of multimeric IgA and IgM Skin + 4.53 0.000
24 C5orf46 chromosome 5 open reading frame 46 Skin - 4.53 0.000
25 C1QB complement component 1, q subcomponent, B chain Skin + 4.51 0.000
26 GZMH granzyme H (cathepsin G-like 2, protein h-CCPX) Skin + 4.48 0.000
27 GBP1 guanylate binding protein 1, interferon-inducible Skin + 4.45 0.000
28 CCL4L1 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4-like 1 Skin + 4.44 0.000
29 MED27 mediator complex subunit 27 Skin - 4.31 0.000
30 FCER1G Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; gamma polypeptide Skin + 4.29 0.000
31 KIR2DL3 killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 3 Skin + 4.27 0.000
32 SERPINA12 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 12 Skin - 4.25 0.000
33 GBP4 guanylate binding protein 4 Skin + 4.23 0.000
34 CD8A CD8a molecule Skin + 4.23 0.000
35 TDO2 tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase Skin + 4.19 0.000
36 FCGR1A Fc fragment of IgG, high affinity Ia, receptor (CD64) Skin + 4.17 0.000
37 CXCL8 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 Skin + 4.13 0.000
38 KRT27 keratin 27, type I Skin - 4.13 0.000
39 DAPL1 death associated protein-like 1 Skin - 4.10 0.000
40 LYZ lysozyme Skin + 4.10 0.000
41 THRSP thyroid hormone responsive Skin - 4.06 0.000
42 CHP2 calcineurin-like EF-hand protein 2 Skin - 4.03 0.000
43 PRF1 perforin 1 (pore forming protein) Skin + 4.03 0.000
44 LAG3 lymphocyte-activation gene 3 Skin + 3.99 0.000
45 CYBB cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide Skin + 3.98 0.000
46 WARS tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase Skin + 3.98 0.000
47 CD3D CD3d molecule, delta (CD3-TCR complex) Skin + 3.97 0.000
48 IL18BP interleukin 18 binding protein Skin + 3.96 0.000
49 SNX10 sorting nexin 10 Skin + 3.96 0.000
50 SERPINA1 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 1 Skin + 3.95 0.000
Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Pathways for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Pathways related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 78)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
14.14 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 SLC11A1 NOS2
2
Show member pathways
13.79 TNF TLR4 NOS2 IL6 IL5 IL4
3
Show member pathways
13.59 TNF IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2 IL13
4
Show member pathways
13.54 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL5
5
Show member pathways
13.49 TNF NOS2 IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2
6
Show member pathways
13.36 TNF IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2 IL13
7
Show member pathways
13.32 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL4 IL2
8
Show member pathways
13.2 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 NOS2 IL6
9
Show member pathways
13.05 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL4 IL2
10
Show member pathways
12.99 TNF IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2 IL13
11 12.97 NOS2 IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2 IL13
12
Show member pathways
12.97 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL2
13 12.84 TNF TLR9 TLR2 IL6 IFNG
14
Show member pathways
12.84 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 NOS2 IL6
15
Show member pathways
12.82 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL2
16
Show member pathways
12.72 TNF NOS2 IL6 IL2 IL10 IFNG
17 12.72 TNF TLR9 TLR2 IL4 IL2 IL10
18
Show member pathways
12.7 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
19
Show member pathways
12.62 IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2 IL13 IL10
20
Show member pathways
12.61 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL5
21
Show member pathways
12.52 TNF TLR2 IL6 IL5 IL4 IL13
22
Show member pathways
12.46 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IFNG
23
Show member pathways
12.44 TNF IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2 IL13
24
Show member pathways
12.44 TNF TLR4 TLR2 NOS2 IL4 IL10
25
Show member pathways
12.43 TNF TLR4 NOS2 IL6 IFNG
26 12.43 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6
27
Show member pathways
12.39 TNF IL6 IL2 IL10
28
Show member pathways
12.39 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6
29
Show member pathways
12.35 TNF TLR9 IL6 IL2 IL10
30 12.35 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 NOS2 IL6
31 12.35 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 NOS2 IL6
32
Show member pathways
12.3 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 NOS2 IL6
33 12.25 TNF IL6 IL13 IL10
34
Show member pathways
12.23 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL5 IL4
35
Show member pathways
12.22 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL5 IL2 IL13
36 12.18 TNF TLR4 NOS2 IL6 IL4 IL2
37 12.17 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL2 IL10
38 12.16 TNF IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2 IL10
39 12.14 TNF NOS2 IL6 IL4 IL13 IL10
40
Show member pathways
12.09 NOS2 IL4 IL2 IFNG
41 12.08 TNF IL6 IL5 IL4 FCER2
42 12.07 TLR4 NOS2 IL6 IFNG
43 12.06 TNF TLR4 TLR2 NOS2 IL6 IL10
44 12.05 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IFNG
45
Show member pathways
12.05 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL4 IFNG
46 11.98 IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2 IL13 IFNG
47 11.95 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 FCER2
48 11.95 TNF TLR4 NOS2 IL6 IL10
49
Show member pathways
11.95 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL2
50
Show member pathways
11.93 TNF IL5 IL4 IL2 IFNG FOXP3

GO Terms for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Cellular components related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.61 TNF IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2 IL13
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.36 TNF TLR9 IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2

Biological processes related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 95)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0045944 10.28 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 SLC11A1 IL6
2 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045893 10.21 TNF IL6 IL5 IL4 IL10 FOXP3
3 defense response to bacterium GO:0042742 10.1 TNF TLR9 TLR4 SLC11A1 NOS2 IL10
4 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 10.07 TNF TLR4 NOS2 IL6 IL10
5 inflammatory response GO:0006954 10.06 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 SLC11A1 NOS2
6 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 10.05 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6
7 negative regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050728 10.04 IL4 IL2 IL13 IL10 FOXP3
8 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 10.03 TLR4 TLR2 SLC11A1 NOS2 IL13 IL10
9 positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091 10 TNF IL6 IL5 IL10
10 defense response to Gram-negative bacterium GO:0050829 9.99 TLR9 TLR4 SLC11A1 NOS2 IL6
11 positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling GO:1901224 9.96 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2
12 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.96 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 SLC11A1 IL6
13 positive regulation of JNK cascade GO:0046330 9.95 TNF TLR9 TLR4
14 humoral immune response GO:0006959 9.95 TNF IL6 IFNG GPI
15 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.95 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL6
16 positive regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050729 9.95 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL2 IFNG
17 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.94 TNF NOS2 IFNG
18 I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling GO:0007249 9.94 TNF TLR9 TLR4
19 response to glucocorticoid GO:0051384 9.94 TNF IL6 IL10
20 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.93 IL6 IL4 IL2
21 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:0048661 9.93 TNF IL6 IL13
22 negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production GO:0032720 9.93 TLR4 IL10 FOXP3
23 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032729 9.93 TNF TLR4 SLC11A1 IL2
24 positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production GO:0032760 9.92 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2
25 positive regulation of interleukin-6 secretion GO:2000778 9.92 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IFNG
26 positive regulation of phagocytosis GO:0050766 9.91 TNF SLC11A1 IFNG
27 toll-like receptor signaling pathway GO:0002224 9.91 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2
28 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.91 TNF IL6 IL5 IL10
29 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.91 TNF IL6 IL4 IL2 IL13 IFNG
30 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 9.9 TNF TLR4 IFNG
31 negative regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:2000352 9.9 IL4 IL13 IL10
32 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 9.9 TNF TLR9 TLR4 TLR2
33 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway GO:0031663 9.89 TNF TLR4 TLR2
34 MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway GO:0002755 9.89 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2
35 negative regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032715 9.89 TNF TLR9 TLR4 IL10 FOXP3
36 positive regulation of cytokine secretion GO:0050715 9.88 TNF IL10 IFNG
37 negative regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032689 9.88 TLR4 IL10 FOXP3
38 positive regulation of interferon-beta production GO:0032728 9.88 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2
39 positive regulation of interleukin-12 production GO:0032735 9.88 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IFNG
40 positive regulation of interleukin-10 production GO:0032733 9.87 TLR9 TLR4 TLR2 IL4
41 positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response GO:1900017 9.86 TNF TLR4 IL6
42 positive regulation of macrophage activation GO:0043032 9.86 TLR4 IL13 IL10
43 positive regulation of interleukin-8 secretion GO:2000484 9.85 TNF TLR4 TLR2
44 regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation GO:0045589 9.85 IL2 IFNG FOXP3
45 positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process GO:0045416 9.85 TNF TLR9 TLR4
46 microglial cell activation GO:0001774 9.85 TNF TLR2 IL4 IL13 IFNG
47 negative regulation of interleukin-17 production GO:0032700 9.84 TLR4 IFNG FOXP3
48 macrophage activation GO:0042116 9.84 TLR4 SLC11A1 IL4 IL13
49 positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process GO:0045080 9.83 TNF IL4 IFNG
50 positive regulation of immunoglobulin secretion GO:0051024 9.83 IL6 IL5 IL2 GPI

Molecular functions related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.43 IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2 IL10 GPI
2 NADP binding GO:0050661 9.33 PGD NOS2 G6PD
3 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.28 TNF IL6 IL5 IL4 IL2 IL13
4 lipopolysaccharide receptor activity GO:0001875 9.26 TLR4 TLR2

Sources for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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