Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS)

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Genetic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome:

Name: Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome 56 74 52 25
Cyclical Vomiting Syndrome 25 6 71
Cvs 56 52 25
Abdominal Migraine 25 71
Familial Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome 52
Cyclical Vomiting 25
Periodic Vomiting 25




mean age at onset 5 years
mean age at resolution of symptoms 10 years
cyclic vomiting syndrome plus (cvs+) is characterized by additional neuromuscular and/or visceral organ manifestations (as indicated above)


cyclic vomiting syndrome:
Inheritance multifactorial inheritance mitochondrial inheritance


Summaries for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Cyclic vomiting syndrome is a disorder that causes recurrent episodes of nausea, vomiting, and tiredness (lethargy). This condition is diagnosed most often in young children, but it can affect people of any age. The episodes of nausea, vomiting, and lethargy last anywhere from an hour to 10 days. An affected person may vomit several times per hour, potentially leading to a dangerous loss of fluids (dehydration). Additional symptoms can include unusually pale skin (pallor), abdominal pain, diarrhea, headache, fever, and an increased sensitivity to light (photophobia) or to sound (phonophobia). In most affected people, the signs and symptoms of each attack are quite similar. These attacks can be debilitating, making it difficult for an affected person to go to work or school. Episodes of nausea, vomiting, and lethargy can occur regularly or apparently at random, or can be triggered by a variety of factors. The most common triggers are emotional excitement and infections. Other triggers can include periods without eating (fasting), temperature extremes, lack of sleep, overexertion, allergies, ingesting certain foods or alcohol, and menstruation. If the condition is not treated, episodes usually occur four to 12 times per year. Between attacks, vomiting is absent, and nausea is either absent or much reduced. However, many affected people experience other symptoms during and between episodes, including pain, lethargy, digestive disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux and irritable bowel syndrome, and fainting spells (syncope). People with cyclic vomiting syndrome are also more likely than people without the disorder to experience depression, anxiety, and panic disorder. It is unclear whether these health conditions are directly related to nausea and vomiting. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is often considered to be a variant of migraines, which are severe headaches often associated with pain, nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is likely the same as or closely related to a condition called abdominal migraine, which is characterized by attacks of stomach pain and cramping. Attacks of nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain in childhood may be replaced by migraine headaches as an affected person gets older. Many people with cyclic vomiting syndrome or abdominal migraine have a family history of migraines. Most people with cyclic vomiting syndrome have normal intelligence, although some affected people have developmental delay or intellectual disability. Autism spectrum disorder, which affects communication and social interaction, have also been associated with cyclic vomiting syndrome. Additionally, muscle weakness (myopathy) and seizures are possible. People with any of these additional features are said to have cyclic vomiting syndrome plus.

MalaCards based summary : Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome, also known as cyclical vomiting syndrome, is related to migraine with or without aura 1 and cannabis abuse, and has symptoms including vomiting, nausea and vomiting and abdominal pain. An important gene associated with Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome is MT-TL1 (Mitochondrially Encoded TRNA-Leu (UUA/G) 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Susceptibility Pathways and Cell-type Dependent Selectivity of CCK2R Signaling. The drugs Ondansetron and Dopamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, skin and testes, and related phenotypes are hearing impairment and intellectual disability

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS ) is a condition characterized by recurrent, prolonged episodes of severe nausea and vomiting . Episodes of vomiting may last hours or days. Other signs and symptoms during episodes may include intense sweating, paleness, weakness and fatigue, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, dizziness, and headache. Most people with CVS are symptom-free in between episodes, but some people have milder symptoms. The condition can begin at any age, but it most often begins in childhood. A subset of people with CVS also have neurologic or neuromuscular disorders ; the condition in these cases is referred to as "CVS plus." The underlying cause of CVS is unknown. Data suggest there is a strong genetic component for CVS in children, involving changes (mutations ) in mitochondrial DNA . Researchers believe that the condition primarily affects the brain, causing abnormalities in how the brain and gut interact. Many people with CVS report "triggers" for episodes, such as excitement, stress, infections, eating certain foods, and menstruation. People with a family history of migraines may be more likely to develop CVS. Treatment strategies for controlling symptoms may include avoiding triggers, medications to prevent or relieve nausea, tricyclic antidepressants, anti-migraine medications, and supplements called coenzyme Q-10 and L-carnitine . While some people with CVS outgrow the condition within a few years, others continue to have episodes through adulthood. Children who outgrow CVS may go on to develop migraines.

Wikipedia : 74 Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a chronic functional condition of unknown pathogenesis. CVS is... more...

More information from OMIM: 500007

Related Diseases for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Diseases related to Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 393)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 migraine with or without aura 1 31.2 OPRM1 MT-TL1 IL6 HTR3A CNR1
2 cannabis abuse 30.2 OPRM1 CNR1
3 motion sickness 30.0 OPRM1 HTR3A CNR1
4 ileus 29.8 OPRM1 IL6
5 opiate dependence 29.8 OPRM1 CNR1
6 irritable bowel syndrome 29.7 OPRM1 IL6 HTR3A CNR1
7 chronic fatigue syndrome 29.6 IL6 HTR3A
8 anxiety 29.4 OPRM1 IL6 HTR3A CNR1
9 fibromyalgia 29.4 OPRM1 IL6 HTR3A
10 diarrhea 29.4 OPRM1 IL6 HTR3A
11 stroke, ischemic 29.3 MT-TL1 IL6 CNR1
12 constipation 29.0 OPRM1 IL6 HTR3A CNR1
13 pain agnosia 28.8 OPRM1 IL6 HTR3A CNR1
14 autism 28.2 RYR2 OPRM1 HTR3A CNR1
15 trisomy 2 mosaicism 11.5
16 dihydropyrimidinase deficiency 11.4
17 congenital disorder of glycosylation, type ib 11.2
18 phelan-mcdermid syndrome 11.2
19 childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum 11.2
20 neu-laxova syndrome 1 11.2
21 anophthalmos with limb anomalies 11.2
22 classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency 11.2
23 haemophilus influenzae 10.6
24 chromosomal triplication 10.5
25 autonomic dysfunction 10.3
26 otitis media 10.3
27 rabies 10.3
28 rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma 10.3
29 tetanus 10.3
30 gastroparesis 10.3
31 headache 10.3
32 down syndrome 10.2
33 galactorrhea 10.2
34 hyperprolactinemia 10.2
35 diphtheria 10.2
36 japanese encephalitis 10.2
37 pertussis 10.2
38 encephalitis 10.2
39 posttransplant acute limbic encephalitis 10.2
40 neuromuscular disease 10.2
41 triiodothyronine receptor auxiliary protein 10.2
42 pituitary tumors 10.2
43 gastroesophageal reflux 10.2
44 inherited metabolic disorder 10.2
45 dysautonomia 10.2
46 adenoma 10.1
47 uremic pruritus 10.1 IL6 CNR1
48 autonomic neuropathy 10.1
49 myopathy 10.1
50 mitochondrial disorders 10.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome:

Diseases related to Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Human phenotypes related to Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome:

31 (show all 24)
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 hearing impairment 31 HP:0000365
2 intellectual disability 31 HP:0001249
3 muscular hypotonia 31 HP:0001252
4 microcephaly 31 HP:0000252
5 cognitive impairment 31 HP:0100543
6 muscle weakness 31 HP:0001324
7 vomiting 31 HP:0002013
8 ataxia 31 HP:0001251
9 strabismus 31 HP:0000486
10 abdominal pain 31 HP:0002027
11 autism 31 HP:0000717
12 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 31 HP:0007018
13 growth delay 31 HP:0001510
14 pallor 31 HP:0000980
15 motor delay 31 HP:0001270
16 anorexia 31 HP:0002039
17 migraine 31 HP:0002076
18 lethargy 31 HP:0001254
19 cardiomyopathy 31 HP:0001638
20 generalized hypotonia 31 HP:0001290
21 gastrointestinal dysmotility 31 HP:0002579
22 exercise intolerance 31 HP:0003546
23 nausea 31 HP:0002018
24 seizure 31 HP:0001250

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

Abdomen Gastrointestinal:
abdominal pain
gastrointestinal dysmotility (cvs+)

Neurologic Central Nervous System:
vomiting, episodic
rapid onset
occurs most often during the night or early morning
peak frequency of vomiting every 10 to 15 minutes
Head And Neck Head:
microcephaly (in patients with 'cvs-plus,' cvs+)

Head And Neck Eyes:
strabismus (cvs+)

Muscle Soft Tissue:
hypotonia (cvs+)
muscle weakness (cvs+)
delayed motor development (cvs+)
exercise intolerance (cvs+)

Skin Nails Hair Skin:

Growth Other:
growth retardation

Head And Neck Ears:
hearing loss (cvs+)

Cardiovascular Heart:
cardiomyopathy (cvs+)

Neurologic Behavioral Psychiatric Manifestations:
attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (cvs+)
autism (cvs+)
pervasive developmental disorder (cvs+)

Clinical features from OMIM:


UMLS symptoms related to Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome:

vomiting, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, nausea, signs and symptoms, digestive, vomiting alone, persistent vomiting

Drugs & Therapeutics for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Drugs for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 30)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Ondansetron Approved Phase 4 99614-02-5 4595
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Haloperidol Approved Phase 4 52-86-8 3559
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
5 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
6 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
7 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4
8 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
9 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
10 Antiemetics Phase 4
11 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
12 Haloperidol decanoate Phase 4
13 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
14 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
15 Laxatives Phase 4
16 Cathartics Phase 4
17 (1-6)-alpha-glucomannan Phase 4
18 Manna Phase 4
19 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 4
20 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-67-9 5202
Capsaicin Approved Phase 2 404-86-4 1548943
Pancrelipase Approved, Investigational 53608-75-6
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 564-25-0 54671203
25 Acidophilus
26 Trace Elements
27 Vitamins
28 Nutrients
29 Micronutrients
30 pancreatin

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 22)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Haloperidol Versus Ondansetron for Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome (HaVOC): A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT03056482 Phase 4 Ondansetron 8mg;Haloperidol 0.05mg/kg;Haloperidol 0.1mg/kg
2 Glucomannn for the Treatment of Abdominal Pain-related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Childhood Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial Completed NCT01495806 Phase 4 Glucomannan;placebo
3 Topiramate for the Prophylactic Treatment of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome in Children Terminated NCT00286988 Phase 4 Topiramate
4 Topical Capsaicin Cream for Treatment of Suspected Cyclical Vomiting Syndromes Completed NCT03223350 Phase 2 Capsaicin 0.1% Cream;Placebos
5 Association Between Infant Colics and Parental Migraine ? Non Interventional Study in the Pediatric Emergency Unit of Nancy (France) University Hospital Unknown status NCT03155360
6 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Strain GG for The Prevention of Functional Abdominal Pain Children After Acute Gastroenteritis Unknown status NCT01671137
7 A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study to Investigate Differences in the Structure and the Function of the Brain at Rest; Between Persons With Functional Pain Conditions Such as IBS or Vulvodynia, IBD and Healthy Controls Completed NCT01517516
8 Analysis of Q10 Coenzyme Efficacy for Long-term Treatment of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome in Children Completed NCT03295760 Q10 Coenzyme
9 Genetic Analysis of Children With Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome and Migraines Completed NCT00727974
10 Applying Nutrient Drink Test in Understanding Pathophysiology of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Completed NCT03470181
11 Quality of Life And Psychological Symptoms In Children With Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Completed NCT00743665
12 An Integrative, Patient-Centered Model of Care: Meditation and Care Coordination to Improve Healthcare Outcomes in Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Completed NCT04329637
13 Autonomic Profiles in Pediatric Patients With Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome, Functional Abdominal Pain or Chronic Nausea Completed NCT00728026
14 Quality of Life, Coping and Psychological Symptoms in Children and Adolescents With Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Completed NCT00728039
15 Endogenous Pain Processing and Effectiveness of Pain Neuroscience Education in Children With Functional Abdominal Pain and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Completed NCT02880332
16 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Scheduled Prophylactic Antiemetics for Reduction of Emesis With Doxycycline Completed NCT02456662 Ondansetron;Placebo
17 Evaluation of the Duodenal Microbiome in Pediatric Functional Dyspepsia Completed NCT02340312
18 Efficacy of Auricular Neurostimulation for Children and Adults With Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome: a Pilot Study Recruiting NCT03434652
19 The NIDDK Gastroparesis Registry 3: Characterization and Clinical Course of Symptoms and Gastric Emptying in Patients With Symptoms of Gastroparesis Recruiting NCT03680859
20 Abdominal Pain Disorders Functional in Children: Impact of Hypno-analgesia on the Autonomic Balance. A Prospective Single-center Study Recruiting NCT02830698
21 Efficacy of Osteopathic Treatment in Function Abdominal Pain in Children and Adolescents Recruiting NCT02594774
22 Co-Enzyme Q10, L-Carnitine and Amitriptyline Usage in Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS): A Research Study Withdrawn NCT00728104

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Genetic Tests for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Anatomical Context for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome:

Brain, Skin, Testes, Cortex, Heart, Skeletal Muscle, Placenta

Publications for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Articles related to Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 429)
# Title Authors PMID Year
A mitochondrial DNA mutation (A3243G mtDNA) in a family with cyclic vomiting. 56 6
12905015 2003
Maternal inheritance in cyclic vomiting syndrome. 61 56
15643622 2005
Maternal inheritance in cyclic vomiting syndrome with neuromuscular disease. 56 61
12884425 2003
Familial cyclic vomiting syndrome. 61 56
12230597 2002
Is cyclic vomiting syndrome related to migraine? 61 56
10228291 1999
Clinical Characteristics, Comorbidities and Hospital Outcomes in Hospitalizations with Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome: A Nationwide Analysis. 52 61
28050780 2017
Recurrent Gastrointestinal Disturbance: Abdominal Migraine and Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome. 61 52
28283964 2017
The phenotypic spectrum of fifty Czech m.3243A>G carriers. 6
27296531 2016
High risk of severe cardiac adverse events in patients with mitochondrial m.3243A>G mutation. 6
23243073 2013
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS): is there a difference based on onset of symptoms--pediatric versus adult? 61 52
22639867 2012
MERRF/MELAS overlap syndrome: a double pathogenic mutation in mitochondrial tRNA genes. 6
20610441 2010
Autonomic symptoms in carriers of the m.3243A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation. 6
20697048 2010
Helix unwinding and base flipping enable human MTERF1 to terminate mitochondrial transcription. 6
20550934 2010
Efficacy of lamotrigine in disabling myoclonus in a patient with an mtDNA A3243G mutation. 6
19349610 2009
Protean phenotypic features of the A3243G mitochondrial DNA mutation. 6
19139304 2009
The A3243G tRNALeu(UUR) MELAS mutation causes amino acid misincorporation and a combined respiratory chain assembly defect partially suppressed by overexpression of EFTu and EFG2. 6
18753147 2008
Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations are common in the general population. 6
18674747 2008
Muscle 3243A-->G mutation load and capacity of the mitochondrial energy-generating system. 6
18306232 2008
Selection against pathogenic mtDNA mutations in a stem cell population leads to the loss of the 3243A-->G mutation in blood. 6
18252214 2008
The A3243G tRNALeu(UUR) mutation induces mitochondrial dysfunction and variable disease expression without dominant negative acting translational defects in complex IV subunits at UUR codons. 6
17656376 2007
Prevalence, segregation, and phenotype of the mitochondrial DNA 3243A>G mutation in children. 6
17823937 2007
Normal levels of wild-type mitochondrial DNA maintain cytochrome c oxidase activity for two pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations but not for m.3243A-->G. 6
17564976 2007
Depletion of mitochondrial DNA in leucocytes harbouring the 3243A->G mtDNA mutation. 6
16950816 2007
Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness in a North American kindred: tips for making the diagnosis and review of unique management issues. 6
17018649 2006
Muscle phenotype and mutation load in 51 persons with the 3243A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation. 6
17172609 2006
Retrospective, multicentric study of 180 children with cytochrome C oxidase deficiency. 6
16326995 2006
DNA light-strand preferential recognition of human mitochondria transcription termination factor mTERF. 6
16336784 2005
MELAS A3243G mitochondrial DNA mutation and age related maculopathy. 6
15629304 2004
Cerebellar ataxia as atypical manifestation of the 3243A>G MELAS mutation. 6
15032978 2004
Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups do not play a role in the variable phenotypic presentation of the A3243G mutation. 6
12612863 2003
The level of the mitochondrial mutation A3243G decreases upon ageing in epithelial cells from individuals with diabetes and deafness. 6
11840193 2001
Hearing impairment is common in various phenotypes of the mitochondrial DNA A3243G mutation. 6
11708999 2001
Hearing impairment in patients with 3243A-->G mtDNA mutation: phenotype and rate of progression. 6
11379873 2001
No correlation between muscle A3243G mutation load and mitochondrial function in vivo. 6
11320187 2001
Barth's syndrome-like disorder: a new phenotype with a maternally inherited A3243G substitution of mitochondrial DNA (MELAS mutation). 6
11241464 2001
Relative fitness of carriers of the mitochondrial DNA mutation 3243A > G. 6
11175302 2001
Identification of mtDNA mutation in a pedigree with gestational diabetes, deafness, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and placenta accreta. 6
11096278 2001
Frequency and clinical features of patients with sensorineural hearing loss associated with the A3243G mutation of the mitochondrial DNA in otorhinolaryngic clinics. 6
11587074 2001
Decrease of 3243 A-->G mtDNA mutation from blood in MELAS syndrome: a longitudinal study. 6
11085913 2001
The mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episode syndrome-associated human mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR) mutation causes aminoacylation deficiency and concomitant reduced association of mRNA with ribosomes. 6
10858457 2000
Decreased aminoacylation of mutant tRNAs in MELAS but not in MERRF patients. 6
10699170 2000
The diabetes-associated 3243 mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene causes severe mitochondrial dysfunction without a strong decrease in protein synthesis rate. 6
10514449 1999
Mitochondrial 3243 A-->G mutation (MELAS mutation) associated with painful muscle stiffness. 6
10407850 1999
Mitochondrial maculopathy: geographic atrophy of the macula in the MELAS associated A to G 3243 mitochondrial DNA point mutation. 6
10482110 1999
Pigmentary retinal dystrophy and the syndrome of maternally inherited diabetes and deafness caused by the mitochondrial DNA 3243 tRNA(Leu) A to G mutation. 6
10366077 1999
Infantile encephalopathy associated with the MELAS A3243G mutation. 6
10356136 1999
Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 39-1998. A 13-year-old girl with a relapsing-remitting neurologic disorder. 6
9874606 1998
MELAS and MERRF. The relationship between maternal mutation load and the frequency of clinically affected offspring. 6
9798744 1998
Epidemiology of A3243G, the mutation for mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes: prevalence of the mutation in an adult population. 6
9683591 1998
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency and altered respiratory chain function in a patient with Kearns-Sayre/MELAS overlap syndrome and A3243G mtDNA mutation. 6
9619647 1998

Variations for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome:

6 ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 MT-TL1 NC_012920.1:m.3243A>GSNV Pathogenic 9589 rs199474657 MT:3243-3243 MT:3243-3243

Expression for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome.

Pathways for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Pathways related to Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.34 RYR2 IL6 HTR3A
2 9.74 RYR2 CNR1

GO Terms for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Cellular components related to Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 axon GO:0030424 9.33 OPRM1 HTR3A CNR1
2 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 8.96 OPRM1 HTR3A
3 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 8.8 OPRM1 HTR3A CNR1

Biological processes related to Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 9.37 OPRM1 HTR3A
2 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 9.32 OPRM1 CNR1
3 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.26 OPRM1 CNR1
4 response to morphine GO:0043278 9.16 OPRM1 CNR1
5 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.13 OPRM1 HTR3A CNR1
6 response to cocaine GO:0042220 8.8 OPRM1 HTR3A CNR1

Sources for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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