Dental Fluorosis

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Oral diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Dental Fluorosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Dental Fluorosis:

Name: Dental Fluorosis 11 75 14 16
Mottled Teeth 11 31
Intrinsic Enamel Discolouration of Fluorosis 11
Dental Fluorosis, Acquired 71
Mottling of Enamel 11
Fluorosis, Dental 43


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Disease Ontology 11 DOID:13711
ICD9CM 34 520.3
MeSH 43 D009050
NCIt 49 C85059
SNOMED-CT 68 30265004
ICD10 31 K00.3
UMLS 71 C0026618

Summaries for Dental Fluorosis

Disease Ontology: 11 A tooth disease characterized by enamel discoloration resulting from excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation.

MalaCards based summary: Dental Fluorosis, also known as mottled teeth, is related to dental caries and hypercementosis, and has symptoms including toothache An important gene associated with Dental Fluorosis is AMBN (Ameloblastin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Metabolism of proteins and Regulation of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) transport and uptake by Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs). The drugs Protective Agents and Sodium fluoride have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, thyroid and kidney, and related phenotypes are craniofacial and skeleton

Wikipedia: 75 Dental fluorosis is a common disorder, characterized by hypomineralization of tooth enamel caused by... more...

Related Diseases for Dental Fluorosis

Diseases related to Dental Fluorosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 86)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dental caries 30.9 TUFT1 TFIP11 KLK4 ENAM AMELX AMBN
2 hypercementosis 30.0 MMP20 ENAM AMELX AMBN
3 dentinogenesis imperfecta 29.9 ENAM COL1A2 AMBN
4 dentin dysplasia 29.6 MMP20 ENAM COL1A2 AMELX AMBN
5 amelogenesis imperfecta 28.6 TUFT1 ODAM MMP25 MMP20 KLK4 ENAM
6 gingivitis 10.4
7 nutritional deficiency disease 10.3
8 periodontitis 10.2
9 dental pulp calcification 10.2 ENAM AMELX
10 hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta 10.2 ENAM AMBN
11 dental anomalies and short stature 10.2 MMP20 ENAM
12 palmoplantar keratoderma, nonepidermolytic, focal or diffuse 10.2 TUFT1 AMELX
13 gingival recession 10.2 AMELX AMBN
14 hair whorl 10.2
15 hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 1 10.2
16 allergic disease 10.2
17 adamantinous craniopharyngioma 10.2 MMP20 ENAM
18 amelogenesis imperfecta, type ic 10.1 MMP20 ENAM AMELX
19 amelogenesis imperfecta, hypomaturation type, iia2 10.1 MMP20 ENAM AMTN
20 ameloblastoma 10.1 MMP20 AMELX AMBN
21 papillary craniopharyngioma 10.1 MMP20 ENAM AMELX
22 trichodentoosseous syndrome 10.1 MMP20 ENAM AMELX
23 immunodeficiency 10 10.1 ENAM AMBN
24 root caries 10.1 CA10 AMELX AMBN
25 amelogenesis imperfecta hypomaturation type 10.1 MMP20 KLK4 AMELX
26 central diabetes insipidus 10.1
27 diabetes insipidus 10.1
28 49, xxxxy syndrome 10.1
29 49,xxxxx syndrome 10.1
30 49,xyyyy syndrome 10.1
31 amelogenesis imperfecta, type ib 10.0 ENAM AMTN AMELX AMBN
32 amelogenesis imperfecta, hypoplastic/hypomaturation, x-linked 2 10.0 TUFT1 AMTN AMELX AMBN
33 dentin caries 10.0 MMP25 MMP20 CA10
34 crohn's disease 10.0
35 enamel erosion 10.0 MMP20 ENAM CA10 AMELX
36 jalili syndrome 9.9 MMP25 MMP20 ENAM AMELX
37 gingival disease 9.9 AMELX AMBN
38 gastroesophageal reflux 9.9
39 dentin dysplasia, type i 9.9
40 diabetes insipidus, neurohypophyseal 9.9
41 esophageal cancer 9.9
42 endosteal hyperostosis, autosomal dominant 9.9
43 oculodentodigital dysplasia 9.9
44 osteoporosis 9.9
45 contractures, pterygia, and spondylocarpotarsal fusion syndrome 1a 9.9
46 periodontitis, chronic 9.9
47 rhabdomyosarcoma 2 9.9
48 taurodontism 9.9
49 anemia, sideroblastic, and spinocerebellar ataxia 9.9
50 bone mineral density quantitative trait locus 8 9.9

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Dental Fluorosis:

Diseases related to Dental Fluorosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Dental Fluorosis

UMLS symptoms related to Dental Fluorosis:


MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Dental Fluorosis:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 craniofacial MP:0005382 9.43 AMBN AMELX AMTN ENAM KLK4 MMP20
2 skeleton MP:0005390 9.23 AMBN AMELX AMTN BGLAP COL1A2 ENAM

Drugs & Therapeutics for Dental Fluorosis

Drugs for Dental Fluorosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 19)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Protective Agents Phase 4
Sodium fluoride Approved Phase 1 7681-49-4
Calcium carbonate Approved, Investigational Phase 1 471-34-1
4 Calcium, Dietary Phase 1
5 Listerine Phase 1
6 Antacids Phase 1
7 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 1
8 Anti-Ulcer Agents Phase 1
9 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 1
Calcium Nutraceutical Phase 1 7440-70-2 271
Silicon Approved, Investigational 7440-21-3 4082203
Hydrogen peroxide Approved, Vet_approved 7722-84-1 784
Salicylic acid Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 69-72-7 338
14 Caseins
Sodium Hypochlorite
16 Eusol
17 Anti-Infective Agents
18 Anti-Infective Agents, Local
19 Fluorides

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 17)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Dental Fluorosis Risk by the Use of Acidulated Fluoride Dentifrice: Clinical Trial - Epidemiological Study With Children Residing in an área Without Public Water Fluoridation Completed NCT03761485 Phase 4
2 Effect of pH and Fluoride Concentration of Liquid Dentifrices on Caries Control in a Fluoridated Area: a Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT01049503 Phase 3
3 Anticaries Potential and Fluorosis Risk From Different Fluoride Toothpastes Completed NCT01589991 Phase 1 Toothpaste
4 Systemic Fluoride Bioavailability From Toothpastes Containing Calcium Carbonate or Silica as Abrasives Completed NCT01571050 Phase 1 Purified water;Fresh MFP/CaCO3 toothpaste;Fresh NaF/SiO2 toothpaste;Aged NaF/SiO2 toothpaste;Aged MFP/CaCO3 toothpaste
5 Fluoride Bioavailability in Plasma and Saliva After Ingestion of Water or Foods Prepared With Fluoridated Water Completed NCT01978041 Phase 1
6 Caries, Gingivitis, Dental Trauma and Fluorosis Prevalence Among IDF Recruits - an Epidemiological Survey Unknown status NCT02958891
7 In Vivo Action of Infiltrating Resin Icon® on Fluorosis - a 12 Month Follow up Trial Unknown status NCT02925780
8 Influence of Different Toothpaste on Fluoride Concentration in Nails and Dental Fluorosis Completed NCT05442320
9 Clinical Evaluation of Different Minimal Invasive Treatment Modalities of Mild to Moderate Dental Fluorosis Using A Visual Analog Scale Completed NCT05051748
10 Clinical Evaluation of Different Minimal Invasive Treatment Modalities of Mild to Moderate Dental Fluorosis Using an Intra-oral Spectrophotometer Completed NCT05204277
11 Comparison of Clinical Effectiveness of Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hypochlorite Used in Microabrasion Technique for the Treatment of Dental Fluorosis. Completed NCT05339503
12 Evaluation of Degree of Enamel Fluorosis in Children of Tobruk and Kufra Regions in Libya Completed NCT03746990
13 Using Eggshell Calcium to Mitigate Fluorosis in Ethiopia Completed NCT03355222
14 Treatment of Hypersensitivity Using Diode Laser and Potassium Nitrate Desensitising Agent- a Comparison of Treatment Effects on Fluorosed and Non-fluorosed Teeth- an in Vivo Randomised Controlled Trial Completed NCT03237793
15 Evaluating the Effect of Resin Infiltration and Resin Infiltration With Bleaching in Improving the Esthetics for Non Pitted Fluorosis Stains in Indian Population Completed NCT01733888
16 Colorimetric Comparison of Email Defects Using Spectrophotometric and Computer Techniques and Biological, Structural and Physico-chemical Analyses of Teeth or Pathological Enamel Recruiting NCT04704089
17 Iowa Fluoride Study/Iowa Bone Development Study Active, not recruiting NCT03547128

Search NIH Clinical Center for Dental Fluorosis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: fluorosis, dental

Genetic Tests for Dental Fluorosis

Anatomical Context for Dental Fluorosis

Organs/tissues related to Dental Fluorosis:

MalaCards : Bone, Thyroid, Kidney, Whole Blood, T Cells, Liver, Testis

Publications for Dental Fluorosis

Articles related to Dental Fluorosis:

(show top 50) (show all 1533)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Silver diamine fluoride therapy for dental care. 62
36097560 2022
Novel machine learning techniques based hybrid models (LR-KNN-ANN and SVM) in prediction of dental fluorosis in groundwater. 62
34739652 2022
Possible Association Between Polymorphisms in ESR1, COL1A2, BGLAP, SPARC, VDR, and MMP2 Genes and Dental Fluorosis in a Population from an Endemic Region of West Bengal. 62
35066749 2022
Role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in ameloblast differentiation in relevance to dental fluorosis. 62
36063856 2022
Arsenic and fluoride co-exposure through drinking water and their impacts on intelligence and oxidative stress among rural school-aged children of Lahore and Kasur districts, Pakistan. 62
34751868 2022
Fluoridation cessation and children's dental caries: A 7-year follow-up evaluation of Grade 2 schoolchildren in Calgary and Edmonton, Canada. 62
34309045 2022
Fluoride Exposure Provokes Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis and Increases Mitophagy in Osteocytes via Increasing ROS Production. 62
36255553 2022
Excessive fluoride impairs autophagy flux in ameloblasts which is prevented by the autophagy activator rapamycin. 62
36190517 2022
Clinical status and assessment of caries on first permanent molars in a group of 6- to 13-year-old Tunisian school children. 62
36264010 2022
Influence of climate on groundwater fluoride in different climatic domains in a hard rock terrain of Sri Lanka: implications to community health. 62
34689287 2022
Extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves attenuates neurotoxic damages in rats and SH-SY5Y cells exposed to a high level of fluoride. 62
36265321 2022
Artificial intelligence system for training diagnosis and differentiation with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) and similar pathologies. 62
36065023 2022
The association of high-fluoride and high-iodine combined exposure with dental fluorosis and goiter: a meta-analysis. 62
36155875 2022
Moderate and Severe Dental Fluorosis in the Rural Population of Anantapur, India: Change in Their Biological Susceptibility? 62
36141562 2022
Dental Fluorosis and Its Associated Factors Amongst Libyan Schoolchildren. 62
35933225 2022
Tailored design of a novel composite foam of sodium alginate used for fluoride ion removal. 62
36038969 2022
Effect of Fluoride on the Expression of 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine in the Blood, Kidney, Liver, and Brain of Rats. 62
35984601 2022
Health Risk Assessment in Mexican Children Exposed to Fluoride from Sweetened Beverages. 62
35854170 2022
Minimal Invasive Technique for the Esthetic Management of Dental Fluorosis. 62
36110737 2022
Role of Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis and HIF-1 Signaling Pathways in Rats with Dental Fluorosis Integrated Proteomics and Metabolomics Analysis. 62
35897842 2022
The Dental Management of Pediatric Patient Diagnosed with Myasthenia Gravis: A Case Report. 62
35728606 2022
Assessing Fluorosis Incidence in Areas with Low Fluoride Content in the Drinking Water, Fluorotic Enamel Architecture, and Composition Alterations. 62
35742396 2022
Occurrence, sources, and spatial distribution of fluoride in the Ganga alluvial aquifer, India. 62
35753004 2022
Necessity to Pay Attention to the Effects of Low Fluoride on Human Health: an Overview of Skeletal and Non-skeletal Damages in Epidemiologic Investigations and Laboratory Studies. 62
35661326 2022
Remineralizing Potential of Low-fluoridated, Nonfluoridated and Herbal Nonfluoridated Dentifrices on Demineralized Surface of Primary Teeth: An In Vitro Study. 62
35991805 2022
Effect of 45S5 bioactive glass on the microshear bond strength of dental fluorosis. 62
34904320 2022
Public Knowledge and Perception of Drinking Water Quality and Its Health Implications: An Example from the Makueni County, South-Eastern Kenya. 62
35457397 2022
Are there associations between the occurrence of dental fluorosis and the experience of dentine hypersensitivity? A cross-sectional study. 62
35488586 2022
Dental fluorosis. 62
35459808 2022
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between the Severity of Dental Fluorosis and Fluoride Biomarkers in Endemic Areas. 62
35397104 2022
Prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in fluoride endemic areas of Rohtak district, Haryana. 62
35859405 2022
miR-296-5p promotes autophagy in mouse LS8 cells under excessive fluoride via AMPK/ULK1 pathways. 62
35306215 2022
Fluoride levels in river water from the volcanic regions of Cauca (Colombia). 62
35381961 2022
Oral Health Status and Practices, and Anthropometric Measurements of Preschool Children: Protocol for a Multi-African Country Survey. 62
35476047 2022
Fluoride contamination of groundwater resources in Ghana: Country-wide hazard modeling and estimated population at risk. 62
35101693 2022
A novel sustained release fluoride strip based Poly(propylene carbonate) for preventing caries. 62
35063608 2022
Sodium Fluoride and Sulfur Dioxide Derivatives Induce TGF-β1-Mediated NBCe1 Downregulation Causing Acid-Base Disorder of LS8 Cells. 62
35304687 2022
Newer Technique of Extra-Coronal Bleaching with Sodium Perborate on Non-Pitted Fluorosis Stains in Permanent Anterior Teeth. 62
35533230 2022
Potential fluoride exposure from selected food crops grown in high fluoride soils in the Makueni County, south-eastern Kenya. 62
35262826 2022
Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide pretreatment on the bonding properties of fluorotic dentin of different severity: An in vitro study. 62
35279300 2022
Dental fluorosis among 15- year- old school children in an endemic district in Sri Lanka. 62
34898063 2022
Moderating Role of TSHR and PTPN22 Gene Polymorphisms in Effects of Excessive Fluoride on Thyroid: a School-Based Cross-Sectional Study. 62
34050454 2022
Association of Dietary Calcium Intake with Dental, Skeletal and Non-Skeletal Fluorosis among Women in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. 62
35206307 2022
Esthetic and Functional Rehabilitation of an Adolescent Patient with Severe Dental Fluorosis: A Clinical Report. 62
34825418 2022
Fluoride concentrations in drinking water and health risk assessment in the south of Algeria. 62
34822942 2022
Fluoride occurrences, health problems, detection, and remediation methods for drinking water: A comprehensive review. 62
34597567 2022
Fractional urinary fluoride excretion and nail fluoride concentrations in normal, wasted and stunted 4-5 year-old children in Nepal. 62
34695781 2022
Association Between Frequency and Severity of Dental Fluorosis and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization. 62
35311979 2022
Association Between Dietary Fluoride and Calcium Intake of School-Age Children With Symptoms of Dental and Skeletal Fluorosis in Halaba, Southern Ethiopia. 62
35309280 2022
Dehydration imaging of dental fluorosis at 1950 nm. 62
35440838 2022

Variations for Dental Fluorosis

Expression for Dental Fluorosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Dental Fluorosis.

Pathways for Dental Fluorosis

GO Terms for Dental Fluorosis

Cellular components related to Dental Fluorosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 10.2 TUFT1 ODAM MMP25 MMP20 KLK4 ENAM
2 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.73 AMBN AMELX AMTN BGLAP COL1A2 ENAM
3 extracellular matrix GO:0031012 9.44 TFIP11 MMP25 MMP20 ENAM COL1A2 AMTN

Biological processes related to Dental Fluorosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 bone mineralization GO:0030282 9.85 TUFT1 COL1A2 BGLAP
2 odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth GO:0042475 9.76 ODAM AMTN AMELX AMBN
3 odontogenesis GO:0042476 9.73 TUFT1 COL1A2 BGLAP
4 positive regulation of enamel mineralization GO:0070175 9.62 ENAM AMTN
5 amelogenesis GO:0097186 9.56 AMELX ENAM KLK4 MMP20
6 biomineral tissue development GO:0031214 9.53 TUFT1 TFIP11 ODAM KLK4 ENAM BGLAP

Molecular functions related to Dental Fluorosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hydroxyapatite binding GO:0046848 9.26 BGLAP AMELX
2 structural constituent of tooth enamel GO:0030345 9.23 TUFT1 ENAM AMELX AMBN

Sources for Dental Fluorosis

8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
36 LifeMap
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 24-Oct-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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