MDD
MCID: DPR016
MIFTS: 65

Depression (MDD)

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Depression

MalaCards integrated aliases for Depression:

Name: Depression 43 6 42 62
Depressive Disorder 43 54 70
Major Depressive Disorder 43 70
Unipolar Depression 43 70
Clinical Depression 43 70
Depressive Syndrome 54 70
Major Depression 43 54
Mental Depression 70
Mdd 43

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 70 C0011570 C0011581 C0041696 more

Summaries for Depression

MedlinePlus Genetics : 43 Depression (also known as major depression or major depressive disorder) is a psychiatric disorder that affects mood, behavior, and overall health. It causes prolonged feelings of sadness, emptiness, or hopelessness, and a loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed. People with depression may also have changes in appetite (leading to overeating or not eating enough), changes in sleeping patterns (sleeping too much or not being able to sleep), loss of energy, and difficulty concentrating. Although depression is considered primarily a mental health disorder, it can also have physical features including headaches, other unexplained aches and pains, unusually slow or fast movements, and digestive problems. To be diagnosed with depression, an individual must have signs and symptoms nearly every day for at least 2 weeks. However, the features of this condition vary widely.Depression most commonly begins in late adolescence or early adulthood, although it can appear at any age. If untreated, episodes of depression can last for weeks, months, or years, and can go away and come back (recur). Affected individuals may have difficulty functioning in their daily lives, including at school or work. People with depression have a higher risk of substance abuse problems and dying by suicide than the general population.Several health conditions are closely related to depression or have depression as a characteristic feature. These include dysthymia (which has long-lasting signs and symptoms that are similar to, but not as severe as, those of depression), perinatal or postpartum depression (which occurs around or following the birth of a child), seasonal affective disorder (which is triggered by the changing of the seasons), bipolar disorder (which can include both "highs," or manic episodes, and depressive episodes), and generalized anxiety disorder. In people with schizoaffective disorder, depression or another mood disorder occurs together with features of schizophrenia (a brain disorder that affects a person's thinking, sense of self, and perceptions).

MalaCards based summary : Depression, also known as depressive disorder, is related to postpartum depression and endogenous depression, and has symptoms including dejection emotional, depressed reaction and depression aggravated. An important gene associated with Depression is NOTCH3 (Notch Receptor 3), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and CREB Pathway. The drugs Reboxetine and Parathyroid hormone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, cortex and prefrontal cortex, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and homeostasis/metabolism

MedlinePlus : 42 Depression is a serious medical illness. It's more than just a feeling of being sad or "blue" for a few days. If you are one of the more than 19 million teens and adults in the United States who have depression, the feelings do not go away. They persist and interfere with your everyday life. Symptoms can include Feeling sad or "empty" Loss of interest in favorite activities Overeating, or not wanting to eat at all Not being able to sleep, or sleeping too much Feeling very tired Feeling hopeless, irritable, anxious, or guilty Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems Thoughts of death or suicide Depression is a disorder of the brain. There are a variety of causes, including genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Depression can happen at any age, but it often begins in teens and young adults. It is much more common in women. Women can also get postpartum depression after the birth of a baby. Some people get seasonal affective disorder in the winter. Depression is one part of bipolar disorder. There are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

PubMed Health : 62 About depression: We all feel sad or lethargic every now and then. And we have all felt down or even desperate at some point in our lives. These phases are a normal part of life, and people usually feel better again after a while. Things are different for people who have depression. Their sadness and negative thoughts last longer and overshadow all of their thoughts and actions. Depression can arise without any triggering events or for no apparent reasons. People often feel like they are stuck in a black hole. They feel cheerless, lack motivation and self-confidence, and think of themselves as worthless. This can make it difficult to do everyday things like going to work or studying. Friends, family and hobbies are often neglected. They don't sleep well. Depression can also make family and friends feel worried, anxious and helpless. Often they want to help but don't know how. It's not always easy for them to tell whether it's a passing phase or a serious illness.

Related Diseases for Depression

Diseases related to Depression via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1947)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 postpartum depression 33.0 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A CRH BDNF
2 endogenous depression 32.7 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A CRHR1 CRH
3 neurotic disorder 32.5 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A BDNF
4 atypical depressive disorder 32.4 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A CRHR1 CRH BDNF
5 mental depression 32.4 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A GRIA1
6 fibromyalgia 32.3 SLC6A4 CRH BDNF
7 eating disorder 32.1 SLC6A4 HTR2C CRH BDNF
8 anxiety 32.1 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A GRIA1
9 major depressive disorder 32.0 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A GRIA2
10 dysthymic disorder 31.9 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A CRH BDNF
11 sleep apnea 31.9 SLC6A4 HTR2C BDNF
12 post-traumatic stress disorder 31.9 SLC6A4 MAOA CRHR1 CRH BDNF
13 alcohol use disorder 31.9 SLC6A4 HTR2C HTR1A CRHR1 CRH BDNF
14 sleep disorder 31.8 SLC6A4 HTR2C HTR1A CRH BDNF
15 gilles de la tourette syndrome 31.8 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A BDNF
16 cyclothymic disorder 31.8 SLC6A4 HTR2C
17 generalized anxiety disorder 31.8 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A CRHR1 BDNF
18 schizoaffective disorder 31.8 SLC6A4 HTR1A DISC2 BDNF
19 bulimia nervosa 31.8 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C BDNF
20 irritable bowel syndrome 31.7 SLC6A4 HTR1A CRHR1 CRH BDNF
21 conversion disorder 31.7 GRID2 CRH BDNF
22 melancholia 31.6 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A CRH BDNF
23 acute stress disorder 31.6 SLC6A4 HTR1A CRHR1 CRH BDNF
24 mood disorder 31.6 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A DISC2
25 parkinson disease, late-onset 31.5 SLC6A4 NOS1 MAOA HTR1A GRM1 GRIA2
26 obsessive-compulsive disorder 31.5 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A GRIA2
27 borderline personality disorder 31.4 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A CRHR1
28 adjustment disorder 31.4 SLC6A4 HTR1A CRH BDNF
29 pain agnosia 31.4 HTR1A CRH BDNF
30 personality disorder 31.3 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A CRHR1
31 bipolar disorder 31.3 TPH2 SLC6A4 NOS1 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A
32 binswanger's disease 31.3 NOTCH3 CRH
33 sexual disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 NOS1 HTR2C HTR1A BDNF
34 panic disorder 31.3 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A CRHR1
35 social phobia 31.2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A CRHR1 CRH BDNF
36 somatization disorder 31.2 SLC6A4 HTR1A CRH
37 alcohol dependence 31.2 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A CRHR1
38 bipolar i disorder 31.2 TPH2 SLC6A4 HTR2C HTR1A BDNF
39 epilepsy 31.2 GRM1 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1 CRH BDNF
40 amnestic disorder 31.2 HTR1A GRIA1 BDNF
41 tobacco addiction 31.1 SLC6A4 MAOA CRHR1 CRH BDNF
42 migraine with or without aura 1 31.1 SLC6A4 NOTCH3 NOS1 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A
43 oppositional defiant disorder 31.1 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA
44 hypochondriasis 31.1 SLC6A4 HTR2C HTR1A CRHR1 BDNF
45 anorexia nervosa 31.0 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A CRH BDNF
46 agoraphobia 31.0 SLC6A4 NOS1 MAOA HTR1A CRHR1 CRH
47 autism spectrum disorder 31.0 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C GRID2 GRIA1
48 chronic fatigue syndrome 31.0 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A CRHR1 CRH
49 drug dependence 31.0 SLC6A4 CRHR1 CRH BDNF
50 somatoform disorder 31.0 SLC6A4 CRH BDNF

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Depression:



Diseases related to Depression

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Depression

UMLS symptoms related to Depression:


dejection emotional; depressed reaction; depression aggravated; affective symptoms; behavioral symptoms; schizophrenic language; depressive symptoms; depressed - symptom

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Depression:

46 (show all 13)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.41 BDNF CRH CRHR1 DLG1 GRIA1 GRIA2
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.33 BDNF CRH CRHR1 DLG1 GRIA1 GRIA2
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.29 BDNF CRH DLG1 GRIA1 GRIA2 GRIA3
4 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.25 BDNF CRHR1 DLG1 GRIA2 GRIA3 GRID2
5 nervous system MP:0003631 10.25 BDNF CRH CRHR1 DLG1 GRIA1 GRIA2
6 cellular MP:0005384 10.24 BDNF CRH DLG1 GRIA2 GRID2 GRM1
7 integument MP:0010771 10.13 BDNF CRH GRIA1 GRIA2 GRIA3 GRM1
8 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.07 CRH GRIA1 GRM1 HTR1A HTR2C NOS1
9 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 10 BDNF CRH CRHR1 DLG1 GRIA1 GRIA2
10 muscle MP:0005369 9.91 DLG1 GRID2 GRM1 HTR2C NOS1 NOTCH3
11 normal MP:0002873 9.81 BDNF CRH CRHR1 GRIA1 GRIA2 NOS1
12 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.61 BDNF DLG1 GRIA2 GRIA3 GRID2 GRM1
13 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.17 BDNF CRH CRHR1 DLG1 NOS1 NOTCH3

Drugs & Therapeutics for Depression

PubMed Health treatment related to Depression: 62

Many people who have depression find it hard to accept that fact. One possible reason for this is that they are ashamed about having a mental health problem and don't want their friends, family and colleagues to find out. Some people don't want to have treatment as a result. But treatment can often shorten depressive episodes and relieve people's symptoms. There are various treatment options for depression . The main treatments are psychological treatment, such as cognitive behavioral therapy , and/or medication. Which type of treatment is the most appropriate, where it should take place and how long it lasts will depend on several factors, including how severe the person’s depression is, their personal circumstances, and how their symptoms develop over time. People can talk to a therapist about the advantages and disadvantages of the possible treatments, as well as what they expect from treatment and any fears they might have.

Drugs for Depression (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 764)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Reboxetine Approved, Experimental Phase 4 98769-81-4, 71620-89-8 123628 65856
2
Parathyroid hormone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9002-64-6
3
Oxcarbazepine Approved Phase 4 28721-07-5 34312
4
Methimazole Approved Phase 4 60-56-0 1349907
5
Eleuthero Approved, Experimental Phase 4
6
Lactulose Approved Phase 4 4618-18-2 11333
7
Copper Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-50-8 27099
8
Norethindrone Approved Phase 4 68-22-4 6230
9
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19982-08-2 4054
10
Lithium carbonate Approved Phase 4 554-13-2
11
Trazodone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19794-93-5 5533
12
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
13
Ziprasidone Approved Phase 4 146939-27-7 60854
14
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
15
Haloperidol Approved Phase 4 52-86-8 3559
16
Desipramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 50-47-5 2995
17
Levoleucovorin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68538-85-2 149436
18
Ropinirole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 91374-20-8, 91374-21-9 497540 5095
19
Naltrexone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 16590-41-3 5360515
20
Methyltestosterone Approved Phase 4 58-18-4 6010
21
Testosterone undecanoate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5949-44-0
22
Testosterone enanthate Approved Phase 4 315-37-7 9416
23
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
24
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
25
Omeprazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 73590-58-6 4594
26
Flupenthixol Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Phase 4 2709-56-0 17012 25137855
27
Donepezil Approved Phase 4 120014-06-4 3152
28
Phenytoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-41-0 1775
29
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68-04-2
30
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345
31
Tacrolimus Approved, Investigational Phase 4 104987-11-3 6473866 445643 439492
32
Phenelzine Approved Phase 4 51-71-8 3675
33
Eszopiclone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 138729-47-2 969472
34
Acamprosate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 77337-76-9 71158
35
Calcium carbonate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 471-34-1
36
Moclobemide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 71320-77-9 4235
37
Ondansetron Approved Phase 4 99614-02-5 4595
38
Iloperidone Approved Phase 4 133454-47-4 71360
39
Ribavirin Approved Phase 4 36791-04-5 37542
40
Zolpidem Approved Phase 4 82626-48-0 5732
41
Exenatide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 141758-74-9 15991534
42
Clozapine Approved Phase 4 5786-21-0 2818
43
Trimipramine Approved Phase 4 739-71-9 5584 4055
44
Protriptyline Approved Phase 4 438-60-8 4976
45
Bromocriptine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 25614-03-3 31101
46
Isocarboxazid Approved Phase 4 59-63-2 3759
47
Maprotiline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 10262-69-8 4011
48
Doxepin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1668-19-5 667477 667468
49
Cocaine Approved, Illicit Phase 4 50-36-2 446220 5760
50
Medroxyprogesterone acetate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 71-58-9

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 7316)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Multi-dimensional Diagnosis,Individualized Therapy,and Management Technique for Major Depressive Disorder:Based on Clinical and Pathological Characteristics Unknown status NCT03219008 Phase 4 Fluoxetine;fluoxetine + Amfebutamone;Fluvoxamine;Lithium+fluvoxamine;Mirtazapine/SNRIs;mirtazapine + SNRIs
2 Effect of Escitalopram vs. Reboxetine on Somatic and Visceral Sensitivity of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: a Randomized, Double Blind Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT00209807 Phase 4 escitalopram;Reboxetine
3 White Matter Structure and Response to Treatment With Antidepressants: a Study of Desvenlafaxine in Major Depression. A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT01492621 Phase 4 Desvenlafaxine
4 Randomized,Controlled and Open-label Study of Buspirone add-on Treatment in Patients With Major Depression Disorder Unknown status NCT02273154 Phase 4 Buspirone;Paroxetine
5 Algorithm Guided Treatment Strategies for Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01764867 Phase 4 Escitalopram;Mirtazapine;Fluoxetine;Citalopram;Escitalopram;Paroxetine;Sertraline;Fluvoxamine;Venlafaxine;Duloxetine;Mirtazapine;Bupropion;Trazodone
6 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01460212 Phase 4 SSRI antidepressants
7 The Effect and Reliability of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescents With Major Depressive Disorder or Anxiety Disorders Unknown status NCT03122158 Phase 4 Escitalopram
8 Phase 4 Study of Escitalopram Treatment and Biomarkers in Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01997580 Phase 4 escitalopram
9 Duloxetine for the Treatment of Major Depression in Midlife Women: Effects on Brain Structure and Functioning, Mood, and Quality of Life Unknown status NCT00889369 Phase 4 Duloxetine
10 Assessing Tolerability and Efficacy of Vortioxetine Versus SSRIs in Elderly Patients With Depression: a Pragmatic, Multicenter, Open-label, Parallel-group, Superiority, Randomized Trial Unknown status NCT03779789 Phase 4 Vortioxetine;Sertraline;citalopram;Escitalopram;Paroxetine;Fluoxetine;Fluvoxamine
11 International Study to Predict Optimised Treatment - in Depression Unknown status NCT00693849 Phase 4 Escitalopram;Sertraline;Venlafaxine-XR
12 A Placebo Controlled Trial of the Dopamine D-2 Receptor Agonist Ropinirole in Treatment of 60 Patients With Refractory Bipolar I and II Depression. Unknown status NCT00335205 Phase 4 ropinirole
13 Clinical Trial of the Use of Ketamine in Treatment Resistant Depression Unknown status NCT02610712 Phase 4 Ketamine
14 Behandlung Von Leichten Und Unterschwelligen Depressionen. Eine Randomisierte, Kontrollierte Studie Zum Wirksamkeitsnachweis Eines Serotonin-Wiederaufnahme-Hemmers (SSRI), Einer Kognitiven Verhaltenstherapie Und Einer Freien Therapiewahl ("Treatment of Mild and Subthreshold Depressive Disorders". A Randomized, Controlled Trial on the Efficacy of a Serotonin-Reuptake-Inhibitor (SSRI), a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and of Free Choice Between SSRI and CBT") Unknown status NCT00226642 Phase 4 Sertralin;Placebo
15 Role of Inflammation Factors and Insulin Resistance in the Pathophysiology and Treatment Response of Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT01699490 Phase 4 Fluoxetine + Valsartan;Fluoxetine + Placebo
16 THE AIUNI - Integral Assessment in Unipolar Depression Unknown status NCT02268487 Phase 4 Sertraline
17 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Cognitive, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Patients Diagnosed With Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT02213016 Phase 4
18 A Six Week, Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled, Suvorexant Augmentation Study of Antidepressant Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder With Residual Insomnia Unknown status NCT02669030 Phase 4 suvorexant;Placebo
19 Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Clinical Peculiarities, Biological Markers, and Treatment Efficacy Unknown status NCT03187093 Phase 4 Vortioxetine;Escitalopram
20 A Randomised Trial Investigating the Cardiovascular Effects of Agomelatine and Escitalopram in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder. Unknown status NCT01483053 Phase 4 Agomelatine;Escitalopram
21 Prediction of Individual Treatment Response Based on Brain Changes at the Early Phase of Antidepressant Treatment in Major Depressive Disorder Using Machine Learning Classification Analysis Unknown status NCT02330679 Phase 4 Desvenlafaxine;Placebo
22 Escitalopram and Sleep Architecture in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT00442481 Phase 4 Escitalopram
23 Interactions Between The Serotonin Transporter And Sympathetic Nervous System Activation In Patients With Major Depressive Disorder - Understanding The Link Between The Brain And The Heart Unknown status NCT01568307 Phase 4 Participants will be prescribed an approved selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant.
24 Beta-arrestins and Response to Venlafaxine in Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT02051413 Phase 4 Venlafaxine extended release
25 Brain Mechanisms and Targeting Insomnia in Major Depression Unknown status NCT00628914 Phase 4 escitalopram and eszopiclone;Escitalopram, eszopiclone, and placebo;Escitalopram
26 Vortioxetine Versus Placebo in Major Depressive Disorder Comorbid With Social Anxiety Disorder Unknown status NCT02294305 Phase 4 Vortioxetine;Placebo
27 Ketamine Co-induction for Patients With Major Depressive Disorder; a Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT03666494 Phase 4 Ketamine Hydrochloride;Propofol;Fentanyl
28 Pharmacogenomics Studies of Antidepressants Unknown status NCT01204086 Phase 4 Venlafaxine;Fluoxetine
29 The Effect of Quetiapine XR in Depressive Patients Showing Aberrant N100 Amplitude Slope Unknown status NCT01357967 Phase 4 SSRI monotherapy;Seroquel XR adjunctive
30 Neurochemical,Metabonomics and Neuroimaging Characterization of TCM Diagnostic Subtypes of Major Depression Disorder Unknown status NCT02346682 Phase 4 venlafaxine
31 A Controlled Study of the Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A (Botox) for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Unknown status NCT01556971 Phase 4 Botox;Saline Solution
32 A Randomized Controlled Study Comparing Fluoxetine With Bupropion for Impulsivity and Suicidality in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder and Comorbid Alcoholism (Abuse or Dependence) Unknown status NCT00449007 Phase 4 fluoxetine;bupropion
33 Hyperventilation and ECT Seizure Duration: Effects on Cerebral Oxygen Saturation, and Therapeutic Outcome With Comparisons Between Etomidate and Ketamine in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Unknown status NCT02924090 Phase 4 Etomidate;Ketamine
34 Prospective 24-week Study, Comparing Clinical Outcomes Between Switching Antidepressants and Maintaining the Same Antidepressant in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Who do Not Show a 20% Reduction in Symptoms at Week 2 Unknown status NCT00519012 Phase 4 Sertraline to Paroxetine;Paroxetine to Sertraline
35 Inflammatory Markers and Cognitive Function in Major Depression:a Pilot Study Unknown status NCT01391221 Phase 4 Duloxetine
36 Phase 4 Study on the Effect of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Cognition and the IL-6-gp130-System in Individuals With Major Depression Unknown status NCT00291239 Phase 4
37 Escitalopram Treatment of Major Depression in Diabetes Mellitus: An Open Label Unknown status NCT00650897 Phase 4 Escitalopram
38 Phase 4 Study of Vitamin D3 Supplementation for Outcomes in Patients With Unipolar Depression Unknown status NCT01390662 Phase 4
39 Phase 4 Study of Clinical Pharmacogenomics of Antidepressant Response Unknown status NCT00269334 Phase 4 Using Citalopram(drug) or Paroxetine(drug)
40 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Antidepressant Maintenance for Major Depression Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Unknown status NCT00162916 Phase 4 citalopram;Placebo
41 Exploratory Study to Assess the Efficacy of Escitalopram Versus Placebo in the Treatment of Depressive Syndrome in Alzheimer's Disease, Vascular Dementia and Mixed Vascular and Alzheimer's Dementia Unknown status NCT00229333 Phase 4 Escitalopram
42 D-cycloserine for Relapse Prevention Following Intravenous Ketamine in Treatment-resistant Depression Unknown status NCT02772211 Phase 4 Ketamine;D-cycloserine;Placebo
43 Randomized Trial Evaluating the Effectiveness of MYnd Analytics Directed Therapy in Depression Unknown status NCT03328052 Phase 4
44 Optimizing Antidepressant Treatment by Genotype-dependent Adjustment of Medication According to the ABCB1 Gene Unknown status NCT02237937 Phase 4 Paroxetine;Sertraline;Citalopram;Venlafaxine;Amitriptyline;Escitalopram;Amitriptylinoxide;Nortriptyline;Trimipramine
45 Turgut Ozal Medical Center Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation Unknown status NCT02267980 Phase 4 Sevoflurane;Ketamine;Saline
46 Antidepressant Treatments During Pregnancy and Lactation: Prediction of Drug Exposure Through Breastfeeding and Evaluation of Drug Effect on the Neonatal Adaptation and the Development of the Young Child Unknown status NCT01796132 Phase 4 SSRI/SNRI
47 Effects of Low-dose Ketamine as an Adjunct to Propofol-based Anesthesia for Electroconvulsive Therapy Unknown status NCT02579642 Phase 4 Ketamine;Placebo
48 Treatment Prediction in Adolescent and Adult Depression Unknown status NCT00106197 Phase 4 Bupropion
49 A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Escitalopram in the Prevention of Depression in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Unknown status NCT00140257 Phase 4 Escitalopram
50 A Comparative Trial of TMS Approaches to Treating Depression Unknown status NCT01906905 Phase 4

Search NIH Clinical Center for Depression

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :


Alprazolam
Amitriptyline
Amitriptyline Hydrochloride
Amoxapine
Bupropion
Bupropion hydrobromide
Bupropion Hydrochloride
Buspirone
buspirone hydrochloride
Citalopram
Citalopram hydrobromide
Clomipramine
Clomipramine Hydrochloride
Desipramine
Desipramine Hydrochloride
Doxepin
Doxepin Hydrochloride
Escitalopram
Escitalopram oxalate
Fluoxetine
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride
Fluvoxamine
Fluvoxamine Maleate
HYPERICUM PERFORATUM (ST. JOHN'S WORT)
Imipramine
Imipramine Hydrochloride
Imipramine pamoate
Isocarboxazid
Isoflurane
Kava preparation
Lithium
Lithium Aspartate
Lithium Carbonate
lithium citrate
Lorazepam
Maprotiline
Maprotiline Hydrochloride
Methylphenidate
Methylphenidate Hydrochloride
Mirtazapine
nefazodone
Nortriptyline
Nortriptyline Hydrochloride
Paroxetine
Paroxetine Hydrochloride
Phenelzine
Phenelzine Sulfate
Pramipexole
Pramipexole dihydrochloride
Protriptyline
Protriptyline Hydrochloride
Selegiline
selegiline hydrochloride
Sertraline
Sertraline Hydrochloride
Temazepam
Tranylcypromine
Tranylcypromine sulfate
Trazodone
Trazodone Hydrochloride
Tricyclic Antidepressant [EPC]
Trimipramine
Trimipramine Maleate
venlafaxine
Venlafaxine hydrochloride

Genetic Tests for Depression

Anatomical Context for Depression

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Depression:

40
Brain, Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Amygdala, Bone, Pituitary, Spinal Cord

Publications for Depression

Articles related to Depression:

(show top 50) (show all 56757)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Study on quantitative diagnosis model of TCM syndromes of post-stroke depression based on combination of disease and syndrome. 61 42
33761663 2021
2
Comparative efficacy of interventions for reducing symptoms of depression in people with dementia: systematic review and network meta-analysis. 42 61
33762262 2021
3
Whole-genome sequencing of patients with rare diseases in a national health system. 6
32581362 2020
4
Effectiveness and safety of music-supported therapy on mood in post-stroke rehabilitation patients: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. 42
33761665 2021
5
Association analysis of SIGMAR1 with major depressive disorder and SSRI response. 61 54
20178807 2010
6
High levels of Anti-GAD65 and Anti-Ro52 autoantibodies in a patient with major depressive disorder showing psychomotor disturbance. 54 61
20227114 2010
7
A functional polymorphism in the disrupted-in schizophrenia 1 gene is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome. 54 61
20227423 2010
8
Differential expression of glucocorticoid receptor transcripts in major depressive disorder is not epigenetically programmed. 54 61
19782477 2010
9
Association of mu-opioid receptor variants and response to citalopram treatment in major depressive disorder. 61 54
20194481 2010
10
Higher serum tropomyosin-related kinase B protein level in major depression. 61 54
20202475 2010
11
BDNF plasma levels decrease during benzodiazepine withdrawal in patients suffering from comorbidity of depressive disorder and benzodiazepine dependence. 61 54
20140603 2010
12
Association of polymorphisms in genes regulating the corticotropin-releasing factor system with antidepressant treatment response. 61 54
20368512 2010
13
Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 enzymes influence metabolism of the antidepressant escitalopram and treatment response. 61 54
20350136 2010
14
Aberrant REST-mediated transcriptional regulation in major depressive disorder. 54 61
19846118 2010
15
Serum adiponectin and resistin levels in major depressive disorder. 61 54
19694629 2010
16
BDNF genotype moderates the relation between physical activity and depressive symptoms. 61 54
20230085 2010
17
Investigation of an epistastic effect between a set of TAAR6 and HSP-70 genes variations and major mood disorders. 54 61
19582769 2010
18
Translin-associated factor X gene (TSNAX) may be associated with female major depressive disorder in the Japanese population. 61 54
19760522 2010
19
Genetic association of the interaction between the BDNF and GSK3B genes and major depressive disorder in a Chinese population. 61 54
20033742 2010
20
Reduced density of calbindin immunoreactive GABAergic neurons in the occipital cortex in major depression: relevance to neuroimaging studies. 54 61
20004363 2010
21
Catechol-O-methyltransferase val108/158met genotype, major depressive disorder and response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in major depressive disorder. 54 61
20071037 2010
22
The kynurenine pathway in adolescent depression: preliminary findings from a proton MR spectroscopy study. 54 61
19778568 2010
23
Meta-analysis of the association between the monoamine oxidase-A gene and mood disorders. 54 61
20010318 2010
24
Polymorphisms of genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in depression and metabolic syndrome. 54 61
20163778 2010
25
The emerging role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the skeleton and its mediation of the skeletal effects of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5). 54 61
19591966 2010
26
The effect of depression, BDNF gene val66met polymorphism and gender on serum BDNF levels. 61 54
19589373 2010
27
Chronic social defeat downregulates the 5-HT1A receptor but not Freud-1 or NUDR in the rat prefrontal cortex. 61 54
20026183 2010
28
Association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor genetic Val66Met polymorphism with severity of depression, efficacy of fluoxetine and its side effects in Chinese major depressive patients. 61 54
20016225 2010
29
Genetic linkage of region containing the CREB1 gene to depressive disorders in families with recurrent, early-onset, major depression: a re-analysis and confirmation of sex-specific effect. 61 54
19517574 2010
30
Genetic association analysis of functional polymorphisms in neuronal nitric oxide synthase 1 gene (NOS1) and mood disorders and fluvoxamine response in major depressive disorder in the Japanese population. 61 54
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31
TPH1 218A/C polymorphism is associated with major depressive disorder and its treatment response. 54 61
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32
Pain sensitivity in major depression and its relationship to central serotoninergic function as reflected by the neuroendocrine response to clomipramine. 61 54
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Sequence variations of ABCB1, SLC6A2, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, CREB1, CRHR1 and NTRK2: association with major depression and antidepressant response in Mexican-Americans. 61 54
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Brain monoamine oxidase A binding in major depressive disorder: relationship to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment, recovery, and recurrence. 54 61
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Sex-specific interaction between MAOA promoter polymorphism and Apo epsilon 2 allele in major depressive disorder in the Chinese population. 54 61
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Association study of CREB1 with Major Depressive Disorder and related phenotypes. 54 61
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Community attitudes towards mental health interventions for healthy people on the basis of genetic susceptibility. 54 61
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Glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms in major depression. 54 61
19906242 2009
39
Dex/CRH test cortisol response in outpatients with major depression and matched healthy controls. 61 54
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Rapid antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation therapy correlates with serum BDNF changes in major depression. 54 61
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5-HTT genotype effect on prefrontal-amygdala coupling differs between major depression and controls. 61 54
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Reduced platelet BDNF level in patients with major depression. 54 61
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Positron emission tomography quantification of serotonin-1A receptor binding in medication-free bipolar depression. 61 54
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The norepinephrine transporter gene modulates the relationship between urban/rural residency and major depressive disorder in a Chinese population. 61 54
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5-HTR1A, 5-HTR2A, 5-HTR6, TPH1 and TPH2 polymorphisms and major depression. 61 54
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Antagonist but not agonist labeling of serotonin-1A receptors is decreased in major depressive disorder. 61 54
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Association between the obestatin and BDNF gene polymorphism and panic disorder, and depressive disorder. 61 54
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Serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphisms do not influence treatment response to escitalopram in patients with major depression. 61 54
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Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene is associated with major depression and antidepressant treatment response. 61 54
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Genetic association analysis of serotonin 2A receptor gene (HTR2A) with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in the Japanese population. 61 54
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Variations for Depression

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Depression:

6
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 NOTCH3 NM_000435.3(NOTCH3):c.634T>C (p.Cys212Arg) SNV Pathogenic 812745 rs1555729455 GRCh37: 19:15302816-15302816
GRCh38: 19:15192005-15192005
2 TWNK NM_021830.5(TWNK):c.1121G>A (p.Arg374Gln) SNV Likely pathogenic 426106 rs1554887097 GRCh37: 10:102749088-102749088
GRCh38: 10:100989331-100989331
3 NOTCH3 NM_000435.3(NOTCH3):c.1136G>C (p.Cys379Ser) SNV Likely pathogenic 812744 rs1599391986 GRCh37: 19:15300140-15300140
GRCh38: 19:15189329-15189329
4 MRE11 NM_005591.3(MRE11):c.1727G>A (p.Arg576Gln) SNV Uncertain significance 127974 rs139461096 GRCh37: 11:94180441-94180441
GRCh38: 11:94447275-94447275
5 MRE11 NM_005591.3(MRE11):c.229G>A (p.Glu77Lys) SNV Uncertain significance 481777 rs779269083 GRCh37: 11:94219175-94219175
GRCh38: 11:94486009-94486009

Copy number variations for Depression from CNVD:

7 (show all 23)
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 30014 1 239103312 239231293 Duplication RGS7 Depressive disorder
2 46482 10 81631178 81930681 Duplication ANXA11 Depressive disorder
3 46483 10 81631178 81930681 Duplication TMEM254 Depressive disorder
4 46484 10 81631178 81930681 Duplication PLAC9 Depressive disorder
5 46485 10 81631178 81930681 Duplication SFTPD Depressive disorder
6 49583 11 108105203 108301884 Duplication DDX10 Depressive disorder
7 96990 15 97399748 97770838 Duplication LRRC28 Depressive disorder
8 96991 15 97399748 97770838 Duplication TTC23 Depressive disorder
9 188464 4 65074807 68777792 Duplication CENPC Depressive disorder
10 188465 4 65074807 68777792 Duplication EPHA5 Depressive disorder
11 188466 4 65074807 68777792 Duplication GNRHR Depressive disorder
12 188467 4 65074807 68777792 Duplication STAP1 Depressive disorder
13 188468 11 117276569 117305325 Duplication TMPRSS13 Depressive disorder
14 188469 4 65074807 68777792 Duplication UBA6 Depressive disorder
15 192627 5 115261015 115369537 Duplication AP3S1 Depressive disorder
16 196524 5 168423758 169070607 Duplication SPDL1 Depressive disorder
17 196525 5 168423758 169070607 Duplication DOCK2 Depressive disorder
18 196526 5 168423758 169070607 Duplication SLIT3 Depressive disorder
19 198486 5 25121416 25298271 Duplication CDH10 Depressive disorder
20 223205 7 17201925 17473214 Duplication AHR Depressive disorder
21 223742 7 24922773 25040936 Duplication OSBPL3 Depressive disorder
22 228816 7 8241584 8363438 Duplication ICA1 Depressive disorder
23 237111 8 21188347 21318056 Duplication GFRA2 Depressive disorder

Expression for Depression

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Depression.

Pathways for Depression

Pathways related to Depression according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 29)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.55 HTR2C HTR1A GRM1 GRID2 GRIA3 GRIA2
2
Show member pathways
13.28 HTR2C HTR1A GRM1 GRID2 GRIA3 GRIA2
3
Show member pathways
12.97 NOS1 HTR2C GRM1 CRHR1 CRH BDNF
4
Show member pathways
12.86 SLC6A4 PICK1 MAOA GRM1 GRIA3 GRIA2
5
Show member pathways
12.72 NOS1 MAOA GRM1 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1
6
Show member pathways
12.59 NOS1 GRM1 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1 BDNF
7
Show member pathways
12.45 GRM1 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1
8 12.29 NOS1 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1
9 12.27 HTR1A GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1 BDNF
10 12.14 TPH2 PICK1 NOTCH3 NOS1 HTR1A GRM1
11 12.12 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A BDNF
12 12.05 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1 DLG1 BDNF
13 12.03 TWNK GRM1 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1
14
Show member pathways
12.01 GRM1 GRIA3 GRIA1 DLG1
15 11.92 HTR1A GRIA3 GRIA2
16
Show member pathways
11.92 GRM1 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1
17
Show member pathways
11.9 MAOA GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1 BDNF
18 11.83 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A
19
Show member pathways
11.82 GRM1 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1
20
Show member pathways
11.65 PICK1 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1 DLG1
21
Show member pathways
11.39 TPH2 SLC6A4 NOS1 MAOA
22 11.38 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1
23 11.14 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1
24 11.05 GRIA3 GRIA1 DLG1
25 11 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR1A
26 11 NOS1 GRM1 GRID2 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1
27
Show member pathways
10.92 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A
28 10.78 GRM1 BDNF
29 10.46 CRHR1 CRH

GO Terms for Depression

Cellular components related to Depression according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.32 SLC6A4 PICK1 NOTCH3 NOS1 HTR2C HTR1A
2 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 10.08 SLC6A4 HTR2C HTR1A GRM1 GRID2 GRIA2
3 cell junction GO:0030054 9.97 SLC6A4 PICK1 NOS1 GRID2 GRIA3 GRIA2
4 dendrite GO:0030425 9.93 HTR2C HTR1A GRM1 GRIA2 GRIA1 BDNF
5 glutamatergic synapse GO:0098978 9.86 GRM1 GRID2 GRIA1 DLG1
6 postsynaptic membrane GO:0045211 9.8 GRID2 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1
7 postsynaptic density GO:0014069 9.73 PICK1 NOS1 GRM1 GRIA2 GRIA1 DLG1
8 dendritic spine GO:0043197 9.72 NOS1 GRID2 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1
9 endocytic vesicle membrane GO:0030666 9.71 PICK1 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1
10 AMPA glutamate receptor complex GO:0032281 9.65 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1
11 ionotropic glutamate receptor complex GO:0008328 9.61 GRID2 GRIA1 DLG1
12 somatodendritic compartment GO:0036477 9.55 GRID2 GRIA1
13 parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapse GO:0098688 9.52 GRID2 GRIA3
14 neuron projection GO:0043005 9.5 TPH2 SLC6A4 PICK1 GRM1 GRIA1 DLG1
15 postsynaptic density membrane GO:0098839 9.46 GRM1 GRIA2 GRIA1 DLG1
16 synapse GO:0045202 9.36 SLC6A4 PICK1 NOS1 HTR2C HTR1A GRID2

Biological processes related to Depression according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.13 HTR2C HTR1A GRM1 GRIA2 GRIA1 CRHR1
2 ion transmembrane transport GO:0034220 9.81 GRID2 GRIA3 GRIA2 GRIA1
3 long-term synaptic depression GO:0060292 9.55 PICK1 GRIA1
4 vasoconstriction GO:0042310 9.54 SLC6A4 HTR1A
5 regulation of postsynaptic membrane potential GO:0060078 9.5 GRM1 GRIA3 GRIA1
6 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268