MCID: DBT009
MIFTS: 66

Diabetes Mellitus

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Genetic diseases, Immune diseases, Metabolic diseases, Rare diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Diabetes Mellitus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Diabetes Mellitus:

Name: Diabetes Mellitus 11 75 28 53 5 43 14 16 71 31 33
Diabetes 11 5 41 2 38 71 75

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:9351
ICD9CM 34 250
MeSH 43 D003920
NCIt 49 C2985
SNOMED-CT 68 267467004
ICD10 31 E10-E14
ICD11 33 465177735
UMLS 71 C0011847 C0011849

Summaries for Diabetes Mellitus

MedlinePlus: 41 Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes. Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your blood glucose level and take medicine if prescribed. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

MalaCards based summary: Diabetes Mellitus, also known as diabetes, is related to type 2 diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes, and has symptoms including angina pectoris, tremor and equilibration disorder. An important gene associated with Diabetes Mellitus is KCNJ11 (Potassium Inwardly Rectifying Channel Subfamily J Member 11), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Regulation of beta-cell development and Cell differentiation - expanded index. The drugs Miconazole and Clotrimazole have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pancreas, bone marrow and kidney.

Novus Biologicals: 54 Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. There are four major types of diabetes: Type 1, Type 2, Gestational and Pre-Diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, previously known as juvenile diabetes, is an autoimmune disease resulting when one's own immune system destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. This causes the pancreas to produce little or no insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the body either does not produce enough insulin or beta cells ignore insulin. Gestational diabetes refers to high glucose levels caused by pregnancy. Pre-diabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are high, but not high enough for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.

Disease Ontology: 11 A glucose metabolism disease that is characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.

CDC: 2 Diabetes is a chronic (long-lasting) disease that affects how your body turns food into energy. There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes (diabetes while pregnant).

Wikipedia: 75 Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high... more...

Related Diseases for Diabetes Mellitus

Diseases in the Diabetes Mellitus family:

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 2 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 3
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 4 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 5
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 7 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 8
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 11 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 13
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 12 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 2
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 15 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 6
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 10 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 17
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 3 Diabetes Mellitus, Congenital Autoimmune
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 18 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 4
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 19 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 20
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 21 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 22
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 23 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 24
Type 2 Diabetes 5 Rare Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
Rare Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Rare Diabetes Mellitus

Diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 3925)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 type 2 diabetes mellitus 34.6 WFS1 SPINK1 MIR30E MIR17 MIR155 MIR145
2 gestational diabetes 34.3 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
3 permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus 34.2 WFS1 RFX6 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
4 neonatal diabetes 34.1 WFS1 RFX6 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
5 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 1 34.0 WFS1 RFX6 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
6 maturity-onset diabetes of the young 34.0 WFS1 RFX6 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
7 transient neonatal diabetes mellitus 33.9 RFX6 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
8 wolfram syndrome 33.9 WFS1 RFX6 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
9 diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal, 1 33.9 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
10 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, with early-onset diabetes mellitus 33.9 WFS1 RFX6 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
11 thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome 33.7 WFS1 RFX6 ABCC8
12 wolfram syndrome 1 33.7 WFS1 KCNJ11 ABCC8
13 prediabetes syndrome 33.6 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
14 glucose intolerance 33.4 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
15 hyperglycemia 33.3 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
16 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 9 33.3 RFX6 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
17 isolated permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus 33.3 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
18 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 10 33.3 RFX6 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
19 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 11 33.3 RFX6 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
20 type 1 diabetes mellitus 11 33.2 HNF1A CELA2A
21 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 2 33.2 WFS1 RFX6 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
22 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 3 33.1 WFS1 RFX6 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
23 hyperinsulinism 32.9 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
24 pancreatitis, hereditary 32.4 SPINK1 MIR99A MIR197
25 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 32.3 MIR99A MIR30E MIR17 MIR155 MIR140 KCNJ11
26 insulinoma 32.3 WFS1 MEN1 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
27 monogenic diabetes 32.3 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
28 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 2 32.3 KCNJ11 ABCC8
29 peripheral nervous system disease 32.1 WFS1 MIR30E MIR17 MIR145 MIR140 MIR132
30 lipoprotein quantitative trait locus 32.1 MIR17 MIR155 MIR145 MIR140 MIR132 CELA2A
31 cardiovascular system disease 32.0 MIR30E MIR17 MIR155 MIR145 MIR140 MIR132
32 arteries, anomalies of 32.0 MIR30E MIR17 MIR155 MIR145 MIR140 MIR132
33 cerebrovascular disease 32.0 MIR17 MIR155 MIR145 MIR140 MIR132
34 hypertension, essential 31.9 MIR30E MIR17 MIR155 MIR145 MEN1 CELA2A
35 pancreatic agenesis 31.9 RFX6 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
36 renal cysts and diabetes syndrome 31.7 RFX6 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
37 intermediate coronary syndrome 31.7 MIR17 MIR145 MIR132
38 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 4 31.7 RFX6 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
39 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 31.7 MEN1 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
40 bile duct disease 31.5 MIR30E MIR17 MIR145 MIR140
41 asphyxia neonatorum 31.5 KCNJ11 ABCC8
42 disease by infectious agent 31.4 MIR30E MIR17 MIR155 MIR140
43 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 6 31.4 RFX6 KCNJ11 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
44 colonic disease 31.3 MIR99A MIR30E MIR17 MIR155 MIR145 MIR140
45 factitious disorder 31.3 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
46 gallbladder disease 31.2 MIR30E MIR17 MIR145
47 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 3 31.2 GCK ABCC8
48 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma 31.2 MIR375 MIR30E MIR17 MIR155 MIR145
49 rectal benign neoplasm 31.2 MIR99A MIR17 MIR145
50 carbohydrate metabolic disorder 31.2 MIR30E MIR17 MIR155 MIR145 MIR140 MIR132

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus:



Diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Diabetes Mellitus

UMLS symptoms related to Diabetes Mellitus:


angina pectoris; tremor; equilibration disorder; symptoms

Drugs & Therapeutics for Diabetes Mellitus

Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 1116)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 22916-47-8 4189
2
Clotrimazole Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 23593-75-1 2812
3
Adalimumab Approved, Experimental Phase 4 331731-18-1
4
Acarbose Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56180-94-0 441184 444254
5
Glycopyrronium Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 596-51-0, 740028-90-4 3494
6
Mycophenolic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 24280-93-1 446541
7
Abatacept Approved Phase 4 332348-12-6
8
Petrolatum Approved, Investigational Phase 4 8009-03-8
9
Dimethyl fumarate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 624-49-7, 624-48-6 5271565 637568
10
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Experimental, Vet_approved Phase 4 86347-14-0, 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
11
Methyldopa Approved Phase 4 555-30-6 4138 38853
12
Eprosartan Approved Phase 4 133040-01-4 5281037
13
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
14
Nicorandil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 65141-46-0 47528
15
Spirapril Approved Phase 4 83647-97-6 5311447
16
Cilazapril Approved Phase 4 88768-40-5, 92077-78-6 56330
17
Zofenopril Approved Phase 4 81872-10-8 12849515 92400
18
Etomidate Approved Phase 4 33125-97-2 667484
19
Sufentanil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56030-54-7 41693
20
Cisatracurium Approved Phase 4 96946-41-7 62887
21
Isoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26675-46-7 3763
22
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345
23
Vecuronium Approved, Investigational Phase 4 50700-72-6, 86029-43-8 39765 39764
24
Ramipril Approved Phase 4 87333-19-5 5362129
25
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 37350-58-6, 51384-51-1 4171
26
Tramadol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 27203-92-5 33741 5523
27
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
28
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
29
Lubiprostone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 136790-76-6 656719 157920
30
Vorapaxar Approved Phase 4 618385-01-6 72455102 10077130
31
Silicon Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-21-3 4082203
32
Titanium dioxide Approved Phase 4 13463-67-7
33
Sildenafil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 139755-83-2, 171599-83-0 5212 135398744
34
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68-04-2 23431961
35
Furosemide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54-31-9 3440
36
Terazosin Approved Phase 4 63590-64-7 5401
37
Curcumin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 458-37-7, 84765-67-3 969516
38
Ginger Approved Phase 4
39
Ribavirin Approved Phase 4 36791-04-5 37542
40
Cilostazol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 73963-72-1 2754
41
Menthol Approved, Experimental Phase 4 1490-04-6, 2216-51-5, 15356-60-2 1254 16666 165675
42
Methyl salicylate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 119-36-8 4133
43
Thymol Approved Phase 4 89-83-8 6989
44
Lenograstim Approved, Investigational Phase 4 135968-09-1
45
Esomeprazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 73590-58-6, 119141-88-7 9568614 4594
46
Bromocriptine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 25614-03-3 31101
47
Glycerin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56-81-5 753
48
Racephedrine Approved, Experimental Phase 4 299-42-3, 90-82-4, 90-81-3 5032 9294 7028
49
Tolbutamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 64-77-7 5505
50
Levoleucovorin Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 68538-85-2, 58-05-9, 73951-54-9 149436 6006

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 16117)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Switching From Insulin to Sulfonylurea in Childhood and Adult Diabetes Due to Variants in the HNF1A, HNF4A, or HNF1B Genes Unknown status NCT04239586 Phase 4 Sulfonylurea
2 Assessment of Surface Coverage of Polymer-based Sirolimus-eluting Stent( Cypher ) or Polymer-free Paclitaxel-eluting Stent (YinYi )in Diabetes Mellitus and Non- Diabetes Mellitus Patients by Optical Coherence Tomography Unknown status NCT01023919 Phase 4
3 Comparison of Diabetes Mellitus and Non-diabetes Mellitus Patients for Surface Coverage After Two Types of Drug-eluting Stent Implantation (A Pilot Study) Unknown status NCT01021930 Phase 4
4 EXpanded Combination of Evolocumab Plus Empagliflozin on Diabetes: EXCEED-BHS3 Trial Unknown status NCT03932721 Phase 4 Evolocumab 140 MG/ML
5 Comparison of Anti-inflammatory Status Linked to Atherosclerosis Formation/Progression Among Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Patients Under Combined Pharmacological Therapy Unknown status NCT04392557 Phase 4 Metformin / alogliptin Oral Product;Metformin / Pioglitazone Pill;triple therapy
6 Establishing Cardiovascular Biomarkers to Define Preferred Lantus® Use. Unknown status NCT01500850 Phase 4 nph insulin;human insulin;Insulin Glargine;Insulin glulisine
7 The Effects of OMACOR on the LDL Sub-fraction in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Combined Hyperlipidemia Unknown status NCT00758927 Phase 4 Omega-3 acid 4 grams per day;Placebo control
8 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Role of Inflammation and Innate Immunity in The Pathogenesis of Endothelial Dysfunction and Atherosclerosis Unknown status NCT01250340 Phase 4 Aspirin;Placebo
9 The Effect of n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Expression of Sirt-1, Adiponectin Receptor 1 (AdipoR1) & Adiponectin Receptor 2 (AdipoR2) Genes of PBMC and Circulatory Levels of Resistin,Monocyte Chemotactic Protein (MCP-1) and Adiponectin of type2 Diabetes Patient Unknown status NCT02261545 Phase 4
10 The Effects of Empagliflozin on Functional and Structural Arterial Wall Characteristics Unknown status NCT03639545 Phase 4 Empagliflozin 25mg;Metformin;Empagliflozin/Metformin;Placebos
11 Effect of Dapagliflozin on Nighttime Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT03887416 Phase 4 Dapagliflozin 10 MG Oral Tablet [Farxiga];Placebo Oral Tablet
12 Optimal Insulin Correction Factor in Post- High Intensity Exercise Hyperglycemia in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: The FIT Study Unknown status NCT03057470 Phase 4 50% bolus insulin correction;100% bolus insulin correction;150% bolus insulin correction
13 Effect of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium Lactis BB 12 on Beta-cell Function in Children With Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes - a Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT03032354 Phase 4 Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12
14 Effect of Liraglutide as Additional Treatment to Insulin in Patients With Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT03011008 Phase 4 Liraglutide;Insulin
15 The Efficacy and Safety of Sodium-glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitor or Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitor Added to Premix Insulin Injection Twice Daily in Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Patients Unknown status NCT03458715 Phase 4 SGLT2 inhibitor (Empagliflozin 25 MG);DPP4 inhibitor (Linagliptin 5 MG)
16 A Randomized, Non-inferiority, Open-label Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of GAcarbose+Saxagliptin Compared With Metformin+Saxagliptin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Unknown status NCT02605772 Phase 4 Acarbose;Metformin;Saxagliptin
17 Study of Comparison the Treatment Effect Between Gastric Bypass and Exenatide in Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT01435980 Phase 4 Exenatide
18 Randomized, Long-Term Study About the Effects of Analogue Versus Human Insulin Based Regimens (Insulin Detemir and Aspart Versus NPH- and Regular Human Insulin) on Metabolic Control and Myocardial Function in People With Type 2 Diabetes. Unknown status NCT00747409 Phase 4 insulin aspart and detemir (NovoRapid, Levemir);human regular insulin and NPH insulin (Actrapid, Protaphne)
19 A Study on the Anti-proteinuric Effects of Pioglitazone in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Unknown status NCT00749047 Phase 4 Pioglitazone
20 Investigation of a Switch From Insulin Therapy to a Metformin & Saxagliptin Combination in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01206647 Phase 4 Metformin and Saxagliptin
21 A Single Center, Open Label, Randomized Study to Compare the Effect of Vytorin (Simvastatin/Ezetimibe) 10/20mg Versus Atorvastatin 20mg on ApoB/ApoA1 Ratio in Subjects With Diabetes Unknown status NCT01185236 Phase 4 simvastatin/ezetimibe;atorvastatin 20mg
22 A Randomized Double-blind Study to Evaluate the Effect of Linagliptin on Pancreatic Beta Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Metformin Monotherapy Unknown status NCT02097342 Phase 4 Linagliptin;Placebo;Voglibose
23 Effect of Metformin as add-on Therapy on Glycemic Control and Other Diabetes-Related Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetic Patients:a Open-label,Self-control Study Unknown status NCT03590262 Phase 4 Metformin
24 A Prospective, Randomized, Two Period, With an Intermediate Wash Out Period, Cross-over Study to Compare the Effects of Either Combined Therapy With Ramipril and Clopidogrel or Ramipril Monotherapy on Oxidative Stress, Vascular Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy Unknown status NCT01743014 Phase 4 Ramipril;Clopidogrel
25 The Echocardiographic Left Ventricular Functional Changes of Uncontrolled Diabetes by the Intervention of Dapagliflozin Treatment Trial (ELUCIDATE) Unknown status NCT03871621 Phase 4 Diabetes Medicines;Dapagliflozin
26 Flexible Insulin Therapy Untethered Insulin Regimen Using Insulin Degludec and Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion in Avidly Exercising Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: FIT Untethered Unknown status NCT03838783 Phase 4 Insulin Degludec
27 A Randomized,Active-controlled,Open-label Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Effect of GLP-1 Receptor Agonist (Exenatide Injection) in Combination With Metformin Therapy Compared to Premixed Insulin (BIAsp30) in Combination With Metformin Therapy on Diabetes Remission in Subjects With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Who Are Overweight or Obese Unknown status NCT03018665 Phase 4 Exenatide;BIAsp30;Metformin
28 Effectiveness of Sitagliptin for the Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT04495881 Phase 4 Sitagliptin 100mg
29 Effect of Linagliptin in Comparison With Glimepiride as Add on to Metformin on Postprandial Beta Cell Function, Postprandial Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01547104 Phase 4 Linagliptin;Glimepiride
30 Impact of Insulin Detemir Versus Insulin Glargine on Glycaemic Control and Metabolism During Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes Unknown status NCT01440439 Phase 4 Insulin glargine;Insulin detemir
31 Effects of Sitagliptin On Markers of Bone Turnover in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT00732121 Phase 4 Sitagliptin;Placebo
32 Multicenter, Randomized Trial Designed to Evaluate the Applicability of the Guidelines of the Italian Society of Diabetology for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases in Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT01240070 Phase 4
33 The Effect of Metformin as add-on to Insulin in Non-obese Patients With Autoimmune Diabetes Unknown status NCT03513874 Phase 4 Metformin;Insulin
34 Effects of Empagliflozin on Cardiac Structure, Function, and Circulating Biomarkers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT02998970 Phase 4 Empagliflozin;Placebo
35 Effect of Acarbose and Vildagliptin on Visceral Fat Distribution in Overweight and Obesity Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Control Study Unknown status NCT02999841 Phase 4 Acarbose;Vildagliptin
36 The Effect of Empagliflozin on NAFLD in Asian Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT02964715 Phase 4 Empagliflozin
37 PRotective Effect on the Coronary Microcirculation of Patients With DIabetes by Clopidogrel or Ticagrelor Unknown status NCT02698618 Phase 4 Randomization
38 Short Term Diet Intervention in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes. a Randomised, Multicentric, Controlled, Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT01409330 Phase 4
39 A Pilot Study of Outpatient Discharge Therapy With Saxagliptin + Metformin XR or Sulphonylurea for Recently Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Presenting With Severe Hyperglycemia Unknown status NCT01267448 Phase 4 Glipizide XL;Saxagliptin + Metformin XR;Metformin XR
40 The Effect of Gliatamin (Chonline Alphoscerate) on Depressive Mood in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Unknown status NCT03059069 Phase 4 Chonline Alphoscerate;Placebo Oral Tablet
41 GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Therapy and Albuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT03029351 Phase 4 Exenatide Extended Release for Inj Susp 2 MG;Placebos
42 Effect of the Weekly Administration of Exenatide LAR or Dulaglutide on the Variability of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of 24 Hours in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Without Pharmacological Treatment. Unknown status NCT03444142 Phase 4 Exenatide LAR;Dulaglutide
43 Effects of Dapagliflozin on Hyperlipidemia, Glycemic Control and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Patients (DAPHNIS Study) Unknown status NCT02577159 Phase 4 Dapagliflozin
44 Treatment With Continuous Sub-cutaneous Insulin Infusion Via a Portable Pump Versus Discontinuous Insulin Infusion Via Multiple-injections in Type 2 Diabetes: Study of Insulin Sensitivity in the 2 Types of Treatment Unknown status NCT02048189 Phase 4 LEVEMIR;APIDRA
45 Effectiveness and Tolerability of Early Initiation of Combined Lipid -Lowering Therapy Included Simvastatin and Fenofibrate vs Simvastatin Alone in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertriglyceridemia and Acute Coronary Syndrome Unknown status NCT02015988 Phase 4 Fenofibrate;Simvastatin
46 The Exploration of Optimal Treatment Scheme in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled With Glargine Unknown status NCT03659383 Phase 4
47 The Effect of a Circuit Resistance Training, Empagliflozin or "Vegeterranean Diet" on Physical and Metabolic Function in Elderly Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes: a Study Protocol for a Randomized Control Trial (CEV-65 Trial) Unknown status NCT03560375 Phase 4 Empagliflozin 10 MG
48 Insulin Requirement for Pure- Protein Meal in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Treated With Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion - a Cross-over, Randomized Trial. Unknown status NCT02685449 Phase 4 Insulin glulisine;Insulin aspart;Insulin lispro
49 Treatment of Hypoglycemia With Glucagon Among Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT02232971 Phase 4 Glucagon
50 Effect of Supplementary Vitamin D in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus and Pulmonary Tuberculosis (EVIDENT Study): a Randomized, Double Blind, Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02169570 Phase 4

Search NIH Clinical Center for Diabetes Mellitus

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


CHROMIUM PICOLINATE

Cochrane evidence based reviews: diabetes mellitus

Genetic Tests for Diabetes Mellitus

Genetic tests related to Diabetes Mellitus:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Diabetes Mellitus 28

Anatomical Context for Diabetes Mellitus

Organs/tissues related to Diabetes Mellitus:

MalaCards : Pancreas, Bone Marrow, Kidney, Heart, Endothelial, Brain, Liver

Publications for Diabetes Mellitus

Articles related to Diabetes Mellitus:

(show top 50) (show all 55962)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Spectrum of mutations in monogenic diabetes genes identified from high-throughput DNA sequencing of 6888 individuals. 62 5
29207974 2017
2
Baseline characteristics of participants in the Pre-Diabetes Interventions and Continued Tracking to Ease-out Diabetes (Pre-DICTED) Program. 62 41
36220198 2022
3
Whole-genome sequencing of patients with rare diseases in a national health system. 5
32581362 2020
4
ABCC8-Related Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY12): A Report of a Chinese Family. 5
33013711 2020
5
CELA2A mutations predispose to early-onset atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome and affect plasma insulin and platelet activation. 5
31358993 2019
6
Conservatively treated Congenital Hyperinsulinism (CHI) due to K-ATP channel gene mutations: reducing severity over time. 5
27908292 2016
7
The contribution of rapid KATP channel gene mutation analysis to the clinical management of children with congenital hyperinsulinism. 5
21378087 2011
8
Optimal pharmacotherapy pathway in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain: the OPTION-DM RCT. 41
36259684 2022
9
NPWT resource use compared with standard moist wound care in diabetic foot wounds: DiaFu randomized clinical trial results. 41
36180953 2022
10
Vitamin E reduces cardiovascular disease in individuals with diabetes mellitus and the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype. 53 62
20415560 2010
11
Plasma copeptin and the risk of diabetes mellitus. 53 62
20439785 2010
12
Polymorphisms of the UCP2 gene are associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. 53 62
19681913 2010
13
Effects of atorvastatin on circulating CD34+/CD133+/ CD45- progenitor cells and indices of angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor and the angiopoietins 1 and 2) in atherosclerotic vascular disease and diabetes mellitus. 53 62
19754853 2010
14
CTLA4 promoter polymorphisms are associated with canine diabetes mellitus. 53 62
20196832 2010
15
An exploration of Glo-3A antibody levels in children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus. 53 62
19622083 2009
16
Multiple levels of regulation determine the role of the receptor for AGE (RAGE) as common soil in inflammation, immune responses and diabetes mellitus and its complications. 53 62
19636529 2009
17
Update of mutations in the genes encoding the pancreatic beta-cell K(ATP) channel subunits Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) and sulfonylurea receptor 1 (ABCC8) in diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. 53 62
18767144 2009
18
Overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 in coronary atherosclerosis of Japanese autopsies with diabetes mellitus: Hisayama study. 53 62
18620357 2009
19
Selective PKC beta inhibition with ruboxistaurin and endothelial function in type-2 diabetes mellitus. 53 62
18949545 2009
20
Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase level and diabetes mellitus among US adults. 53 62
19449164 2009
21
MicroRNA expression in human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue. 46
19259271 2009
22
WFS1 mutations are frequent monogenic causes of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus in Lebanon. 53 62
18806274 2008
23
Aminotransferase levels and 20-year risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. 53 62
19010326 2008
24
Autoantibodies to GAD65 and IA-2 in canine diabetes mellitus. 53 62
18706702 2008
25
Insulin delivery systems: reducing barriers to insulin therapy and advancing diabetes mellitus treatment. 53 62
18514089 2008
26
The use of interleukin-1-receptor antagonists in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. 53 62
18317479 2008
27
Gene polymorphisms of superoxide dismutases and catalase in diabetes mellitus. 53 62
18423055 2008
28
Testing of diabetes-associated WFS1 polymorphisms in the Diabetes Prevention Program. 53 62
18060660 2008
29
Visfatin: structure, function and relation to diabetes mellitus and other dysfunctions. 53 62
18691043 2008
30
The insulinotropic effect of GIP is impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis and secondary diabetes mellitus as compared to patients with chronic pancreatitis and normal glucose tolerance. 53 62
17692937 2007
31
Proteasome-dependent degradation of guanosine 5'-triphosphate cyclohydrolase I causes tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency in diabetes mellitus. 53 62
17679617 2007
32
Downregulation of the hemoglobin scavenger receptor in individuals with diabetes and the Hp 2-2 genotype: implications for the response to intraplaque hemorrhage and plaque vulnerability. 53 62
17525367 2007
33
Diabetes beyond insulin: review of new drugs for treatment of diabetes mellitus. 53 62
17630927 2007
34
Genetic variation in thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) is associated with hypertriglyceridaemia and blood pressure in diabetes mellitus. 53 62
17381501 2007
35
Hepatic safety profile and glycemic control of pioglitazone in more than 20,000 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: postmarketing surveillance study in Japan. 53 62
17109986 2007
36
Thiazolidinediones and the risk of lung, prostate, and colon cancer in patients with diabetes. 53 62
17442990 2007
37
Circulating concentrations of adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in gestational diabetes mellitus. 53 62
17454170 2007
38
Inflammation in diabetes mellitus: role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists. 53 62
17307056 2007
39
Obesity, adiponectin and inflammation as predictors of new-onset diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation. 53 62
17229078 2007
40
Incident diabetes in clinical trials of antihypertensive drugs: a network meta-analysis. 53 62
17240286 2007
41
Autosomal-recessive syndrome with alopecia, hypogonadism, progressive extra-pyramidal disorder, white matter disease, sensory neural deafness, diabetes mellitus, and low IGF1. 53 62
17167799 2007
42
Serum hyaluronan concentration as a marker of angiopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. 53 62
16966827 2006
43
Estrogen receptors: new players in diabetes mellitus. 53 62
16890492 2006
44
Mutations in the genes encoding the pancreatic beta-cell KATP channel subunits Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) and SUR1 (ABCC8) in diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. 53 62
16416420 2006
45
Adipocytokines and incident diabetes mellitus in older adults: the independent effect of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. 53 62
16476877 2006
46
Soluble P-selectin and CD40L levels in subjects with prediabetes, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome--the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. 53 62
16423632 2006
47
Role of glucagon-like peptide-1 in the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes mellitus. 53 62
16202636 2006
48
Aliskiren exhibits similar pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 53 62
17048976 2006
49
Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of falls in elderly residents of a long-term care facility. 53 62
16183956 2005
50
Impact of C-reactive protein on the likelihood of peripheral arterial disease in United States adults with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and preexisting cardiovascular disease. 53 62
16125489 2005

Variations for Diabetes Mellitus

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Diabetes Mellitus:

5 (show all 47)
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 CELA2A NM_033440.3(CELA2A):c.361G>A (p.Asp121Asn) SNV Pathogenic
633592 rs1352544800 GRCh37: 1:15789885-15789885
GRCh38: 1:15463390-15463390
2 HNF1A NM_000545.8(HNF1A):c.1139del (p.Val380fs) DEL Pathogenic
916726 rs1877113317 GRCh37: 12:121434375-121434375
GRCh38: 12:120996572-120996572
3 HNF1A NM_000545.8(HNF1A):c.1310-1G>A SNV Pathogenic
916727 rs1877168655 GRCh37: 12:121435276-121435276
GRCh38: 12:120997473-120997473
4 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.1514G>A (p.Cys505Tyr) SNV Pathogenic
918063 rs1445355190 GRCh37: 4:6303036-6303036
GRCh38: 4:6301309-6301309
5 HNF1A NM_000545.8(HNF1A):c.824A>T (p.Glu275Val) SNV Pathogenic
918065 rs199890776 GRCh37: 12:121432077-121432077
GRCh38: 12:120994274-120994274
6 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.817G>T (p.Glu273Ter) SNV Pathogenic
918066 rs142428158 GRCh37: 4:6296872-6296872
GRCh38: 4:6295145-6295145
7 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.2015T>C (p.Leu672Pro) SNV Pathogenic
918069 rs1222900668 GRCh37: 4:6303537-6303537
GRCh38: 4:6301810-6301810
8 GCK NM_000162.5(GCK):c.772G>A (p.Gly258Ser) SNV Pathogenic
918070 rs1583596378 GRCh37: 7:44187340-44187340
GRCh38: 7:44147741-44147741
9 RFX6 NM_173560.4(RFX6):c.224-12A>G SNV Pathogenic
497 rs587776515 GRCh37: 6:117198947-117198947
GRCh38: 6:116877784-116877784
10 KCNJ11 NM_000525.4(KCNJ11):c.679G>A (p.Glu227Lys) SNV Pathogenic
158682 rs587783672 GRCh37: 11:17408960-17408960
GRCh38: 11:17387413-17387413
11 KCNJ11 NM_000525.4(KCNJ11):c.988T>C (p.Tyr330His) SNV Pathogenic
158688 rs587783675 GRCh37: 11:17408651-17408651
GRCh38: 11:17387104-17387104
12 KCNJ11 NM_000525.4(KCNJ11):c.685G>A (p.Glu229Lys) SNV Pathogenic
158683 rs587783673 GRCh37: 11:17408954-17408954
GRCh38: 11:17387407-17387407
13 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.2020G>A (p.Gly674Arg) SNV Pathogenic
215394 rs200672755 GRCh37: 4:6303542-6303542
GRCh38: 4:6301815-6301815
14 ABCC8 NM_000352.6(ABCC8):c.4544C>T (p.Thr1515Met) SNV Pathogenic
1506182 GRCh37: 11:17415814-17415814
GRCh38: 11:17394267-17394267
15 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.1672C>T (p.Arg558Cys) SNV Pathogenic
198835 rs199946797 GRCh37: 4:6303194-6303194
GRCh38: 4:6301467-6301467
16 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.1839G>A (p.Trp613Ter) SNV Pathogenic
349320 rs143064649 GRCh37: 4:6303361-6303361
GRCh38: 4:6301634-6301634
17 MEN1 NM_001370259.2(MEN1):c.654+1del DEL Pathogenic
374107 rs1057518903 GRCh37: 11:64575362-64575362
GRCh38: 11:64807890-64807890
18 CELA2A NM_033440.3(CELA2A):c.209C>T (p.Thr70Met) SNV Pathogenic
633595 rs372947070 GRCh37: 1:15788135-15788135
GRCh38: 1:15461640-15461640
19 KCNJ11 NM_000525.4(KCNJ11):c.601C>T (p.Arg201Cys) SNV Pathogenic
8668 rs80356625 GRCh37: 11:17409038-17409038
GRCh38: 11:17387491-17387491
20 KCNJ11 NM_000525.4(KCNJ11):c.964G>A (p.Glu322Lys) SNV Pathogenic
21203 rs193929355 GRCh37: 11:17408675-17408675
GRCh38: 11:17387128-17387128
21 HNF1A NM_000545.8(HNF1A):c.812G>A (p.Arg271Gln) SNV Pathogenic
449403 rs779184183 GRCh37: 12:121432065-121432065
GRCh38: 12:120994262-120994262
22 SPINK1 NM_001379610.1(SPINK1):c.194+2T>C SNV Pathogenic
132142 rs148954387 GRCh37: 5:147207583-147207583
GRCh38: 5:147828020-147828020
23 GCK NM_000162.5(GCK):c.871A>T (p.Lys291Ter) SNV Pathogenic
36263 rs193922335 GRCh37: 7:44186210-44186210
GRCh38: 7:44146611-44146611
24 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.1362_1377del (p.Pro453_Tyr454insTer) DEL Pathogenic
916728 rs1730884546 GRCh37: 4:6302884-6302899
GRCh38: 4:6301157-6301172
25 HNF1A NM_000545.8(HNF1A):c.599G>A (p.Arg200Gln) SNV Pathogenic
381588 rs893256143 GRCh37: 12:121431395-121431395
GRCh38: 12:120993592-120993592
26 CELA2A NM_033440.3(CELA2A):c.639+1G>C SNV Pathogenic
633594 rs752331004 GRCh37: 1:15792640-15792640
GRCh38: 1:15466145-15466145
27 CELA2A NM_033440.3(CELA2A):c.253C>A (p.Leu85Met) SNV Pathogenic
633593 rs558493952 GRCh37: 1:15789253-15789253
GRCh38: 1:15462758-15462758
28 KCNJ11 NM_000525.4(KCNJ11):c.498C>G (p.Cys166Trp) SNV Likely Pathogenic
158676 rs587783669 GRCh37: 11:17409141-17409141
GRCh38: 11:17387594-17387594
29 HNF1A NM_000545.8(HNF1A):c.404A>C (p.Asp135Ala) SNV Likely Pathogenic
918061 rs1876671395 GRCh37: 12:121426713-121426713
GRCh38: 12:120988910-120988910
30 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.961A>C (p.Thr321Pro) SNV Likely Pathogenic
918064 rs1170910466 GRCh37: 4:6302483-6302483
GRCh38: 4:6300756-6300756
31 PMM2 NM_000303.3(PMM2):c.422G>A (p.Arg141His) SNV Likely Pathogenic
7706 rs28936415 GRCh37: 16:8905010-8905010
GRCh38: 16:8811153-8811153
32 HNF1A NM_000545.8(HNF1A):c.475C>T (p.Arg159Trp) SNV Likely Pathogenic
429750 rs765432081 GRCh37: 12:121426784-121426784
GRCh38: 12:120988981-120988981
33 PMM2 NM_000303.3(PMM2):c.584A>G (p.His195Arg) SNV Likely Pathogenic
812999 rs1596489887 GRCh37: 16:8906908-8906908
GRCh38: 16:8813051-8813051
34 INS-IGF2, INS NM_000207.3(INS):c.286T>C (p.Cys96Arg) SNV Likely Pathogenic
918067 rs1845839718 GRCh37: 11:2181129-2181129
GRCh38: 11:2159899-2159899
35 INS-IGF2, INS NM_000207.3(INS):c.174del (p.Glu59fs) DEL Likely Pathogenic
916729 rs1845873878 GRCh37: 11:2182028-2182028
GRCh38: 11:2160798-2160798
36 HNF1A NM_000545.8(HNF1A):c.639C>G (p.Ile213Met) SNV Likely Pathogenic
918062 rs768753432 GRCh37: 12:121431435-121431435
GRCh38: 12:120993632-120993632
37 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.2082G>C (p.Glu694Asp) SNV Uncertain Significance
918068 rs751270928 GRCh37: 4:6303604-6303604
GRCh38: 4:6301877-6301877
38 HNF1A NM_000545.8(HNF1A):c.56C>T (p.Ser19Leu) SNV Uncertain Significance
918071 rs1876084584 GRCh37: 12:121416627-121416627
GRCh38: 12:120978824-120978824
39 ABCC8 NM_000352.6(ABCC8):c.1562G>A (p.Arg521Gln) SNV Uncertain Significance
157683 rs368114790 GRCh37: 11:17464335-17464335
GRCh38: 11:17442788-17442788
40 KCNJ11 NM_000525.4(KCNJ11):c.463G>A (p.Val155Met) SNV Uncertain Significance
158675 rs587783668 GRCh37: 11:17409176-17409176
GRCh38: 11:17387629-17387629
41 KLF11 NM_003597.5(KLF11):c.1077G>A (p.Met359Ile) SNV Uncertain Significance
330636 rs146486664 GRCh37: 2:10188541-10188541
GRCh38: 2:10048414-10048414
42 KSR2 NM_173598.6(KSR2):c.2512C>T (p.Arg838Cys) SNV Uncertain Significance
1338787 GRCh37: 12:117914339-117914339
GRCh38: 12:117476534-117476534
43 CEL NM_001807.6(CEL):c.1966G>C (p.Ala656Pro) SNV Uncertain Significance
128688 rs587780309 GRCh37: 9:135946855-135946855
GRCh38: 9:133071468-133071468
44 ARMC9 NM_001352754.2(ARMC9):c.636G>C (p.Gln212His) SNV Uncertain Significance
739322 rs201590882 GRCh37: 2:232099950-232099950
GRCh38: 2:231235237-231235237
45 WFS1 NM_006005.3(WFS1):c.2158A>G (p.Ile720Val) SNV Benign
137919 rs1805070 GRCh37: 4:6303680-6303680
GRCh38: 4:6301953-6301953
46 GLIS3 NM_001042413.2(GLIS3):c.1536C>A (p.Asp512Glu) SNV Benign
129158 rs148199056 GRCh37: 9:4117942-4117942
GRCh38: 9:4117942-4117942
47 GLIS3 NM_001042413.2(GLIS3):c.1367C>A (p.Pro456Gln) SNV Benign
129160 rs6415788 GRCh37: 9:4118111-4118111
GRCh38: 9:4118111-4118111

Copy number variations for Diabetes Mellitus from CNVD:

6
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 110220 17 3154257 3410803 Deletion HNF1B Diabetes mellitus
2 110541 17 33120546 33179209 Deletion HNF1B Diabetes mellitus
3 203632 1 158846514 158883705 Rearrangement SLAMF1 Diabetes mellitus
4 225144 7 43300000 45400000 Gain or loss GCK Diabetes mellitus
5 110369 17 31923035 33323544 Deletion HNF1B Diabetes mellitus

Expression for Diabetes Mellitus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Diabetes Mellitus.

Pathways for Diabetes Mellitus

GO Terms for Diabetes Mellitus

Cellular components related to Diabetes Mellitus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.9 SPINK1 MIR99A MIR375 MIR30E MIR197 MIR17
2 RISC complex GO:0016442 9.62 MIR99A MIR375 MIR30E MIR197 MIR17 MIR155
3 inward rectifying potassium channel GO:0008282 9.26 KCNJ11 ABCC8

Biological processes related to Diabetes Mellitus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 glucose homeostasis GO:0042593 10.03 WFS1 RFX6 HNF1A GCK
2 negative regulation of gene expression GO:0010629 9.85 MIR17 MIR155 MIR140 MIR132 CDKN2B-AS1
3 type B pancreatic cell differentiation GO:0003309 9.8 RFX6 MEN1
4 negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation GO:0045668 9.78 MIR17 MIR140 MEN1
5 positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus GO:0035774 9.67 RFX6 KCNJ11 ABCC8
6 miRNA-mediated gene silencing GO:0035195 9.6 MIR99A MIR375 MIR30E MIR197 MIR17 MIR155
7 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.56 RFX6 KCNJ11 GCK CELA2A
8 negative regulation of sprouting angiogenesis GO:1903671 9.5 MIR375 MIR30E MIR17
9 miRNA-mediated gene silencing by inhibition of translation GO:0035278 9.46 MIR17 MIR145 MIR134 MIR132
10 negative regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:1904046 9.43 MIR134 MIR140 MIR17
11 negative regulation of BMP secretion GO:2001285 9.4 MIR17 MIR140

Molecular functions related to Diabetes Mellitus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 ATP-activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity GO:0015272 9.46 KCNJ11 ABCC8
2 mRNA 3'-UTR binding GO:0003730 9.35 MIR17 MIR155 MIR145 MIR140 MIR134
3 mRNA base-pairing translational repressor activity GO:1903231 9.23 MIR99A MIR30E MIR17 MIR155 MIR145 MIR140

Sources for Diabetes Mellitus

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 24-Oct-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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