Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone (KPD)

Categories: Blood diseases, Endocrine diseases, Genetic diseases, Metabolic diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

MalaCards integrated aliases for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone:

Name: Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone 57 12 74 29 13 40
Diabetic Ketoacidosis 12 55 44 15 17 72
Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone, Susceptibility to 57 6
Ketosis-Prone Diabetes Mellitus 12 37
Kpd 57 74
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent 72



autosomal recessive
autosomal dominant (in 1 patient)

hla class ii alleles specify ketosis-prone diabetes (kpd) subgroup
near-normoglycemic remission for period of months to years without insulin treatment




External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:1837
OMIM 57 612227
KEGG 37 H01224
ICD9CM 35 250.1
NCIt 50 C50530
SNOMED-CT 68 24927004
UMLS 72 C0011854 C0011880

Summaries for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

OMIM : 57 In addition to classic type 1 (see 222100) and type 2 (see 125853) diabetes mellitus, atypical presentations are seen, particularly in populations of African ancestry. Ketosis-prone diabetes, the most common atypical form, is characterized by an acute initial presentation with severe hyperglycemia and ketosis, as seen in classic type 1 diabetes, but after initiation of insulin therapy, prolonged remission is often possible with cessation of insulin therapy and maintenance of appropriate metabolic control. Metabolic studies show a markedly blunted insulin secretory response to glucose, partially reversible with the improvement of blood glucose control. Variable levels of insulin resistance are observed, especially in obese patients. Pancreatic beta-cell autoimmunity is a rare finding, and association with type 1 susceptibility HLA alleles is variable (Sobngwi et al., 2002). (612227)

MalaCards based summary : Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone, also known as diabetic ketoacidosis, is related to diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent and monocarboxylate transporter 1 deficiency, and has symptoms including polydipsia and polyuria. An important gene associated with Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone is PAX4 (Paired Box 4), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Glucose / Energy Metabolism and Butanoate metabolism. The drugs Metformin and Canagliflozin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and kidney, and related phenotypes are diabetes mellitus and autoimmunity

KEGG : 37
Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is a widespread, emerging, heterogeneous syndrome, mostly observed in subjects of west African origin (west Africans and African-Americans), characterized by patients who present with diabetic ketoacidosis or unprovoked ketosis but do not necessarily have the typical phenotype of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Multiple, severe forms of beta-cell dysfunction appear to underlie the pathophysiology of KPD. KPD can be classified into four A beta groups, based on the presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65, GAD67, or IA-2 autoantibodies (A+ or A-) and beta-cell functional reserve (beta+ or beta-). Homozygous carriers of the PAX4 R133W variant have an increased risk of KPD.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 74 Diabetes mellitus, ketosis-prone: An atypical form of diabetes mellitus characterized by an acute initial presentation with severe hyperglycemia and ketosis, as seen in classic type 1 diabetes, but after initiation of insulin therapy, prolonged remission is often possible with cessation of insulin therapy and maintenance of appropriate metabolic control. Metabolic studies show a markedly blunted insulin secretory response to glucose, partially reversible with the improvement of blood glucose control. Variable levels of insulin resistance are observed, especially in obese patients. Pancreatic beta-cell autoimmunity is a rare finding.

Wikipedia : 75 Ketosis-prone diabetes is an intermediate form of diabetes that has some characteristics of type 1 and... more...

Related Diseases for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

Diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 500)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent 31.4 SLC30A10 PAX4 INS GAD2 GAD1
2 monocarboxylate transporter 1 deficiency 30.7 INS GAD1
3 alpha/beta t-cell lymphopenia with gamma/delta t-cell expansion, severe cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity 30.3 INS GAD2 GAD1
4 autoimmune disease 30.1 PDCD1 INS GAD2
5 diabetes mellitus 30.0 PIK3C2A PAX4 INS GAD2 GAD1
6 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, type ii 29.9 INS GAD2 GAD1
7 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent 29.5 SLC5A2 PAX4 INS GAD2 ACACA
8 pancreas disease 29.5 SLC5A2 INS
9 pineal hyperplasia, insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, and somatic abnormalities 11.6
10 metabolic acidosis 10.9
11 hydrops, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 10.9
12 hypoglycemia 10.9
13 ocular motor apraxia 10.9
14 hypokalemia 10.7
15 pancreatitis 10.6
16 hypertriglyceridemia, familial 10.6
17 brain edema 10.5
18 pulmonary edema 10.5
19 mucormycosis 10.5
20 hypophosphatemia 10.5
21 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 9 10.5 PAX4 INS
22 encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with episodic rhabdomyolysis 10.4
23 acromegaly 10.4
24 encephalopathy 10.4
25 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome 10.4 GAD2 GAD1
26 respiratory failure 10.4
27 lactic acidosis 10.4
28 type 1 diabetes mellitus 13 10.4 INS GAD2
29 thrombosis 10.4
30 acute kidney failure 10.4
31 kidney disease 10.4
32 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 13 10.3 PAX4 INS
33 gestational diabetes 10.3
34 acute pancreatitis 10.3
35 thrombophilia due to thrombin defect 10.3
36 adult respiratory distress syndrome 10.3
37 spastic cerebral palsy 10.3 GAD2 GAD1
38 cardiac arrest 10.3
39 graves' disease 10.3
40 sarcocystosis 10.3 PIK3C2A GAD1
41 graves disease 1 10.2
42 chorea, childhood-onset, with psychomotor retardation 10.2
43 choreatic disease 10.2
44 hyperthyroidism 10.2
45 alcohol dependence 10.2
46 pheochromocytoma 10.2
47 stroke, ischemic 10.2
48 yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome 10.2
49 deficiency anemia 10.2
50 adrenal gland pheochromocytoma 10.2

Comorbidity relations with Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Acute Cystitis Decubitus Ulcer
Heart Disease Hypertension, Essential

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone:

Diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

Human phenotypes related to Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 diabetes mellitus 32 HP:0000819
2 autoimmunity 32 HP:0002960
3 insulin resistance 32 HP:0000855
4 ketoacidosis 32 HP:0001993
5 beta-cell dysfunction 32 HP:0006279

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

Metabolic Features:
insulin resistance, variable

autoimmunity to pancreatic beta cells (rare)

Abdomen Pancreas:
beta-cell dysfunction of varying degrees

Clinical features from OMIM:


UMLS symptoms related to Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone:

polydipsia, polyuria

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 9.96 ACACA GAD1 GAD2 INS PAX4 PDCD1
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.85 ACACA GAD1 GAD2 INS PAX4 PDCD1
3 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.8 GAD1 GAD2 INS PAX4 PDCD1 SLC30A10
4 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.77 GAD1 GAD2 INS SLC5A1 SLC5A2
5 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.61 ACACA GAD1 GAD2 INS PAX4 PDCD1
6 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.02 INS PDCD1 PIK3C2A SLC5A1 SLC5A2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 216)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Metformin Approved Phase 4 657-24-9 4091 14219
Canagliflozin Approved Phase 4 842133-18-0
Glipizide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29094-61-9 3478
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106266-06-2 5073
Olanzapine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 132539-06-1 4585
Ziprasidone Approved Phase 4 146939-27-7 60854
Gliclazide Approved Phase 4 21187-98-4 3475
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
Glimepiride Approved Phase 4 93479-97-1 3476
Repaglinide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 135062-02-1 65981
Empagliflozin Approved Phase 4 864070-44-0
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 111025-46-8 4829
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
Vitamin D3 Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 67-97-0 6221 5280795
Ergocalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-14-6 5280793
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 1406-16-2
Calcifediol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 19356-17-3 6433735 5283731
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 7440-70-2 271
21 Insulin degludec, insulin aspart drug combination Phase 4
22 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
23 Hormones Phase 4
24 Incretins Phase 4
25 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
26 Insulin, Isophane Phase 4
27 Isophane insulin, beef Phase 4
28 Isophane Insulin, Human Phase 4
29 Micronutrients Phase 4
30 Trace Elements Phase 4
31 Vitamins Phase 4
32 Nutrients Phase 4
33 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4
34 Secretagogues Phase 4
35 Vitamin D2 Phase 4
36 Ergocalciferols Phase 4
37 Hydroxycholecalciferols Phase 4
38 Calciferol Phase 4
39 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4
40 Bone Density Conservation Agents Phase 4
41 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 4
42 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
43 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
44 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4
45 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4
46 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
47 Serotonin Antagonists Phase 4
48 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
49 Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 4 111974-72-2
50 Antiemetics Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 133)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Improving Glycaemic Control in Malaysian Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Insulin Pump Therapy Unknown status NCT03112538 Phase 4 Multiple daily injections of insulin
2 Ketosis-Prone Diabetes in African Americans: Predictive Markers, Underlying Mechanisms, and Treatment Outcomes: The Effects of Metformin vs. Sitagliptin on Beta-Cell Preservation in Obese Subjects With Ketosis-Prone Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT01099618 Phase 4 metformin;placebo;Sitagliptin
3 DirecNet Pilot Study to Evaluate the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Children Completed NCT00069615 Phase 4
4 DirecNet Inpatient Study to Test the Accuracy of Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Completed NCT00069537 Phase 4
5 Basal Insulin in the Management of Patients With Diabetic Ketoacidosis Completed NCT00590044 Phase 4 insulin glargine+ glulisine;NPH + Regular insulin
6 DirecNet Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Effectiveness of the GlucoWatch Biographer in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Children Completed NCT00069628 Phase 4
7 Combination of Sulfonylureas and Insulin Glargine as Safety Net Outpatient Therapy for Unstable Diabetes and Impending Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Completed NCT00732524 Phase 4 Glipizide;Glipizide and Glargine
8 The Effect of Supplementation With Two Different Doses of Vitamin D (500 IU vs 1000IU)on Bone Mineral Density, Serum 25 Hydroxyvitamin D and Hand Grip Strength in Children With Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 - a Randomized Controlled Trial. Completed NCT01277913 Phase 4 Vitamin D3;Vitamin D3
9 Effect of Insulin Glulisine Compared to Insulin Aspart and Insulin Lispro When Administered by Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) on Specific Pump Parameters in Patient With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT00607087 Phase 4 Insulin glulisine;Insulin lispro;Insulin aspart
10 Glucose and Lipid Metabolism on Antipsychotic Medication Completed NCT00515723 Phase 4 risperidone;olanzapine;quetiapine;ziprasidone
11 Phase 4 Study of Comparison of Combination Therapy of Gliclazide MR and Basal Insulin With Pre-mix Insulin Monotherapy for the Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT00736515 Phase 4 Gliclazide MR and Insulin Glargine Injection;Biosynthetic Human Insulin Injection
12 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel Group Study to Evaluate the Ability of Ramelteon 1 mg, 4 mg, and 8 mg to Alleviate the Insomnia Symptoms Associated With Eastward Bound Jet Lag Across 5 Time Zones in Healthy Adult Volunteers Completed NCT00492011 Phase 4 Ramelteon;Ramelteon;Ramelteon;Placebo
13 Changes in Adiposity and Metabolic Measures During Medication Switches to Aripiprazole From Other Atypical Antipsychotics Completed NCT00205660 Phase 4
14 A Randomised Controlled Trial for People With Established Type 2 Diabetes During Ramadan: Canagliflozin (Invokana™) vs. Standard Dual Therapy Regimen: The 'Can Do Ramadan' Study Completed NCT02694263 Phase 4 Canagliflozin;Repaglinide;Pioglitazone;Gliclazide;Glimepiride
15 Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children: Does Early Glargine Prevent Rebound Hyperglycemia? Recruiting NCT03107208 Phase 4 Glargine
16 A Single-center Randomized Double Blinded Control Trial of Intravenous Fluid Content in Children With Diabetic Ketoacidosis Admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Recruiting NCT03066440 Phase 4 Normal saline;Lactated Ringers
17 SGLT-2 Inhibitor Empagliflozin Effects on Appetite and Weight Regulation: A Randomised Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial (The SEESAW Study) Recruiting NCT02798744 Phase 4 Empagliflozin;Placebo
18 Can Addition of Pioglitazone to SGLT2 Inhibitor in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Amplify the Decrease in HbA1c and Prevent the Increase in Plasma Ketone Concentration? Not yet recruiting NCT03878459 Phase 4 Pioglitazone 45 mg;Placebo
19 Tight Intra-Operative Glucose Control Using Continuous Insulin Infusion During Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Randomized Controlled Trial Terminated NCT00394303 Phase 4 Intraoperative continuous insulin infusion
20 Efficacy and Safety of Insulin Glulisine Compared With Insulin Lispro in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A 26 Week, Multicenter, Open, Parallel Clinical Trial Completed NCT00115570 Phase 3 Insulin glulisine;insulin lispro;insulin glargine;NPH insulin
21 Effects of Candesartan Cilexetil (Candesartan) on Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Without Retinopathy. Completed NCT00252733 Phase 3 candesartan cilexetil
22 Fluid Therapy and Cerebral Injury in Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis Completed NCT01365793 Phase 3 0.45% saline replacement fluid;0.9% saline replacement fluid;0.45% saline intravenous fluid;0.9% saline Intravenous fluid
23 Evaluation of the Effect of the InsuPatch Device on Insulin Pharmacokinetics in Clamp Studies Completed NCT01216618 Phase 3
24 Statins in Children With Type 1 Diabetes: Effects on Metabolism, Inflammation and Endothelial Function Completed NCT01236365 Phase 3 Atorvastatin;Atorvastatin Placebo
25 Effects of Single Doses of Liraglutide and Dapagliflozin on Hyperglycemia and Ketogenesis in Type 1 Diabetes Completed NCT02777073 Phase 3 Farxiga;Victoza;Placebo
26 A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Navigator Continuous Glucose Sensor in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Children Completed NCT00166673 Phase 2, Phase 3
27 Diagnosis of Ventilator- Associated Pneumonia in Children: A Comparative Study of Bronchoscopic and Non-Bronchoscopic Methods Completed NCT00495963 Phase 3
29 SGLT-2 Inhibition Using Dapagliflozin During and After Physical Exercise - Effects on Glycemic Variability, Hormonal Regulators of Glucose Homeostasis and Ketone Body in Type 1 Diabetes - a Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Open-label, Cross-over Intervention Study Not yet recruiting NCT04049110 Phase 3 Forxiga 10mg;Placebo
30 Effects of SGLT-2 Inhibitor Dapagliflozin on Hormonal Glucose Regulation and Ketogenesis in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes - a Randomised, Placebo-controlled, Open-label, Cross-over Intervention Study Not yet recruiting NCT04035031 Phase 3 Forxiga 10mg;Placebo
31 hOKT3gamma1 (Ala-Ala) for the Prevention of Human Islet Allograft Failure Unknown status NCT00008801 Phase 1, Phase 2 hOKT3gamma1 (Ala-ala)
32 Safety and Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Newly-diagnosed Type 1 Diabetic Patients Unknown status NCT01322789 Phase 1, Phase 2
33 A Single-Center, Multiple-dose, Randomized, Cross-Over, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Pharmacodynamics, Safety, and Tolerability of Oshadi Icp In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus - Phase Ib Clinical Study Completed NCT01772251 Phase 1, Phase 2 Oshadi Icp
34 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Rising Dose, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of 90 Days of 300 or 600 mg Daily Subcutaneous Injections of INGAP Peptide in Type I Diabetes Mellitus Patients Completed NCT00071409 Phase 2 INGAP-Peptide;INGAP-Peptide;placebo
35 A Phase II, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of PROCHYMAL® (Ex Vivo Cultured Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells) for Recently Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT00690066 Phase 2 PROCHYMAL®;Placebo
36 Family Management of Childhood Diabetes Study Completed NCT00273286 Phase 2
37 A Randomized Phase 2, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Treat-to-Target, Parallel-group, 3-arm, Multicenter Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Canagliflozin as Add-on Therapy to Insulin in the Treatment of Subjects With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT02139943 Phase 2 Canagliflozin 100 mg;Canagliflozin 300 mg;Placebo
38 Islet Transplantation for Type 1 Diabetic Patients Using the Edmonton Protocol of Steroid Free Immunosuppression (ITN005CT) Completed NCT00014911 Phase 2 Sirolimus;Tacrolimus;Daclizumab;Sulfamethoxazole;Ganciclovir;Trimethoprim;Pentamidine
39 Open-Label, Feasibility Study of Combined Plasma Exchange (PEX), Rituximab, and Corticosteroids in Patients With Acute Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Exacerbations Completed NCT01266317 Phase 1, Phase 2 Combined Plasma Exchange (PEX), Rituximab, and Corticosteroids
40 Prospective Study of Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation to Treat New Onset Type 1 Diabetes Completed NCT01341899 Phase 2
41 Reduction of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia in the Home Using Predictive Algorithms, Pump Suspension, and Insulin Dosing Completed NCT02438189 Phase 2
42 Reduction of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia in the Home Using Predictive Algorithms, Pump Suspension, and Insulin Dosing in Children and Young Adolescents (PHM3) Completed NCT02714972 Phase 2
43 The Efficacy of Allogeneic Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation to Treat New-onset Type 1 Diabetes With Diabetic Ketoacidosis Recruiting NCT02763423 Phase 2
44 Thiamine as Adjunctive Therapy for Diabetic Ketoacidosis Recruiting NCT03717896 Phase 2 200mg IV thiamine in 50mL 0.9% saline;Placebo
45 Pancreatic Islet Transplantation Into the Anterior Chamber of the Eye Recruiting NCT02846571 Phase 1, Phase 2
46 An Open-label, Multicentre, Randomised, Single-period, Parallel Design Study to Assess the Effect of Closed Loop Insulin Delivery From Onset of Type 1 Diabetes in Youth on Residual Beta Cell Function Compared to Standard Insulin Therapy Recruiting NCT02871089 Phase 2
47 A Phase 2, Multicentre, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of 400 mg Twice a Day Oral Ladarixin in Patients With New-onset Type 1 Diabetes Active, not recruiting NCT02814838 Phase 2 Ladarixin;Placebo
48 Anti-IL-1 Treatment in Children Diabetic Keto-Acidosis (DKA) at Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes. Withdrawn NCT01477476 Phase 2 Anakinra
49 Evaluation of Tolerability, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of hOKT3g1 (Ala-Ala) Completed NCT00073255 Phase 1 hokt3g1 (ALA-ALA)
50 Phase I Clinical Trial on Intra-tumoral Ipilimumab Plus Intravenous Nivolumab Following the Resection of Recurrent Glioblastoma Recruiting NCT03233152 Phase 1 Ipilimumab (YervoyTM, 50 mg/10 mL solution);Nivolumab (OpdivoTM, 40 mg/4mL solution)

Search NIH Clinical Center for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :

Insulin Aspart
insulin beef, isophane
insulin beef-pork, isophane
insulin degludec
Insulin Glargine
insulin human, isophane
Insulin Lispro
Insulin Lispro
insulin pork, isophane
Insulin, Aspart Protamine, Human
Insulin, Aspart, Human
Insulin, Glulisine, Human
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Beef
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Beef-Pork
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Pork
Insulin, Protamine Lispro, Human
insulin, protamine zinc, beef
Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Beef-Pork
Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Pork
Insulin, Regular, Beef
insulin, regular, beef-pork
Insulin, Regular, Pork
Insulin, Zinc, Human
Insulin, Zinc, Pork
Lente Insulin, Beef
Lente Insulin, Beef-Pork
Regular Insulin, Human
Ultralente Insulin, Beef
Ultralente Insulin, Beef-Pork
Ultralente Insulin, Human

Cochrane evidence based reviews: diabetic ketoacidosis

Genetic Tests for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

Genetic tests related to Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone 29 PAX4

Anatomical Context for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone:

Brain, Testes, Kidney, Liver, Thyroid, Endothelial, Bone

Publications for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

Articles related to Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone:

(show top 50) (show all 4989)
# Title Authors PMID Year
PAX4 gene variations predispose to ketosis-prone diabetes. 8 71
15509590 2004
HLA class II alleles specify phenotypes of ketosis-prone diabetes. 9 38 8
18316396 2008
Narrative review: ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes mellitus. 9 38 8
16520476 2006
Syndromes of ketosis-prone diabetes mellitus. 38 8
18292467 2008
Accuracy and predictive value of classification schemes for ketosis-prone diabetes. 38 8
17130187 2006
Ketosis-prone diabetes: dissection of a heterogeneous syndrome using an immunogenetic and beta-cell functional classification, prospective analysis, and clinical outcomes. 38 8
14602731 2003
Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. 8
18165338 2008
Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes: time to revise the classification of diabetes. 8
17130220 2006
Ketosis-prone diabetes--a new subgroup of patients with atypical type 1 and type 2 diabetes? 8
14602730 2003
Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. 8
12502614 2003
Diabetes in Africans. Part 2: Ketosis-prone atypical diabetes mellitus. 8
11938022 2002
Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. 8
9203460 1997
Utility of initial bolus insulin in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. 9 38
18514472 2010
Lack of lipotoxicity effect on {beta}-cell dysfunction in ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes. 9 38
20028938 2010
Cerebral metabolic alterations in rats with diabetic ketoacidosis: effects of treatment with insulin and intravenous fluids and effects of bumetanide. 9 38
20028943 2010
Low dose (0.05 units/kg/h) is comparable with standard dose (0.1 units/kg/h) intravenous insulin infusion for the initial treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis in children with type 1 diabetes-an observational study. 9 38
19602154 2010
Relapse of diabetic ketoacidosis secondary to insulin pump malfunction diagnosed by capillary blood 3-hydroxybutyrate: a case report. 9 38
19918445 2009
Insulin analogs versus human insulin in the treatment of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis: a randomized controlled trial. 9 38
19366972 2009
Insulin requirement in preschoolers treated with insulin pumps at the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus. 9 38
19021593 2009
Is subcutaneous administration of rapid-acting insulin as effective as intravenous insulin for treating diabetic ketoacidosis? 9 38
19177639 2009
Diabetic ketoacidosis caused by exposure of insulin pump to heat and sunlight. 9 38
19124546 2009
Is a priming dose of insulin necessary in a low-dose insulin protocol for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis? 9 38
18694978 2008
People with type 1 diabetes using short acting analogue insulins are less dehydrated than those with using human soluble insulin prior to onset of diabetic ketoacidosis. 9 38
18694627 2008
New-onset diabetes in an obese adolescent: diagnostic dilemmas. 9 38
18725905 2008
Are family factors universally related to metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes? 9 38
18294223 2008
Insulin infusion via an intraosseous needle in diabetic ketoacidosis. 9 38
18326143 2008
Insulin gene mutations as a cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. 9 38
17855560 2007
Diabetic ketoacidosis in a patient with acromegaly. 9 38
17908670 2007
Insulin glargine supplementation during early management phase of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. 9 38
17508198 2007
Hydroxybutyrate near-patient testing to evaluate a new end-point for intravenous insulin therapy in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. 9 38
17550425 2007
Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes: effect of hyperglycemia on beta-cell function and skeletal muscle insulin signaling. 9 38
17599861 2007
Serum glucose changes during insulin therapy in pediatric patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. 9 38
17515702 2007
[Case of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated with acute renal failure treated with continuous hemodiafiltration]. 9 38
17315734 2007
Association of amino-terminal-specific antiglutamate decarboxylase (GAD65) autoantibodies with beta-cell functional reserve and a milder clinical phenotype in patients with GAD65 antibodies and ketosis-prone diabetes mellitus. 9 38
17090641 2007
[Diabetic ketoacidosis responsive to methotrexate in a patient with a mixed connective tissue disease]. 9 38
17369988 2007
Metabolic control with insulin pump therapy: the Waikato experience. 9 38
17277817 2007
[Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus revealed below 7 years of age in the Diabetes Center of Silesia, Poland]. 9 38
17880811 2007
Evolution of a diabetes inpatient safety committee. 9 38
16905524 2006
Feasibility and safety of insulin pump therapy in children aged 2 to 7 years with type 1 diabetes: a retrospective study. 9 38
16740857 2006
Subcutaneous lispro and intravenous regular insulin treatments are equally effective and safe for the treatment of mild and moderate diabetic ketoacidosis in adult patients. 9 38
16620355 2006
Relationship between skin acetone and blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in diabetes. 9 38
16223475 2006
[Diabetic ketoacidosis in an HIV-infected patient undergoing antiretroviral therapy]. 9 38
16513058 2006
Early detection of insulin deprivation in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion-treated patients with type 1 diabetes. 9 38
16472052 2006
Insulin and glucagon ratio in the patho-physiology of diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non-ketotic diabetes. 9 38
16441980 2006
Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management strategies in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. 9 38
16619733 2005
Metabolic hyperglycemic emergencies with acute pancreatitis in a child with known insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 9 38
16276263 2005
Subcutaneous use of a fast-acting insulin analog: an alternative treatment for pediatric patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. 9 38
16043723 2005
Bone calcium changes during diabetic ketoacidosis: a comparison with lactic acidosis due to volume depletion. 9 38
15869925 2005
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in type 1 diabetic Saudi children. A comparison with conventional insulin therapy. 9 38
15983674 2005
CTLA-4 +49 A/G polymorphism is associated with predisposition to type 1 diabetes in Iranians. 9 38
15860238 2005

Variations for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone:

# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 PAX4 NM_001366110.1(PAX4): c.133C> T (p.Arg45Trp) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs35155575 7:127255466-127255466 7:127615412-127615412
2 PAX4 NM_001366110.1(PAX4): c.421C> T (p.Arg141Trp) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs2233578 7:127254551-127254551 7:127614497-127614497

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone:

# Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1 PAX4 p.Arg45Trp VAR_054880
2 PAX4 p.Arg141Trp VAR_054882 rs2233578

Expression for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone.

Pathways for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

GO Terms for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

Cellular components related to Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 inhibitory synapse GO:0060077 8.96 GAD2 GAD1
2 clathrin-sculpted gamma-aminobutyric acid transport vesicle membrane GO:0061202 8.62 GAD2 GAD1

Biological processes related to Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 response to drug GO:0042493 9.63 PAX4 GAD2 GAD1
2 epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0007173 9.43 SLC30A10 PIK3C2A
3 positive regulation of cell differentiation GO:0045597 9.4 PAX4 INS
4 carbohydrate transport GO:0008643 9.37 SLC5A2 SLC5A1
5 glucose transmembrane transport GO:1904659 9.32 SLC5A2 SLC5A1
6 carboxylic acid metabolic process GO:0019752 9.26 GAD2 GAD1
7 neurotransmitter biosynthetic process GO:0042136 9.16 GAD2 GAD1
8 negative regulation of reactive oxygen species biosynthetic process GO:1903427 8.96 SLC30A10 INS
9 glutamate decarboxylation to succinate GO:0006540 8.62 GAD2 GAD1

Molecular functions related to Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pyridoxal phosphate binding GO:0030170 9.32 GAD2 GAD1
2 carboxy-lyase activity GO:0016831 9.26 GAD2 GAD1
3 glutamate binding GO:0016595 9.16 GAD2 GAD1
4 glutamate decarboxylase activity GO:0004351 8.96 GAD2 GAD1
5 glucose:sodium symporter activity GO:0005412 8.62 SLC5A2 SLC5A1

Sources for Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
71 Tocris
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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