NIDDM
MCID: DBT026
MIFTS: 91

Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent (NIDDM)

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Genetic diseases, Metabolic diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

MalaCards integrated aliases for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

Name: Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent 57 13 38 40
Insulin Resistance 57 29 55 6 17 72
Niddm 57 12 25 74 55
Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent 57 25 74 72
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 12 25 37 15
Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 57 25 74
Insulin Resistance, Severe, Digenic 57 29 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 57 25 44
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 74 29 6
Maturity-Onset Diabetes 57 25 74
Type 2 Diabetes 12 25 63
T2d 57 25 74
Hypertension, Insulin Resistance-Related, Susceptibility to 57 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Association with 57 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Susceptibility to 57 6
Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 12 33
Insulin Resistance, Susceptibility to 57 6
Adult-Onset Diabetes Mellitus 25 74
Diabetes Mellitus, Type Ii 57 25
Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus 12 17
Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to 57
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to 57
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Late Onset 57
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Late-Onset 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Type Ii, Susceptibility to 57
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 2 57
Hypertension, Insulin Resistance-Related 57
Diabetes, Type Ii, Susceptibility to 6
Diabetes, Type 2, Susceptibility to 57
Maturity-Onset Diabetes Mellitus 25
Diabetes Mellitus, Type Ii; T2d 57
Diabetes Mellitus, Adult-Onset 25
Diabetes Mellitus Type Ii 74
Adult-Onset Diabetes 25
Diabetes Mellitus 72
Diabetes, Type 2 57
Type Ii Diabetes 15
Diabetes Type 2 43
Aodm 25

Characteristics:

OMIM:

57
Inheritance:
autosomal dominant


HPO:

32
diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent:
Inheritance autosomal dominant inheritance
Onset and clinical course late onset


Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9352
OMIM 57 125853
KEGG 37 H00409
MeSH 44 D003924
NCIt 50 C26747
SNOMED-CT 68 44054006
ICD10 33 E11
UMLS 72 C0011849 C0011860 C0021655

Summaries for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Type 2 diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. In this form of diabetes, the body stops using and making insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Specifically, insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells, where it is used as an energy source. When blood sugar levels are high (such as after a meal), the pancreas releases insulin to move the excess glucose into cells, which reduces the amount of glucose in the blood. Most people who develop type 2 diabetes first have insulin resistance, a condition in which the body's cells use insulin less efficiently than normal. As insulin resistance develops, more and more insulin is needed to keep blood sugar levels in the normal range. To keep up with the increasing need, insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (called beta cells) make larger amounts of insulin. Over time, the beta cells become less able to respond to blood sugar changes, leading to an insulin shortage that prevents the body from reducing blood sugar levels effectively. Most people have some insulin resistance as they age, but inadequate exercise and excessive weight gain make it worse, greatly increasing the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes can occur at any age, but it most commonly begins in middle age or later. Signs and symptoms develop slowly over years. They include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet (diabetic neuropathy), sores that do not heal well, and weight loss. If blood sugar levels are not controlled through medication or diet, type 2 diabetes can cause long-lasting (chronic) health problems including heart disease and stroke; nerve damage; and damage to the kidneys, eyes, and other parts of the body.

MalaCards based summary : Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, also known as insulin resistance, is related to maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 13 and maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 6, and has symptoms including tremor, angina pectoris and equilibration disorder. An important gene associated with Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent is IRS1 (Insulin Receptor Substrate 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway. The drugs Mineral oil and acetic acid have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Pancreas and Adipose, and related phenotypes are type ii diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance

Disease Ontology : 12 A diabetes mellitus that involves high blood glucose resulting from cells fail to use insulin properly.

MedlinePlus : 43 Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, have obesity, have a family history of diabetes, or do not exercise. Having prediabetes also increases your risk. Prediabetes means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. If you are at risk for type 2 diabetes, you may be able to delay or prevent developing it by making some lifestyle changes. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes appear slowly. Some people do not notice symptoms at all. The symptoms can include Being very thirsty Urinating often Feeling very hungry or tired Losing weight without trying Having sores that heal slowly Having blurry eyesight Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Many people can manage their diabetes through healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing. Some people also need to take diabetes medicines. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

KEGG : 37
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance of peripheral tissues (skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue) and insufficient compensatory insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. Both insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction are thought to result from the complex interplay of many different pathways under the combined control of environmental and genetic factors. It is accepted that T2DM results from population aging and adverse environmental factors of the modern world which favor the development of obesity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 74 Diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent: A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis caused by a lack of sensitivity to the body's own insulin. Affected individuals usually have an obese body habitus and manifestations of a metabolic syndrome characterized by diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia. The disease results in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.

PubMed Health : 63 About type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a metabolic disease that causes sugar to build up in the blood stream. The severity of diabetes can vary quite a bit: Some people only have to make minor changes to their lifestyle after they are diagnosed. Just losing a little weight and getting a bit more exercise may be enough for them to manage their diabetes. Other people who have type 2 diabetes need long-term treatment that involves taking tablets or insulin. It is then especially important for them to have a good understanding of their disease and know what they can do to stay healthy. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in childhood or teenage years. This disease is a result of damage to the pancreas that leaves it producing either very little insulin or none at all. Things are different in type 2 diabetes, where insulin is made by the pancreas but the body’s cells gradually lose the ability to absorb and use the insulin. In the past, type 2 diabetes was often referred to as “adult-onset” diabetes because it is commonly diagnosed later in life. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes. About 90% of people who have diabetes have type 2 diabetes.

Wikipedia : 75 Type 2 diabetes (T2D), formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, is a form of diabetes that is... more...

More information from OMIM: 125853

Related Diseases for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Diseases in the Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent family:

Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 2
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 3 Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 4
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 5

Diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1685)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 13 36.8 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1A GCK
2 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 6 36.6 NEUROD1 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A GCK
3 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 7 36.6 NEUROD1 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A GCK
4 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 14 36.2 HNF1A GCK ABCC8
5 renal cysts and diabetes syndrome 36.0 NEUROD1 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A GCK
6 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 2 34.6 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A GCK
7 diabetes mellitus 34.5 WFS1 SLC30A8 SLC2A2 RETN PPP1R3A PAX4
8 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 1 33.9 WFS1 SLC30A8 SLC2A2 RETN PPP1R3A PAX4
9 hyperglycemia 33.6 SLC2A2 KCNJ11 IRS1 INSR HNF1A GCK
10 diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal 33.6 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
11 maturity-onset diabetes of the young 33.4 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 IRS1 HNF4A
12 monogenic diabetes 33.2 PAX4 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1A GCK ABCC8
13 hyperinsulinism 33.1 KCNJ11 INSR HNF4A GCK ABCC8
14 hypoglycemia 32.9 KCNJ11 INSR GCK AKT2 ABCC8
15 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 32.8 SLC2A2 RETN IRS1 INSR GCK ENPP1
16 glucose intolerance 32.8 RETN IRS1 INSR GCK
17 glucose metabolism disease 32.6 SLC30A8 SLC2A2 RETN KCNJ11 IRS1 GCK
18 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 3 32.5 NEUROD1 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A GCK
19 gestational diabetes 32.5 RETN KCNJ11 IRS1 INSR HNF4A GCK
20 neonatal diabetes mellitus 32.4 SLC2A2 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF1B GCK ABCC8
21 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 32.3 KCNJ11 INSR HNF4A GCK ABCC8
22 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent 31.9 WFS1 PAX4 HNF1A GCK
23 insulinoma 31.9 WFS1 SLC2A2 GCK ABCC8
24 pancreatic agenesis 31.9 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
25 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 4 31.6 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A GCK
26 insulin-like growth factor i 31.5 IRS1 INSR AKT2
27 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 8, with exocrine dysfunction 13.1
28 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 9 13.0
29 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 10 13.0
30 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 11 13.0
31 pineal hyperplasia, insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, and somatic abnormalities 12.9
32 insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans, type a 12.9
33 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 1 12.9
34 fanconi renotubular syndrome 4 with maturity-onset diabetes of the young 12.8
35 diabetes mellitus, insulin-resistant, with acanthosis nigricans 12.8
36 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 5 12.8
37 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 2 12.8
38 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 4 12.8
39 insulin-resistance type b 12.8
40 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 3 12.7
41 intrauterine growth restriction-short stature-early adult-onset diabetes syndrome 12.5
42 insr-related severe syndromic insulin resistance 12.4
43 pseudoacromegaly with severe insulin resistance 12.4
44 rare diabetes mellitus type 2 12.4
45 rare insulin-resistance syndrome 12.3
46 severe early-onset obesity-insulin resistance syndrome due to sh2b1 deficiency 12.3
47 microcephalic primordial dwarfism-insulin resistance syndrome 12.3
48 short fifth metacarpals-insulin resistance syndrome 12.3
49 hair-an syndrome 12.3
50 short syndrome 12.2

Comorbidity relations with Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Acute Cystitis Decubitus Ulcer
Deficiency Anemia Familial Atrial Fibrillation
Heart Disease Hypertension, Essential
Peripheral Vascular Disease Schizophreniform Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:



Diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Human phenotypes related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

32
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 type ii diabetes mellitus 32 HP:0005978
2 insulin resistance 32 HP:0000855
3 decreased waist to hip ratio 32 HP:0031820

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

57
Lab:
insulin resistance
decreased glucose disposal

Endo:
noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

Misc:
late onset

Clinical features from OMIM:

125853

UMLS symptoms related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:


tremor, angina pectoris, equilibration disorder, symptoms

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no effect GR00402-S-1 9.92 ABCC8 AKT2 ENPP1 GCGR GCK GPD2
2 Decreased viability in esophageal squamous lineage GR00235-A 9.65 ABCC8 GCGR HNF1B HNF4A INSR MAPK8IP1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.28 AKT2 ENPP1 GCGR GCK GPD2 HNF1A
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.27 ABCC8 AKT2 GCGR GCK GPD2 HNF1A
3 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.26 ABCC8 AKT2 ENPP1 GCGR GCK GPD2
4 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.16 AKT2 ENPP1 GCGR GPD2 HNF1A INSR
5 cellular MP:0005384 10.14 AKT2 ENPP1 GCGR HNF1A HNF4A INSR
6 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.13 ENPP1 GCGR GPD2 HNF1A INSR KCNJ11
7 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 10 AKT2 ENPP1 GCGR GCK GPD2 HNF1A
8 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.86 AKT2 ENPP1 GCGR GCK GPD2 HNF1A
9 muscle MP:0005369 9.28 AKT2 ENPP1 HNF1A HNF1B INSR IRS1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

PubMed Health treatment related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent: 63

A number of factors influence which treatment approach for type 2 diabetes is most suitable: They include age, general physical condition, other health problems, life circumstances and personal goals. Sometimes just changing your lifestyle can have a positive effect: Losing weight and getting more exercise can make insulin more effective and lower blood sugar levels. Quitting smoking helps to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Making these kinds of changes is sometimes enough to manage the condition and associated risks. If very overweight (obese) people find it hard to lose weight, surgical approaches such as stomach stapling may be an option. Some people depend on medication to regulate their blood sugar levels. The medication options include taking tablets, injecting insulin or medication called incretin mimetics (hormone-like substances that are designed to increase the body's insulin production). It's also possible to combine tablets and injections. The most common medications used to treat type 2 diabetes (antidiabetic drugs) are metformin and sulfonylureas. Newer antidiabetic drugs are also available – but there are still many unanswered questions about their effects. Depending on what other symptoms and illnesses a person has, different kinds of medication can be used to lower particular risks. For example, many people who have type 2 diabetes also have high blood pressure. The main medications that can lower the risk of cardiovascular disease lower blood pressure (antihypertensives),prevent blood clotting (ASA, the drug in medications like Aspirin), orreduce cholesterol levels (statins).

DrugBank drugs 16 :

(show all 37)
# Drug Name Indication DrugBank ID
1 Acarbose For treatment and management of diabetes type II (used in combination therapy as a second or third line agent) DB00284
2 Albiglutide Indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DB09043
3 Alogliptin Indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DB06203
4 Bromocriptine For the treatment of galactorrhea due to hyperprolactinemia, prolactin-dependent menstrual disorders and infertility, prolactin-secreting adenomas, prolactin-dependent male hypogonadism, as adjunct therapy to surgery or radiotherapy for acromegaly or as monotherapy is special cases, as monotherapy in early Parksinsonian Syndrome or as an adjunct with levodopa in advanced cases with motor complications. Bromocriptine has also been used off-label to treat restless legs syndrome and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. DB01200
5 Canagliflozin This drug is used in conjunction with diet and exercise to increase glycemic control in adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus [FDA label]. Another indication for canagliflozin is for the prevention of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death due to a cardiovascular cause) in patients with type 2 diabetes [FDA label], [L5897]. It is important to note that this drug is **not** indicated for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus or diabetic ketoacidosis [FDA label]. DB08907
6 Chlorpropamide For treatment of NIDDM in conjunction with diet and exercise. DB00672
7 Colesevelam For use, alone or in combination with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, as adjunctive therapy to diet and exercise for the reduction of elevated LDL cholesterol in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia (Fredrickson Type IIa). DB00930
8 Dapagliflozin Dapagliflozin is indicated to improve glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus along with diet and exercise[Label,A6757,A6758]. DB06292
9 Dulaglutide Indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DB09045
10 Empagliflozin Empagliflozin is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes. DB09038
11 Ertugliflozin Ertugliflozin as a monotherapy is indicated to improve the glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes.[FDA label] Ertugliflozin, in combination with metformin hydrochloride, is indicated to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes type 2 who are not controlled on a regimen of ertugliflozin or metformin or in patients who are already treated with both ertugliflozin and metformin.[L1134] The administration of ertugliflozin in combination with sitagliptin is indicated to improve glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes when treatment with ertugliflozin and sitagliptin is appropriate.[L1135] It is pointed out that the use of ertugliflozin has to be an adjunct therapy to the use of diet and exercise. The type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance in muscle and liver, which results in the elevation of glucose levels in blood, or by presence of insulin deficiency. The insulin resistance is related to genetic factors, obesity, sedentary lifestyle or/and aging. This increase in the blood glucose can cause severe damage to kidney, eyes and vascular system.[A31582] DB11827
12 Exenatide Exenatide is indicated for improving glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus along with diet and exercise[Label]. DB01276
13 Gliclazide For the treatment of NIDDM in conjunction with diet and exercise. DB01120
14 Glimepiride Glimepiride is indicated for the management of type 2 diabetes in adults as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control as monotherapy. It may also be indicated for use in combination with metformin or insulin to lower blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes whose high blood sugar levels cannot be controlled by diet and exercise in conjunction with an oral hypoglycemic (a drug used to lower blood sugar levels) agent alone [F4540]. DB00222
15 Glipizide Indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.[label] DB01067
16 Glyburide Indicated as an adjunct to diet to lower the blood glucose in patients with NIDDM whose hyperglycemia cannot be satisfactorily controlled by diet alone. DB01016
17 Insulin Aspart Insulin aspart is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults and children with diabetes mellitus. DB01306
18 Insulin Degludec Insulin degludec is indicated to improve glycemic control in patients 1 year of age and older with diabetes mellitus. DB09564
19 Insulin Detemir Insulin detemir is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults and children with diabetes mellitus. DB01307
20 Insulin glargine Insulin glargine is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults and pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DB00047
21 Insulin Glulisine Insulin glulisine is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults and pediatric patients with diabetes mellitus. DB01309
22 Linagliptin Linagliptin is indicated for the treatment of type II diabetes in addition to diet and exercise[FDA Label]. It should not be used to treat type I diabetes or in diabetic ketoacidosis[FDA Label]. DB08882
23 Liraglutide Liraglutide is indicated in combination with diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in patients 10 years and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus[Label,L6718]. It is also indicated to reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as cardiovascular disease[Label]. DB06655
24 Lixisenatide For use as an antihyperglycemic agent in the treatment of T2DM [FDA Label]. DB09265
25 Metformin **Metformin tablet** Metformin is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to increase glycemic control in _adults and pediatric patients_ 10 years of age and older diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus [FDA label]. **Metformin extended-release tablet (XR)** The extended-release form is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in only _adults_ with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Safety in children has not been determined to this date [FDA label]. DB00331
26 Miglitol For use as an adjunct to diet to improve glycemic control in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) whose hyperglycemia cannot be managed with diet alone. DB00491
27 Nateglinide For the treatment of non-insulin dependent-diabetes mellitus in conjunction with diet and exercise. DB00731
28 Pioglitazone Pioglitazone is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus [FDA Label]. DB01132
29 Pramlintide For the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to preprandial insulin therapy in patients without adequate glycemic control of insulin therapy. DB01278
30 Repaglinide As an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DB00912
31 Rosiglitazone Rosiglitazone is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DB00412
32 Saxagliptin Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycemic control in combination with other agents or as monotherapy. DB06335
33 Semaglutide Semaglutide is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct of diet and exercise. The approved therapeutic doses are 0.5 mg and 1 mg.[L1068] Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a long-term metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance and lack of insulin. Its onset is determined by the loss ability of beta cells to respond to an increased plasma glucose. This disease is predominantly caused by lifestyle factors like overweight and obesity. The key feature on type 2 diabetes is the presence of insulin resistance which reduced the capacity of insulin to exert its functions at normal at any given concentration. The secretion of insulin is stimulated by the action of incretins in the gut like glucagon-like peptide 1, which also delays gastric emptying and induces satiety, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide.[T59] DB13928
34 Sitagliptin Sitagliptin is indicated for the management of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus along with diet and exercise[Label]. DB01261
35 Tolazamide For use as an adjunct to diet to lower the blood glucose in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Type II) whose hyperglycemia cannot be satisfactorily controlled by diet alone. DB00839
36 Tolbutamide For treatment of NIDDM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) in conjunction with diet and exercise. DB01124
37 Vildagliptin Used to reduce hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. DB04876

Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 1057)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Mineral oil Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 8042-47-5
2
acetic acid Approved Phase 4 64-19-7 176
3
Ursodeoxycholic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 128-13-2 31401
4
Clonidine Approved Phase 4 4205-90-7 2803
5
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
6
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 169590-42-5 2662
7
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 9004-61-9 53477741
8
Alprostadil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 745-65-3 5280723 149351
9
Adalimumab Approved Phase 4 331731-18-1 16219006
10
Dimethyl fumarate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 624-49-7 5271565 637568
11
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54910-89-3 3386
12
Zaleplon Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 151319-34-5 5719
13
Succimer Approved Phase 4 304-55-2 9354
14
Parecoxib Approved Phase 4 198470-84-7
15
Pregabalin Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
16
Atorvastatin Approved Phase 4 134523-00-5 60823
17
Pitavastatin Approved Phase 4 147511-69-1, 147526-32-7 5282452 6366718
18
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 37350-58-6, 51384-51-1 4171
19
Bilberry Approved, Experimental Phase 4
20
Oxymetazoline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1491-59-4 4636
21
Ephedrine Approved Phase 4 299-42-3 9294
22
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 4 59-42-7 6041
23
Pseudoephedrine Approved Phase 4 90-82-4 7028
24
Metronidazole Approved Phase 4 443-48-1 4173
25
Olmesartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 144689-63-4, 144689-24-7 130881 158781
26
Rifampicin Approved Phase 4 13292-46-1 5381226 5458213
27
Gliquidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 33342-05-1 91610
28
Diazoxide Approved Phase 4 364-98-7 3019
29
Lactulose Approved Phase 4 4618-18-2 11333
30
Tolbutamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 64-77-7 5505
31
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
32
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 525-66-6 4946
33
Allopurinol Approved Phase 4 315-30-0 2094
34
Nitroglycerin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 55-63-0 4510
35
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60-87-7 4927
36
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-73-1, 147-24-0 3100
37
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
38
Ethinyl Estradiol Approved Phase 4 57-63-6 5991
39
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-28-2 5757
40
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved Phase 4 28014-46-2
41
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
42
Lacidipine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 103890-78-4
43
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2, 54-28-4 14986
44
Dextromethorphan Approved Phase 4 125-71-3 5360696 5362449
45
Povidone-iodine Approved Phase 4 25655-41-8
46
Nifedipine Approved Phase 4 21829-25-4 4485
47
Doxazosin Approved Phase 4 74191-85-8 3157
48
Octreotide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 83150-76-9 383414 6400441
49
Moxifloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 354812-41-2, 151096-09-2 152946
50
Norgestimate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 35189-28-7 6540478

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 10000)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Glucagon Like Peptides Receptors Expression in the Stomach of Diabetes Type 2 Unknown status NCT00473733 Phase 4
2 The Impact of Omega-3 Supplementation on Acylation Stimulating Protein(ASP), Retinol-binding Protein 4 (RBP4) and Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) Gene Expression of ASP Receptor (C5L2) in WBC of Patient With Diabetes Type 2 Unknown status NCT01478776 Phase 4
3 Effect of Adding Vildagliptin on Beta Cell Function and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Patients With Moderate Metabolic Control During Metformin Monotherapy Unknown status NCT01565096 Phase 4 Metformin;Metformin;Vildagliptin;Glimepiride
4 Efficacy and Safety of Lobeglitazone Versus Sitagliptin in Inadequately Controlled by Metformin Alone Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: 24-week, Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Phase 4 Study Unknown status NCT02480465 Phase 4 Lobelitazone 0.5mg;Sitagliptin 100mg
5 Metabolomic Variations in the Saxagliptin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Unknown status NCT01768208 Phase 4 Saxagliptin
6 Multi-Center, Randomized, Open Label Study of the Efficacy of Cilostazol Versus Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Atherosclerotic Events With Korean Type 2 DM Patients Unknown status NCT00886574 Phase 4 Cilostazol;Aspirin
7 A Randomized, Controlled Study on Calcium Channel Blocker Versus Angiotensin II Antagonists in the Hypertensive Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Under the Inadequately Controlled Blood Pressure With Angiotension II Antagonists Unknown status NCT00144144 Phase 4 Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, Calcium channel blocker
8 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel, Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of an Antidiabetic Agent Repaglinide for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Unknown status NCT00336310 Phase 4 Repaglinide
9 Effect of Acarbose and Vildagliptin on Visceral Fat Distribution in Overweight and Obesity Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Control Study Unknown status NCT02999841 Phase 4 Acarbose;Vildagliptin
10 A Randomized Double-blind Study to Evaluate the Effect of Linagliptin on Pancreatic Beta Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Metformin Monotherapy Unknown status NCT02097342 Phase 4 Linagliptin;Placebo;Voglibose
11 Effect of Allopurinol on Mono and Co-administration With Statins on Platelets Reactivity on Diabetic Patiets Treated With Aspirin and Insulin Unknown status NCT03195153 Phase 4 Atorvastatin 80mg;ALLOPURINOL 300 MG;Atorvastatin 80mg AND allopurinol 300 mg
12 Antiatherogenic and Antimetabolic Effect of Curcumin in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Unknown status NCT01052597 Phase 4 curcumin
13 Aspirin and the Antiproteinuric Effect of Enalapril in Microalbuminuric Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Unknown status NCT00427271 Phase 4 aspirin
14 A Randomized, Double-blind, Active Control, Parallel Group, Exploratory Phase IV Study to Compare the Effects of Tenelia® or Januvia® on Glucose Variability in add-on to Metformin in Patients With Inadequately Controlled Type2 Diabetes Mellitus in Metformin Only Treatment Unknown status NCT02512523 Phase 4 Teneligliptin;Sitagliptin
15 Effectiveness and Tolerability of Early Initiation of Combined Lipid -Lowering Therapy Included Simvastatin and Fenofibrate vs Simvastatin Alone in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertriglyceridemia and Acute Coronary Syndrome Unknown status NCT02015988 Phase 4 Fenofibrate;Simvastatin
16 the Effect of Vitamin D on the Serum Thioredoxin, TBP-2, Thioredoxin Reductase, Gene Expression of TBP-2 in Patients With Type II Diabetes Unknown status NCT01876563 Phase 4
17 Prospective Randomized Trials of Gastric Bypass Surgery in Patients With Type II Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT00540462 Phase 4
18 Investigation of a Switch From Insulin Therapy to a Metformin & Saxagliptin Combination in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01206647 Phase 4 Metformin and Saxagliptin
19 Metabolism-independent Vascular Effects of the Dipetidylpeptidase-4-inhibitor Sitagliptin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01096277 Phase 4 Sitagliptin;Placebo
20 A 24-Week, National, Single-Centre, Open-Labelled, Randomised, Parallel-Group Trial Comparing Energy Expenditure With Insulin Detemir Versus NPH Insulin Using a Basal-Bolus Regimen With Insulin Aspart as the Mealtime Insulin in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT00788840 Phase 4 Insulatard;Detemir
21 Effects of Cilostazol on Plasma Adipocytokine and Arterial Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes Patient With Metabolic Syndrome (Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controled, Cross-Over Study) Unknown status NCT00573950 Phase 4 cilostazol;Placebo
22 The Effect of n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Expression of Sirt-1, Adiponectin Receptor 1 (AdipoR1) & Adiponectin Receptor 2 (AdipoR2) Genes of PBMC and Circulatory Levels of Resistin,Monocyte Chemotactic Protein (MCP-1) and Adiponectin of type2 Diabetes Patient Unknown status NCT02261545 Phase 4
23 The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Hypertriglyceridemia in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT03120299 Phase 4 Omega-3 fatty acid;Placebos
24 The Effects of OMACOR on the LDL Sub-fraction in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Combined Hyperlipidemia Unknown status NCT00758927 Phase 4 Omega-3 acid 4 grams per day;Placebo control
25 Effect of Linagliptin in Comparison With Glimepiride as Add on to Metformin on Postprandial Beta Cell Function, Postprandial Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01547104 Phase 4 Linagliptin;Glimepiride
26 Effect of Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor on Systemic and Renal Endothelial Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Without History of Coronary Artery Disease (SOCCER Trial) Unknown status NCT02501616 Phase 4 Metformin;Dapagliflozin
27 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Role of Inflammation and Innate Immunity in The Pathogenesis of Endothelial Dysfunction and Atherosclerosis Unknown status NCT01250340 Phase 4 Aspirin;Placebo
28 A Single Center, Open Label, Randomized Study to Compare the Effect of Vytorin (Simvastatin/Ezetimibe) 10/20mg Versus Atorvastatin 20mg on ApoB/ApoA1 Ratio in Subjects With Diabetes Unknown status NCT01185236 Phase 4 simvastatin/ezetimibe;atorvastatin 20mg
29 The Reduction of Microalbuminuria in Japanese Hypertensive Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated With Valsartan or Amlodipine: Study Design for the Shiga Microalbuminuria Reduction Trial (SMART) Unknown status NCT00202618 Phase 4 Valsartan;Amlodipine
30 Effects of a Chronical Treatment With Benfotiamine in People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Pre- and Postprandial Endothelial Function, as Well as on the Function of the Autonomic Nervous System Unknown status NCT00446810 Phase 4 Benfotiamine;Placebo
31 Vascular Benefits of Adding CarvedilolCR to Type2 Diabetic Patients on ACEI:Effects on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation. Unknown status NCT00430040 Phase 4 carvedilol;lisinopril
32 Basal-bolus Insulin Therapy With Insulin Degludec and Insulin Aspart Versus Standard Therapy for the Inpatient Management of Type 2 Diabetes: the IDA2 Study Unknown status NCT03244241 Phase 4 Insulin Degludec 100 UNT/ML [Tresiba]
33 Insulin Therapy in the Inpatient Management of Cirrhotic Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT01143948 Phase 4 Glargine & Glulisine;Regular insulin;NPH & regular insulin
34 A Prospective, Randomized, Two Period, With an Intermediate Wash Out Period, Cross-over Study to Compare the Effects of Either Combined Therapy With Ramipril and Clopidogrel or Ramipril Monotherapy on Oxidative Stress, Vascular Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy Unknown status NCT01743014 Phase 4 Ramipril;Clopidogrel
35 A Randomized, Non-inferiority, Open-label Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of GAcarbose+Saxagliptin Compared With Metformin+Saxagliptin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Unknown status NCT02605772 Phase 4 Acarbose;Metformin;Saxagliptin
36 Study on the Efficacy aNd Safety of Jinlida Granules in Patients With Inadequately cOntrolled tYpe-2 Diabetes and dysLIpidemia Under liFe Style Intervention (ENJOY LIFE Study) Unknown status NCT02035644 Phase 4 Jinlida granules;placebo granules
37 Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University Unknown status NCT02583438 Phase 4 Saxagliptin (Bristol-Myers Squibb Company)
38 Intensive Medical Treatment for Nephropathy Caused by Type 2 Diabetes With Hypertension Unknown status NCT00407680 Phase 4 Intensive therapy Valsartan,Fluvastatin
39 Aliskiren Versus Ramipril on Antiproteinuric Effect in Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Microalbuminuria Unknown status NCT01038895 Phase 4 Ramipril;Experimental
40 Effect of aSpirin Versus CilOstazol for Inhibition of Antiplatelet aggRegaTion in Type 2 DM Patients Unknown status NCT02933788 Phase 4 Cilostazol;Acetylsalicylic acid
41 Pharmacodynamics Study to Investigate the Effect of Evogliptin on Bone Metabolism in Healthy Volunteers Unknown status NCT02587975 Phase 4 Evogliptin
42 Establishing Cardiovascular Biomarkers to Define Preferred Lantus® Use. Unknown status NCT01500850 Phase 4 nph insulin;human insulin;Insulin Glargine;Insulin glulisine
43 To Compare the Efficacy and Safety Between Pioglitazone Added to Combination Therapy of Sulfonylurea Plus Metformin and Placebo Control Group in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT00991055 Phase 4 Pioglitazone
44 Improving Glycaemic Control in Malaysian Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Insulin Pump Therapy Unknown status NCT03112538 Phase 4 Multiple daily injections of insulin
45 Human Insulin Analogs: Evaluation of Inflammatory mRNA Expression of Macrophages and Endothelial Function of Short-acting Insulin - HERMES Pilot Study Unknown status NCT01417897 Phase 4 Insulin glulisine;Insulin aspart;Regular human insulin
46 Chronic Cold Acclimation Stimulates the Browning of Subcutaneous White Adipose in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT02775253 Phase 4
47 ACE/ACE2 Ratio in Diabetic Patients Treated With Antihypertensive Drugs Unknown status NCT00192803 Phase 4 candesartan
48 Impacts of Sequential Treatment Using Fixed Dose Pioglitazone/Metformin Combination Following Short-term Intensive Insulin Treatment on Long-term Blood Glucose Control and β-Cell Function in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT03196362 Phase 4 Pioglitazone + Metformin;Placebo Oral Tablet
49 PRotective Effect on the Coronary Microcirculation of Patients With DIabetes by Clopidogrel or Ticagrelor Unknown status NCT02698618 Phase 4 Randomization
50 A 12-week Study to Compare the Effects of Vildagliptin Versus Glibenclamide on Glycemic Variability After a Sub Maximal Exercise Test in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled With Metformin. Unknown status NCT01867502 Phase 4 MET + Vildagliptin Group;MET + Glibenclamide Group

Search NIH Clinical Center for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :


Acarbose
Acarbose
Acetohexamide
albiglutide
Albiglutide
alogliptin
Alogliptin
alogliptin benzoate
Bromocriptine
canagliflozin
Canagliflozin
Chlorpropamide
Chlorpropamide
CHROMIUM PICOLINATE
Colesevelam
Dapagliflozin
dulaglutide
Dulaglutide
empagliflozin
Empagliflozin
Ertugliflozin
exenatide
Exenatide
Gliclazide
glimepiride
Glimepiride
Glipizide
Glipizide
Glyburide
Glyburide
Insulin
Insulin Aspart
insulin beef, isophane
insulin beef-pork, isophane
insulin degludec
Insulin Degludec
Insulin Detemir
Insulin glargine
Insulin Glargine
Insulin Glulisine
insulin human, isophane
Insulin Lispro
insulin pork, isophane
Insulin, Aspart Protamine, Human
Insulin, Aspart, Human
Insulin, Glulisine, Human
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Beef
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Beef-Pork
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Pork
Insulin, Protamine Lispro, Human
insulin, protamine zinc, beef
Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Beef-Pork
Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Pork
Insulin, Regular, Beef
insulin, regular, beef-pork
Insulin, Regular, Pork
Insulin, Zinc, Human
Insulin, Zinc, Pork
INSULIN,DETEMIR,HUMAN
INSULIN,REGULAR,HUMAN BUFFERED
Lente Insulin, Beef
Lente Insulin, Beef-Pork
Linagliptin
Liraglutide
Lixisenatide
Metformin
Metformin
Metformin hydrochloride
miglitol
Miglitol
nateglinide
Nateglinide
pioglitazone
Pioglitazone
Pioglitazone hydrochloride
Pramlintide
Pramlintide
Regular Insulin, Human
repaglinide
Repaglinide
rosiglitazone
Rosiglitazone
Rosiglitazone maleate
Saxagliptin
Semaglutide
sitagliptin
Sitagliptin
sitagliptin phosphate
Tolazamide
Tolazamide
Tolbutamide
Tolbutamide
Tolbutamide sodium
troglitazone
Ultralente Insulin, Beef
Ultralente Insulin, Beef-Pork
Ultralente Insulin, Human
Vildagliptin

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cochrane evidence based reviews: diabetes mellitus, type 2

Genetic Tests for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Genetic tests related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 29 ABCC8 AKT2 ENPP1 GCGR GCK GPD2 HMGA1 HNF1A HNF1B HNF4A IGF2BP2 IRS1 IRS2 KCNJ11 LIPC MAPK8IP1 MTNR1B NEUROD1 PAX4 PDX1 PPARG PPP1R3A PTPN1 RETN SLC2A2 SLC30A8 TCF7L2 WFS1
2 Insulin Resistance 29
3 Insulin Resistance, Severe, Digenic 29

Anatomical Context for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

41
Endothelial, Heart, Liver, Kidney, Testes, Ovary, Skeletal Muscle
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Pancreas Islets of Langerhans Mature Beta Cells Affected by disease, potential therapeutic candidate
2 Adipose Subcutaneous White Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
3 Adipose Subcutaneous White Adipose Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Publications for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Articles related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

(show top 50) (show all 11564)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Lack of the architectural factor HMGA1 causes insulin resistance and diabetes in humans and mice. 9 8 71
15924147 2005
2
Body mass index and C-174G interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism interact in predicting type 2 diabetes. 9 8 71
15070960 2004
3
Digenic inheritance of severe insulin resistance in a human pedigree. 9 8 71
12118251 2002
4
Interaction between the G1057D variant of IRS-2 and overweight in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. 9 8 71
11030756 2000
5
Rare MTNR1B variants impairing melatonin receptor 1B function contribute to type 2 diabetes. 8 71
22286214 2012
6
Common variants in WFS1 confer risk of type 2 diabetes. 8 71
17603484 2007
7
A genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in Finns detects multiple susceptibility variants. 8 71
17463248 2007
8
Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for type 2 diabetes and triglyceride levels. 8 71
17463246 2007
9
Replication of genome-wide association signals in UK samples reveals risk loci for type 2 diabetes. 8 71
17463249 2007
10
A genome-wide association study identifies novel risk loci for type 2 diabetes. 8 71
17293876 2007
11
Activating mutations in the ABCC8 gene in neonatal diabetes mellitus. 8 71
16885549 2006
12
Significant association of the interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms C-174G and A-598G with type 2 diabetes. 8 71
15472205 2004
13
HNF-1alpha G319S, a transactivation-deficient mutant, is associated with altered dynamics of diabetes onset in an Oji-Cree community. 8 71
11904371 2002
14
A missense mutation of Pax4 gene (R121W) is associated with type 2 diabetes in Japanese. 8 71
11723072 2001
15
Genetic variation in the gene encoding calpain-10 is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 9 38 71
11017071 2000
16
A missense mutation in hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha, resulting in a reduced transactivation activity, in human late-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 9 38 71
9449683 1998
17
Association of the insulin-receptor variant Met-985 with hyperglycemia and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands: a population-based study. 9 38 71
8900242 1996
18
Failure to detect Glut4-Ile383 and IR-Gln1152 variants in NIDDM (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) and control subjects in an Italian population. 9 38 71
7814014 1995
19
Aminoacid polymorphisms of insulin receptor substrate-1 in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 9 38 71
8104271 1993
20
Methionine for valine substitution in exon 17 of the insulin receptor gene in a pedigree with familial NIDDM. 9 38 71
8432414 1993
21
Human GLUT4/muscle-fat glucose-transporter gene. Characterization and genetic variation. 9 38 71
1397719 1992
22
Nonsense mutation of glucokinase gene in late-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 9 38 71
1360036 1992
23
Glucokinase and NIDDM. A candidate gene that paid off. 9 38 71
1397713 1992
24
Analysis of the gene sequences of the insulin receptor and the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT-4) in patients with common-type non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 9 38 71
1918382 1991
25
Association of TCF7L2 polymorphisms with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in 4,087 Japanese subjects. 9 71
18097733 2008
26
Serum retinol-binding protein 4 concentration and its ratio to serum retinol are associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome components in children. 9 8
17726085 2007
27
Two variants on chromosome 17 confer prostate cancer risk, and the one in TCF2 protects against type 2 diabetes. 9 8
17603485 2007
28
No evidence for association of the ENPP1 (PC-1) K121Q variant with risk of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population. 9 71
16607460 2006
29
Variants of ENPP1 are associated with childhood and adult obesity and increase the risk of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. 9 71
16025115 2005
30
Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes. 9 8
16034410 2005
31
A family with severe insulin resistance and diabetes due to a mutation in AKT2. 9 71
15166380 2004
32
The association of the K121Q polymorphism of the plasma cell glycoprotein-1 gene with type 2 diabetes and hypertension depends on size at birth. 9 71
15126519 2004
33
The Arg972 variant in insulin receptor substrate-1 is associated with an atherogenic profile in offspring of type 2 diabetic patients. 9 71
12843189 2003
34
A novel T608R missense mutation in insulin receptor substrate-1 identified in a subject with type 2 diabetes impairs metabolic insulin signaling. 9 71
12679424 2003
35
A variation in 3' UTR of hPTP1B increases specific gene expression and associates with insulin resistance. 9 71
11833006 2002
36
Studies of association between the gene for calpain-10 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the United Kingdom. 9 71
11481585 2001
37
The I27L amino acid polymorphism of hepatic nuclear factor-1alpha is associated with insulin resistance. 9 71
10852449 2000
38
The Gly-->Arg972 amino acid polymorphism in insulin receptor substrate-1 affects glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle cells. 9 71
10843189 2000
39
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors increase BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. 9 8
10720052 2000
40
Mutations in NEUROD1 are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. 9 71
10545951 1999
41
Defective mutations in the insulin promoter factor-1 (IPF-1) gene in late-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. 9 71
10545531 1999
42
A polymorphism (K121Q) of the human glycoprotein PC-1 gene coding region is strongly associated with insulin resistance. 9 71
10480624 1999
43
Prevalence of variants in candidate genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus in The Netherlands: the Rotterdam study and the Hoorn study. 9 71
10084586 1999
44
The hepatic nuclear factor-1alpha G319S variant is associated with early-onset type 2 diabetes in Canadian Oji-Cree. 9 71
10084598 1999
45
Missense mutations in the pancreatic islet beta cell inwardly rectifying K+ channel gene (KIR6.2/BIR): a meta-analysis suggests a role in the polygenic basis of Type II diabetes mellitus in Caucasians. 9 71
9867219 1998
46
A common mitochondrial DNA variant is associated with insulin resistance in adult life. 38 8
9498630 1998
47
Development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the double knockout mice with disruption of insulin receptor substrate-1 and beta cell glucokinase genes. Genetic reconstitution of diabetes as a polygenic disease. 38 8
9062343 1997
48
Increased lipogenic capacity of the islets of obese rats: a role in the pathogenesis of NIDDM. 38 8
9032096 1997
49
Development of a novel polygenic model of NIDDM in mice heterozygous for IR and IRS-1 null alleles. 38 8
9038347 1997
50
A common amino acid polymorphism in insulin receptor substrate-1 causes impaired insulin signaling. Evidence from transfection studies. 9 71
8647950 1996