Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent (NIDDM)

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Genetic diseases, Metabolic diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

MalaCards integrated aliases for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

Name: Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent 56 13 37 39
Insulin Resistance 56 29 54 6 17 71
Niddm 56 12 25 73 54
Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent 56 25 73 71
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 12 25 36 15
Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 56 25 73
Insulin Resistance, Severe, Digenic 56 29 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 56 25 43
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 73 29 6
Maturity-Onset Diabetes 56 25 73
Type 2 Diabetes 12 25 62
T2d 56 25 73
Hypertension, Insulin Resistance-Related, Susceptibility to 56 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Association with 56 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Susceptibility to 56 6
Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 12 32
Insulin Resistance, Susceptibility to 56 6
Adult-Onset Diabetes Mellitus 25 73
Diabetes Mellitus, Type Ii 56 25
Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus 12 17
Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to 56
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to 56
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Late Onset 56
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Late-Onset 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Type Ii, Susceptibility to 56
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 2 56
Hypertension, Insulin Resistance-Related 56
Diabetes, Type Ii, Susceptibility to 6
Diabetes, Type 2, Susceptibility to 56
Maturity-Onset Diabetes Mellitus 25
Diabetes Mellitus, Type Ii; T2d 56
Diabetes Mellitus, Adult-Onset 25
Diabetes Mellitus Type Ii 73
Adult-Onset Diabetes 25
Diabetes Mellitus 71
Diabetes, Type 2 56
Type Ii Diabetes 15
Diabetes Type 2 42
Aodm 25



autosomal dominant


diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent:
Inheritance autosomal dominant inheritance
Onset and clinical course late onset


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9352
OMIM 56 125853
KEGG 36 H00409
MeSH 43 D003924
NCIt 49 C26747
SNOMED-CT 67 44054006
ICD10 32 E11
SNOMED-CT via HPO 68 263681008 48606007
UMLS 71 C0011849 C0011860 C0021655

Summaries for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Type 2 diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. In this form of diabetes, the body stops using and making insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Specifically, insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells, where it is used as an energy source. When blood sugar levels are high (such as after a meal), the pancreas releases insulin to move the excess glucose into cells, which reduces the amount of glucose in the blood. Most people who develop type 2 diabetes first have insulin resistance, a condition in which the body's cells use insulin less efficiently than normal. As insulin resistance develops, more and more insulin is needed to keep blood sugar levels in the normal range. To keep up with the increasing need, insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (called beta cells) make larger amounts of insulin. Over time, the beta cells become less able to respond to blood sugar changes, leading to an insulin shortage that prevents the body from reducing blood sugar levels effectively. Most people have some insulin resistance as they age, but inadequate exercise and excessive weight gain make it worse, greatly increasing the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes can occur at any age, but it most commonly begins in middle age or later. Signs and symptoms develop slowly over years. They include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet (diabetic neuropathy), sores that do not heal well, and weight loss. If blood sugar levels are not controlled through medication or diet, type 2 diabetes can cause long-lasting (chronic) health problems including heart disease and stroke; nerve damage; and damage to the kidneys, eyes, and other parts of the body.

MalaCards based summary : Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, also known as insulin resistance, is related to rare diabetes mellitus type 2 and maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 8, with exocrine dysfunction, and has symptoms including tremor, angina pectoris and equilibration disorder. An important gene associated with Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent is IRS1 (Insulin Receptor Substrate 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Type II diabetes mellitus and Cell cycle. The drugs Mineral oil and Hyaluronic acid have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Pancreas and Adipose, and related phenotypes are type ii diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance

Disease Ontology : 12 A diabetes mellitus that involves high blood glucose resulting from cells fail to use insulin properly.

MedlinePlus : 42 Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, have obesity, have a family history of diabetes, or do not exercise. Having prediabetes also increases your risk. Prediabetes means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. If you are at risk for type 2 diabetes, you may be able to delay or prevent developing it by making some lifestyle changes. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes appear slowly. Some people do not notice symptoms at all. The symptoms can include Being very thirsty Urinating often Feeling very hungry or tired Losing weight without trying Having sores that heal slowly Having blurry eyesight Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Many people can manage their diabetes through healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing. Some people also need to take diabetes medicines. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

KEGG : 36 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance of peripheral tissues (skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue) and insufficient compensatory insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. Both insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction are thought to result from the complex interplay of many different pathways under the combined control of environmental and genetic factors. It is accepted that T2DM results from population aging and adverse environmental factors of the modern world which favor the development of obesity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 73 Diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent: A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis caused by a lack of sensitivity to the body's own insulin. Affected individuals usually have an obese body habitus and manifestations of a metabolic syndrome characterized by diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia. The disease results in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.

PubMed Health : 62 About type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a metabolic disease that causes sugar to build up in the blood stream. The severity of diabetes can vary quite a bit: Some people only have to make minor changes to their lifestyle after they are diagnosed. Just losing a little weight and getting a bit more exercise may be enough for them to manage their diabetes. Other people who have type 2 diabetes need long-term treatment that involves taking tablets or insulin. It is then especially important for them to have a good understanding of their disease and know what they can do to stay healthy. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in childhood or teenage years. This disease is a result of damage to the pancreas that leaves it producing either very little insulin or none at all. Things are different in type 2 diabetes, where insulin is made by the pancreas but the body’s cells gradually lose the ability to absorb and use the insulin. In the past, type 2 diabetes was often referred to as “adult-onset” diabetes because it is commonly diagnosed later in life. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes. About 90% of people who have diabetes have type 2 diabetes.

Wikipedia : 74 Type 2 diabetes (T2D), formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, is a form of diabetes that is... more...

More information from OMIM: 125853

Related Diseases for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Diseases in the Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent family:

Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 2
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 3 Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 4
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 5

Diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1696)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 rare diabetes mellitus type 2 37.2 WFS1 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 MAPK8IP1 KCNJ11
2 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 8, with exocrine dysfunction 37.0 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A
3 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 6 37.0 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A
4 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 9 36.8 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B GCK
5 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 7 36.8 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B GCK
6 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 13 36.8 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1A GCK
7 renal cysts and diabetes syndrome 36.3 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A
8 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 11 36.2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 ABCC8
9 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 10 36.2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 ABCC8
10 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 14 36.0 PAX4 NEUROD1 GCK
11 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 2 35.4 WFS1 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A
12 diabetes mellitus 35.0 WFS1 SLC30A8 SLC2A2 RETN PPP1R3A PAX4
13 donohue syndrome 34.6 IRS1 INSR GCK
14 diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal 4 34.4 SLC2A2 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
15 transient neonatal diabetes mellitus 34.3 SLC2A2 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
16 hyperglycemia 34.0 SLC2A2 RETN PAX4 KCNJ11 IRS2 IRS1
17 maturity-onset diabetes of the young 33.9 WFS1 SLC30A8 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11
18 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 33.6 SLC2A2 RETN KCNJ11 IRS2 IRS1 INSR
19 hyperinsulinism 33.5 RETN KCNJ11 IRS2 IRS1 INSR HNF4A
20 glucose intolerance 33.4 RETN KCNJ11 IRS1 INSR HNF1A GCK
21 gestational diabetes 33.3 RETN KCNJ11 IRS2 IRS1 INSR HNF4A
22 monogenic diabetes 33.2 WFS1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B HNF1A GCK
23 neonatal diabetes mellitus 33.0 WFS1 SLC30A8 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11
24 diabetes mellitus, type i 33.0 WFS1 SLC30A8 SLC2A2 RETN PAX4 NEUROD1
25 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 3 32.9 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B
26 hypoglycemia 32.9 SLC2A2 KCNJ11 INSR GCK AKT2 ABCC8
27 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 1 32.9 SLC2A2 RETN PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A
28 insulinoma 32.3 WFS1 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 HNF1A GCK
29 lipid metabolism disorder 32.3 RETN IRS1 INSR HNF4A
30 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 32.3 KCNJ11 INSR HNF4A HNF1A GCK ABCC8
31 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 4 32.2 SLC2A2 PAX4 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF4A HNF1B
32 pancreatic agenesis 32.2 NEUROD1 KCNJ11 HNF1B GCK ABCC8
33 glucose metabolism disease 32.1 SLC2A2 RETN KCNJ11 IRS1 GCK
34 diabetes mellitus, ketosis-prone 31.9 SLC30A8 PAX4 KCNJ11 ABCC8
35 insulin-like growth factor i 31.8 IRS2 IRS1 INSR AKT2
36 polycystic ovary syndrome 31.6 RETN IRS2 IRS1 INSR
37 abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 1 31.5 RETN INSR GCK
38 diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal 1 31.5 KCNJ11 GCK ABCC8
39 fatty liver disease 31.5 RETN IRS2 IRS1 INSR
40 acute insulin response 31.4 KCNJ11 ABCC8
41 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 2 30.9 KCNJ11 HNF4A ABCC8
42 fanconi-bickel syndrome 30.8 SLC2A2 ABCC8
43 hepatic adenomas, familial 30.4 HNF4A HNF1A
44 diabetes mellitus, insulin-resistant, with acanthosis nigricans 13.0
45 pineal hyperplasia, insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, and somatic abnormalities 12.9
46 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 1 12.9
47 fanconi renotubular syndrome 4 with maturity-onset diabetes of the young 12.9
48 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 5 12.8
49 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 2 12.8
50 insulin-resistance type b 12.8

Comorbidity relations with Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Acute Cystitis Decubitus Ulcer
Deficiency Anemia Familial Atrial Fibrillation
Heart Disease Hypertension, Essential
Peripheral Vascular Disease Schizophreniform Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

Diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Human phenotypes related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 type ii diabetes mellitus 31 HP:0005978
2 insulin resistance 31 HP:0000855
3 increased waist to hip ratio 31 HP:0031819

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

insulin resistance
decreased glucose disposal

noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

late onset

Clinical features from OMIM:


UMLS symptoms related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

tremor, angina pectoris, equilibration disorder, symptoms

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 14)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00055-A-1 9.92 IRS2
2 Decreased viability GR00055-A-2 9.92 IRS2
3 Decreased viability GR00106-A-0 9.92 GPD2 SLC2A2
4 Decreased viability GR00173-A 9.92 MAPK8IP1
5 Decreased viability GR00221-A-1 9.92 AKT2 GCK INSR IRS1
6 Decreased viability GR00221-A-2 9.92 GCK INSR IRS1
7 Decreased viability GR00221-A-3 9.92 AKT2 GCK INSR
8 Decreased viability GR00221-A-4 9.92 AKT2 GCK INSR MAPK8IP1
9 Decreased viability GR00249-S 9.92 ENPP1 HNF1B SLC30A8
10 Decreased viability GR00301-A 9.92 AKT2 MAPK8IP1
11 Decreased viability GR00342-S-2 9.92 IRS1
12 Decreased viability GR00342-S-3 9.92 AKT2 IRS1 MAPK8IP1
13 Decreased viability GR00386-A-1 9.92 HNF1B HNF4A IRS1 MAPK8IP1 PAX4 SLC2A2
14 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 9.92 ENPP1 MAPK8IP1 RETN SLC2A2 SLC30A8

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.32 AKT2 ENPP1 GCK GPD2 HNF1A HNF1B
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.32 ABCC8 AKT2 ENPP1 GCK GPD2 HNF1A
3 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.31 ABCC8 AKT2 GCK GPD2 HNF1A HNF1B
4 cellular MP:0005384 10.25 AKT2 ENPP1 GCK HNF1A HNF1B HNF4A
5 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.23 ENPP1 GPD2 HNF1A HNF4A INSR IRS2
6 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.18 AKT2 ENPP1 GPD2 HNF1A INSR IRS1
7 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 10.1 AKT2 ENPP1 GCK GPD2 HNF1A HNF1B
8 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.06 AKT2 ENPP1 GCK GPD2 HNF1A HNF1B
9 muscle MP:0005369 9.65 AKT2 ENPP1 HNF1A HNF1B INSR IRS1
10 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.23 ENPP1 GCK HNF1A HNF1B HNF4A INSR

Drugs & Therapeutics for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

PubMed Health treatment related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent: 62

A number of factors influence which treatment approach for type 2 diabetes is most suitable: They include age, general physical condition, other health problems, life circumstances and personal goals. Sometimes just changing your lifestyle can have a positive effect: Losing weight and getting more exercise can make insulin more effective and lower blood sugar levels. Quitting smoking helps to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease . Making these kinds of changes is sometimes enough to manage the condition and associated risks. If very overweight (obese) people find it hard to lose weight, surgical approaches such as stomach stapling may be an option. Some people depend on medication to regulate their blood sugar levels. The medication options include taking tablets, injecting insulin or medication called incretin mimetics (hormone -like substances that are designed to increase the body's insulin production). It's also possible to combine tablets and injections . The most common medications used to treat type 2 diabetes (antidiabetic drugs) are metformin and sulfonylureas. Newer antidiabetic drugs are also available – but there are still many unanswered questions about their effects. Depending on what other symptoms and illnesses a person has, different kinds of medication can be used to lower particular risks. For example, many people who have type 2 diabetes also have high blood pressure . The main medications that can lower the risk of cardiovascular disease lower blood pressure (antihypertensives ), prevent blood clotting (ASA, the drug in medications like Aspirin ), or reduce cholesterol levels (statins).

Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 981)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Mineral oil Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 8042-47-5
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 9004-61-9 53477741
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 5311068 68602
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 169590-42-5 2662
Alprostadil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 745-65-3 149351 5280723
Adalimumab Approved Phase 4 331731-18-1 16219006
Dimethyl fumarate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 624-49-7 5271565 637568
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
Granisetron Approved, Investigational Phase 4 109889-09-0 3510
Zaleplon Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 151319-34-5 5719
parecoxib Approved Phase 4 198470-84-7
Pitavastatin Approved Phase 4 147526-32-7, 147511-69-1 6366718 5282452
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 37350-58-6, 51384-51-1 4171
Epoprostenol Approved Phase 4 35121-78-9, 61849-14-7 5282411 5280427
Glucagon Approved Phase 4 16941-32-5
Bilberry Approved, Experimental Phase 4
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 4 59-42-7 6041
Oxymetazoline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1491-59-4 4636
Metronidazole Approved Phase 4 443-48-1 4173
Fenofibrate Approved Phase 4 49562-28-9 3339
Olmesartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 144689-24-7, 144689-63-4 158781 130881
Gliquidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 33342-05-1 91610
Lactulose Approved Phase 4 4618-18-2 11333
Tolbutamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 64-77-7 5505
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
Allopurinol Approved Phase 4 315-30-0 2094
Nitroprusside Approved, Investigational Phase 4 15078-28-1 11963622
Nitroglycerin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 55-63-0 4510
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60-87-7 4927
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-73-1, 147-24-0 3100
Pravastatin Approved Phase 4 81093-37-0 54687
Diazoxide Approved Phase 4 364-98-7 3019
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 66635-83-4, 74103-06-3 3826
Ethinyl Estradiol Approved Phase 4 57-63-6 5991
Lacidipine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 103890-78-4
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2, 54-28-4 14986
Tadalafil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 171596-29-5 110635
Dextromethorphan Approved Phase 4 125-71-3 5360696 5362449
Povidone-iodine Approved Phase 4 25655-41-8
Methylcobalamin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 13422-55-4
Terazosin Approved Phase 4 63590-64-7 5401
Clonidine Approved Phase 4 4205-90-7 2803
Moxifloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 354812-41-2, 151096-09-2 152946
Sirolimus Approved, Investigational Phase 4 53123-88-9 5284616 6436030 46835353
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 124-94-7 31307
Omeprazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 73590-58-6 4594
Lubiprostone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 136790-76-6 656719
Altretamine Approved Phase 4 645-05-6 2123
Ropivacaine Approved Phase 4 84057-95-4 71273 175805

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 10000)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Glucagon Like Peptides Receptors Expression in the Stomach of Diabetes Type 2 Unknown status NCT00473733 Phase 4
2 Efficacy and Safety of Lobeglitazone Versus Sitagliptin in Inadequately Controlled by Metformin Alone Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: 24-week, Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Phase 4 Study Unknown status NCT02480465 Phase 4 Lobelitazone 0.5mg;Sitagliptin 100mg
3 Effect of Adding Vildagliptin on Beta Cell Function and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Patients With Moderate Metabolic Control During Metformin Monotherapy Unknown status NCT01565096 Phase 4 Metformin;Metformin;Vildagliptin;Glimepiride
4 Metabolomic Variations in the Saxagliptin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Unknown status NCT01768208 Phase 4 Saxagliptin
5 A Randomized, Controlled Study on Calcium Channel Blocker Versus Angiotensin II Antagonists in the Hypertensive Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Under the Inadequately Controlled Blood Pressure With Angiotension II Antagonists Unknown status NCT00144144 Phase 4 Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, Calcium channel blocker
6 Effects of Dapagliflozin on Hyperlipidemia, Glycemic Control and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Patients (DAPHNIS Study) Unknown status NCT02577159 Phase 4 Dapagliflozin
7 Multi-Center, Randomized, Open Label Study of the Efficacy of Cilostazol Versus Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Atherosclerotic Events With Korean Type 2 DM Patients Unknown status NCT00886574 Phase 4 Cilostazol;Aspirin
8 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel, Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of an Antidiabetic Agent Repaglinide for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Unknown status NCT00336310 Phase 4 Repaglinide
9 The Effect of TRADJENTA ® (LINAGLIPTIN) on Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Insulin Resistance in Obese Type 2 Diabetes Subjects Unknown status NCT02372630 Phase 4 Linagliptin;Placebo
10 Effect of Acarbose and Vildagliptin on Visceral Fat Distribution in Overweight and Obesity Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Control Study Unknown status NCT02999841 Phase 4 Acarbose;Vildagliptin
11 A Randomized Double-blind Study to Evaluate the Effect of Linagliptin on Pancreatic Beta Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Metformin Monotherapy Unknown status NCT02097342 Phase 4 Linagliptin;Placebo;Voglibose
12 Effect of Allopurinol on Mono and Co-administration With Statins on Platelets Reactivity on Diabetic Patiets Treated With Aspirin and Insulin Unknown status NCT03195153 Phase 4 Atorvastatin 80mg;ALLOPURINOL 300 MG;Atorvastatin 80mg AND allopurinol 300 mg
13 Aspirin and the Antiproteinuric Effect of Enalapril in Microalbuminuric Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Unknown status NCT00427271 Phase 4 aspirin
14 A Randomized, Double-blind, Active Control, Parallel Group, Exploratory Phase IV Study to Compare the Effects of Tenelia® or Januvia® on Glucose Variability in add-on to Metformin in Patients With Inadequately Controlled Type2 Diabetes Mellitus in Metformin Only Treatment Unknown status NCT02512523 Phase 4 Teneligliptin;Sitagliptin
15 Antiatherogenic and Antimetabolic Effect of Curcumin in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Unknown status NCT01052597 Phase 4 curcumin
16 Effectiveness and Tolerability of Early Initiation of Combined Lipid -Lowering Therapy Included Simvastatin and Fenofibrate vs Simvastatin Alone in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertriglyceridemia and Acute Coronary Syndrome Unknown status NCT02015988 Phase 4 Fenofibrate;Simvastatin
17 Prospective Randomized Trials of Gastric Bypass Surgery in Patients With Type II Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT00540462 Phase 4
18 Investigation of a Switch From Insulin Therapy to a Metformin & Saxagliptin Combination in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01206647 Phase 4 Metformin and Saxagliptin
19 Metabolism-independent Vascular Effects of the Dipetidylpeptidase-4-inhibitor Sitagliptin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01096277 Phase 4 Sitagliptin;Placebo
20 A Pilot Study of Outpatient Discharge Therapy With Saxagliptin + Metformin XR or Sulphonylurea for Recently Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Presenting With Severe Hyperglycemia Unknown status NCT01267448 Phase 4 Glipizide XL;Saxagliptin + Metformin XR;Metformin XR
21 Effects of Cilostazol on Plasma Adipocytokine and Arterial Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes Patient With Metabolic Syndrome (Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controled, Cross-Over Study) Unknown status NCT00573950 Phase 4 cilostazol;Placebo
22 A 24-Week, National, Single-Centre, Open-Labelled, Randomised, Parallel-Group Trial Comparing Energy Expenditure With Insulin Detemir Versus NPH Insulin Using a Basal-Bolus Regimen With Insulin Aspart as the Mealtime Insulin in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT00788840 Phase 4 Insulatard;Detemir
23 The Effect of n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Expression of Sirt-1, Adiponectin Receptor 1 (AdipoR1) & Adiponectin Receptor 2 (AdipoR2) Genes of PBMC and Circulatory Levels of Resistin,Monocyte Chemotactic Protein (MCP-1) and Adiponectin of type2 Diabetes Patient Unknown status NCT02261545 Phase 4
24 The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Hypertriglyceridemia in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT03120299 Phase 4 Omega-3 fatty acid;Placebos
25 The Effects of OMACOR on the LDL Sub-fraction in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Combined Hyperlipidemia Unknown status NCT00758927 Phase 4 Omega-3 acid 4 grams per day;Placebo control
26 Effect of Linagliptin in Comparison With Glimepiride as Add on to Metformin on Postprandial Beta Cell Function, Postprandial Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01547104 Phase 4 Linagliptin;Glimepiride
27 Effect of Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor on Systemic and Renal Endothelial Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Without History of Coronary Artery Disease (SOCCER Trial) Unknown status NCT02501616 Phase 4 Metformin;Dapagliflozin
28 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Role of Inflammation and Innate Immunity in The Pathogenesis of Endothelial Dysfunction and Atherosclerosis Unknown status NCT01250340 Phase 4 Aspirin;Placebo
29 Effects of a Chronical Treatment With Benfotiamine in People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Pre- and Postprandial Endothelial Function, as Well as on the Function of the Autonomic Nervous System Unknown status NCT00446810 Phase 4 Benfotiamine;Placebo
30 Vascular Benefits of Adding CarvedilolCR to Type2 Diabetic Patients on ACEI:Effects on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation. Unknown status NCT00430040 Phase 4 carvedilol;lisinopril
31 Basal-bolus Insulin Therapy With Insulin Degludec and Insulin Aspart Versus Standard Therapy for the Inpatient Management of Type 2 Diabetes: the IDA2 Study Unknown status NCT03244241 Phase 4 Insulin Degludec 100 UNT/ML [Tresiba]
32 A Randomized, Open, Controlled, Parallel Group Study of Adding Linagliptin to Control Glycemic Variability and HbA1c in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients With Type 2 Diabetes(PDPD) With Premixed Insulin Therapy Unknown status NCT03320031 Phase 4 Linagliptin;Humalog Mix 75/25
33 Insulin Therapy in the Inpatient Management of Cirrhotic Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT01143948 Phase 4 Glargine & Glulisine;Regular insulin;NPH & regular insulin
34 A Prospective, Randomized, Two Period, With an Intermediate Wash Out Period, Cross-over Study to Compare the Effects of Either Combined Therapy With Ramipril and Clopidogrel or Ramipril Monotherapy on Oxidative Stress, Vascular Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy Unknown status NCT01743014 Phase 4 Ramipril;Clopidogrel
35 A Randomized, Non-inferiority, Open-label Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of GAcarbose+Saxagliptin Compared With Metformin+Saxagliptin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Unknown status NCT02605772 Phase 4 Acarbose;Metformin;Saxagliptin
36 Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University Unknown status NCT02583438 Phase 4 Saxagliptin (Bristol-Myers Squibb Company)
37 Study on the Efficacy aNd Safety of Jinlida Granules in Patients With Inadequately cOntrolled tYpe-2 Diabetes and dysLIpidemia Under liFe Style Intervention (ENJOY LIFE Study) Unknown status NCT02035644 Phase 4 Jinlida granules;placebo granules
38 Intensive Medical Treatment for Nephropathy Caused by Type 2 Diabetes With Hypertension Unknown status NCT00407680 Phase 4 Intensive therapy Valsartan,Fluvastatin
39 Aliskiren Versus Ramipril on Antiproteinuric Effect in Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Microalbuminuria Unknown status NCT01038895 Phase 4 Ramipril;Experimental
40 Effect of Bydureon on Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression in T2DM Unknown status NCT02162550 Phase 4 Bydureon;placebo
41 Establishing Cardiovascular Biomarkers to Define Preferred Lantus® Use. Unknown status NCT01500850 Phase 4 nph insulin;human insulin;Insulin Glargine;Insulin glulisine
42 To Compare the Efficacy and Safety Between Pioglitazone Added to Combination Therapy of Sulfonylurea Plus Metformin and Placebo Control Group in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT00991055 Phase 4 Pioglitazone
43 Improving Glycaemic Control in Malaysian Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Insulin Pump Therapy Unknown status NCT03112538 Phase 4 Multiple daily injections of insulin
44 Effect of aSpirin Versus CilOstazol for Inhibition of Antiplatelet aggRegaTion in Type 2 DM Patients Unknown status NCT02933788 Phase 4 Cilostazol;Acetylsalicylic acid
45 Chronic Cold Acclimation Stimulates the Browning of Subcutaneous White Adipose in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT02775253 Phase 4
46 ACE/ACE2 Ratio in Diabetic Patients Treated With Antihypertensive Drugs Unknown status NCT00192803 Phase 4 candesartan
47 Impacts of Sequential Treatment Using Fixed Dose Pioglitazone/Metformin Combination Following Short-term Intensive Insulin Treatment on Long-term Blood Glucose Control and β-Cell Function in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Unknown status NCT03196362 Phase 4 Pioglitazone + Metformin;Placebo Oral Tablet
48 Pharmacodynamics Study to Investigate the Effect of Evogliptin on Bone Metabolism in Healthy Volunteers Unknown status NCT02587975 Phase 4 Evogliptin
49 PRotective Effect on the Coronary Microcirculation of Patients With DIabetes by Clopidogrel or Ticagrelor Unknown status NCT02698618 Phase 4 Randomization
50 A 12-week Study to Compare the Effects of Vildagliptin Versus Glibenclamide on Glycemic Variability After a Sub Maximal Exercise Test in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled With Metformin. Unknown status NCT01867502 Phase 4 MET + Vildagliptin Group;MET + Glibenclamide Group

Search NIH Clinical Center for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

alogliptin benzoate
insulin beef, isophane
insulin beef-pork, isophane
insulin degludec
Insulin Glargine
insulin human, isophane
Insulin Lispro
insulin pork, isophane
Insulin, Aspart Protamine, Human
Insulin, Aspart, Human
Insulin, Glulisine, Human
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Beef
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Beef-Pork
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Pork
Insulin, Protamine Lispro, Human
insulin, protamine zinc, beef
Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Beef-Pork
Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Pork
Insulin, Regular, Beef
insulin, regular, beef-pork
Insulin, Regular, Pork
Insulin, Zinc, Human
Insulin, Zinc, Pork
Lente Insulin, Beef
Lente Insulin, Beef-Pork
Metformin hydrochloride
Pioglitazone hydrochloride
Regular Insulin, Human
Rosiglitazone maleate
sitagliptin phosphate
Tolbutamide sodium
Ultralente Insulin, Beef
Ultralente Insulin, Beef-Pork
Ultralente Insulin, Human

Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cochrane evidence based reviews: diabetes mellitus, type 2

Genetic Tests for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Genetic tests related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
2 Insulin Resistance 29
3 Insulin Resistance, Severe, Digenic 29

Anatomical Context for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

Endothelial, Heart, Liver, Kidney, Testes, Ovary, Skeletal Muscle
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Pancreas Islets of Langerhans Mature Beta Cells Affected by disease, potential therapeutic candidate
2 Adipose Subcutaneous White Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
3 Adipose Subcutaneous White Adipose Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Publications for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Articles related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

(show top 50) (show all 11579)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Lack of the architectural factor HMGA1 causes insulin resistance and diabetes in humans and mice. 6 56 54
15924147 2005
Body mass index and C-174G interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism interact in predicting type 2 diabetes. 56 6 54
15070960 2004
Digenic inheritance of severe insulin resistance in a human pedigree. 54 56 6
12118251 2002
Interaction between the G1057D variant of IRS-2 and overweight in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. 6 56 54
11030756 2000
Rare MTNR1B variants impairing melatonin receptor 1B function contribute to type 2 diabetes. 6 56
22286214 2012
Common variants in WFS1 confer risk of type 2 diabetes. 56 6
17603484 2007
A genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in Finns detects multiple susceptibility variants. 6 56
17463248 2007
Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for type 2 diabetes and triglyceride levels. 56 6
17463246 2007
Replication of genome-wide association signals in UK samples reveals risk loci for type 2 diabetes. 6 56
17463249 2007
A genome-wide association study identifies novel risk loci for type 2 diabetes. 56 6
17293876 2007
Activating mutations in the ABCC8 gene in neonatal diabetes mellitus. 6 56
16885549 2006
Significant association of the interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms C-174G and A-598G with type 2 diabetes. 6 56
15472205 2004
HNF-1alpha G319S, a transactivation-deficient mutant, is associated with altered dynamics of diabetes onset in an Oji-Cree community. 56 6
11904371 2002
A missense mutation of Pax4 gene (R121W) is associated with type 2 diabetes in Japanese. 56 6
11723072 2001
Genetic variation in the gene encoding calpain-10 is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 6 61 54
11017071 2000
A missense mutation in hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha, resulting in a reduced transactivation activity, in human late-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 61 54 6
9449683 1998
Association of the insulin-receptor variant Met-985 with hyperglycemia and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands: a population-based study. 61 54 6
8900242 1996
Failure to detect Glut4-Ile383 and IR-Gln1152 variants in NIDDM (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) and control subjects in an Italian population. 61 54 6
7814014 1995
Aminoacid polymorphisms of insulin receptor substrate-1 in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 6 54 61
8104271 1993
Methionine for valine substitution in exon 17 of the insulin receptor gene in a pedigree with familial NIDDM. 6 54 61
8432414 1993
Glucokinase and NIDDM. A candidate gene that paid off. 61 6 54
1397713 1992
Human GLUT4/muscle-fat glucose-transporter gene. Characterization and genetic variation. 6 61 54
1397719 1992
Nonsense mutation of glucokinase gene in late-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 54 6 61
1360036 1992
Analysis of the gene sequences of the insulin receptor and the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT-4) in patients with common-type non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 54 61 6
1918382 1991
Association of TCF7L2 polymorphisms with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in 4,087 Japanese subjects. 54 6
18097733 2008
Serum retinol-binding protein 4 concentration and its ratio to serum retinol are associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome components in children. 56 54
17726085 2007
Two variants on chromosome 17 confer prostate cancer risk, and the one in TCF2 protects against type 2 diabetes. 56 54
17603485 2007
No evidence for association of the ENPP1 (PC-1) K121Q variant with risk of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population. 6 54
16607460 2006
Variants of ENPP1 are associated with childhood and adult obesity and increase the risk of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. 6 54
16025115 2005
Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes. 56 54
16034410 2005
A family with severe insulin resistance and diabetes due to a mutation in AKT2. 54 6
15166380 2004
The association of the K121Q polymorphism of the plasma cell glycoprotein-1 gene with type 2 diabetes and hypertension depends on size at birth. 6 54
15126519 2004
The Arg972 variant in insulin receptor substrate-1 is associated with an atherogenic profile in offspring of type 2 diabetic patients. 54 6
12843189 2003
A novel T608R missense mutation in insulin receptor substrate-1 identified in a subject with type 2 diabetes impairs metabolic insulin signaling. 54 6
12679424 2003
A variation in 3' UTR of hPTP1B increases specific gene expression and associates with insulin resistance. 54 6
11833006 2002
Studies of association between the gene for calpain-10 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the United Kingdom. 6 54
11481585 2001
The I27L amino acid polymorphism of hepatic nuclear factor-1alpha is associated with insulin resistance. 6 54
10852449 2000
The Gly-->Arg972 amino acid polymorphism in insulin receptor substrate-1 affects glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle cells. 54 6
10843189 2000
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors increase BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. 56 54
10720052 2000
Defective mutations in the insulin promoter factor-1 (IPF-1) gene in late-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. 6 54
10545531 1999
Mutations in NEUROD1 are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. 6 54
10545951 1999
A polymorphism (K121Q) of the human glycoprotein PC-1 gene coding region is strongly associated with insulin resistance. 54 6
10480624 1999
Prevalence of variants in candidate genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus in The Netherlands: the Rotterdam study and the Hoorn study. 6 54
10084586 1999
The hepatic nuclear factor-1alpha G319S variant is associated with early-onset type 2 diabetes in Canadian Oji-Cree. 54 6
10084598 1999
Missense mutations in the pancreatic islet beta cell inwardly rectifying K+ channel gene (KIR6.2/BIR): a meta-analysis suggests a role in the polygenic basis of Type II diabetes mellitus in Caucasians. 6 54
9867219 1998
A common mitochondrial DNA variant is associated with insulin resistance in adult life. 56 61
9498630 1998
Increased lipogenic capacity of the islets of obese rats: a role in the pathogenesis of NIDDM. 56 61
9032096 1997
Development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the double knockout mice with disruption of insulin receptor substrate-1 and beta cell glucokinase genes. Genetic reconstitution of diabetes as a polygenic disease. 56 61
9062343 1997
Development of a novel polygenic model of NIDDM in mice heterozygous for IR and IRS-1 null alleles. 61 56
9038347 1997
A common amino acid polymorphism in insulin receptor substrate-1 causes impaired insulin signaling. Evidence from transfection studies. 6 54
8647950 1996