Diabetes Mellitus, Type I (IDDM)

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Genetic diseases, Metabolic diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Diabetes Mellitus, Type I

MalaCards integrated aliases for Diabetes Mellitus, Type I:

Name: Diabetes Mellitus, Type I 56 37
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 74 52 25 29 6
Iddm 56 12 52 25 73
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent 56 25 73 39
Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 12 52 25 32
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 12 25 36 15
Juvenile-Onset Diabetes 56 52 25
Type 1 Diabetes 52 25 62
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 25 43
Type I Diabetes Mellitus 12 17
Jod 56 25
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Susceptibility to 6
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent; Iddm 56
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent-1 56
Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus-1 13
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin Dependent 52
Diabetes Mellitus Insulin-Dependent 54
Juvenile-Onset Diabetes Mellitus 25
Juvenile-Onset Diabetes; Jod 56
Diabetes, Insulin Dependent 74
Autoimmune Diabetes 25
Diabetes Autoimmune 54
Juvenile Diabetes 25
Diabetes Type 1 42
Type I Diabetes 15
T1d 25



autosomal recessive susceptibility


diabetes mellitus, type i:
Inheritance heterogeneous


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9744
OMIM 56 222100
KEGG 36 H00408
MeSH 43 D003922
NCIt 49 C2986
SNOMED-CT 67 46635009
ICD10 32 E10
MedGen 41 C0011854
UMLS 71 C0011854

Summaries for Diabetes Mellitus, Type I

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Type 1 diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. In this form of diabetes, specialized cells in the pancreas called beta cells stop producing insulin. Insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells for conversion to energy. Lack of insulin results in the inability to use glucose for energy or to control the amount of sugar in the blood. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, from early childhood to late adulthood. The first signs and symptoms of the disorder are caused by high blood sugar and may include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet, and weight loss. These symptoms may recur during the course of the disorder if blood sugar is not well controlled by insulin replacement therapy. Improper control can also cause blood sugar levels to become too low (hypoglycemia). This may occur when the body's needs change, such as during exercise or if eating is delayed. Hypoglycemia can cause headache, dizziness, hunger, shaking, sweating, weakness, and agitation. Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes can lead to a life-threatening complication called diabetic ketoacidosis. Without insulin, cells cannot take in glucose. A lack of glucose in cells prompts the liver to try to compensate by releasing more glucose into the blood, and blood sugar can become extremely high. The cells, unable to use the glucose in the blood for energy, respond by using fats instead. Breaking down fats to obtain energy produces waste products called ketones, which can build up to toxic levels in people with type 1 diabetes, resulting in diabetic ketoacidosis. Affected individuals may begin breathing rapidly; develop a fruity odor in the breath; and experience nausea, vomiting, facial flushing, stomach pain, and dryness of the mouth (xerostomia). In severe cases, diabetic ketoacidosis can lead to coma and death. Over many years, the chronic high blood sugar associated with diabetes may cause damage to blood vessels and nerves, leading to complications affecting many organs and tissues. The retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye, can be damaged (diabetic retinopathy), leading to vision loss and eventual blindness. Kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy) may also occur and can lead to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Pain, tingling, and loss of normal sensation (diabetic neuropathy) often occur, especially in the feet. Impaired circulation and absence of the normal sensations that prompt reaction to injury can result in permanent damage to the feet; in severe cases, the damage can lead to amputation. People with type 1 diabetes are also at increased risk of heart attacks, strokes, and problems with urinary and sexual function.

MalaCards based summary : Diabetes Mellitus, Type I, also known as diabetes mellitus type 1, is related to diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 23 and type 1 diabetes mellitus 12, and has symptoms including polydipsia and polyuria. An important gene associated with Diabetes Mellitus, Type I is HNF1A (HNF1 Homeobox A), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Type I diabetes mellitus and T cell receptor signaling pathway. The drugs Candesartan cilexetil and Dinoprostone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Bone and Pancreas, and related phenotypes are polydipsia and autoimmunity

Disease Ontology : 12 A diabetes mellitus that results from the body's failure to produce insulin and has material basis in autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) is a condition in which cells in the pancreas (beta cells) stop producing insulin, causing abnormally high blood sugar levels. Lack of insulin results in the inability of the body to use glucose for energy and control the amount of sugar in the blood. DM1 can occur at any age, but usually develops by early adulthood, most often in adolescence. Symptoms of high blood sugar may include frequent urination, excessive thirst, fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet, and weight loss. The exact cause of DM1 is unknown, but having certain "variants" of specific genes may increase a person's risk to develop the condition. A predisposition to develop DM1 runs in families, but no known inheritance pattern exists. Treatment includes blood sugar control and insulin replacement therapy . Improper control can cause recurrence of high blood sugar, or abnormally low blood sugar (hypoglycemia ) during exercise or when eating is delayed. If not treated, the condition can be life-threatening. Over many years, chronic high blood sugar may be associated with a variety of complications that affect many parts of the body.

OMIM : 56 The type of diabetes mellitus called IDDM is a disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is a genetically heterogeneous autoimmune disease affecting about 0.3% of Caucasian populations (Todd, 1990). Genetic studies of IDDM have focused on the identification of loci associated with increased susceptibility to this multifactorial phenotype. The classical phenotype of diabetes mellitus is polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. (222100)

MedlinePlus : 42 Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults but can appear at any age. Symptoms may include Being very thirsty Urinating often Feeling very hungry or tired Losing weight without trying Having sores that heal slowly Having dry, itchy skin Losing the feeling in your feet or having tingling in your feet Having blurry eyesight A blood test can show if you have diabetes. If you do, you will need to take insulin for the rest of your life. A blood test called the A1C can check to see how well you are managing your diabetes. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

KEGG : 36 The majority of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) cases are believed to arise from an inflammatory, autoimmune attack against the beta cells in the pancreas, which consequently leads to the failure of insulin-mediated blood glucose regulation in the body. T1DM signs and symptoms can come on quickly and may include increased thirst and frequent urination, fatigue, weight loss and so on. It is recognized that both genetic and environmental determinants are important in defining disease risk. The HLA class II genes are most strongly associated with T1DM. Another plausible candidate genes are INS, CTLA4 and PTPN22. The disease may be a result of variations in several susceptibility genes, with the majority only contributing weak effects.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 73 Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent: A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical features are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.

PubMed Health : 62 About type 1 diabetes: Diabetes is a metabolic disease that affects many parts of the body. Depending on the type of diabetes, the body either cannot produce insulin itself (type 1) or is unable to use the insulin it produces properly (type 2). Insulin is a hormone – a chemical messenger that is transported in the blood and regulates important body functions. Without insulin your body cannot get the energy it needs from the food you have eaten. This vital hormone is usually produced in the pancreas and released into the bloodstream. Here it enables the sugar (glucose) in our food and drink to be transported into our cells and converted into energy for our bodies. Without insulin our bodies cannot use the sugar in our blood, so the sugar builds up there. Very high blood sugar concentrations cause a number of symptoms. People with type 1 diabetes have to inject insulin on a daily basis because their pancreas can only produce insulin in very small quantities, or can’t produce any insulin at all. Insulin therapy helps prevent strong fluctuations in blood sugar levels and the unpleasant effects of high and low blood sugar. It is also intended to prevent complications that may arise as a result of high blood sugar levels.

Wikipedia : 74 Type 1 diabetes (T1D), previously known as juvenile diabetes, is a form of diabetes in which very little... more...

Related Diseases for Diabetes Mellitus, Type I

Diseases in the Diabetes Mellitus family:

Diabetes Mellitus, Type I Diabetes Mellitus, Congenital Autoimmune
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 2 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 3
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 4 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 5
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 6 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 7
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 8 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 10
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 11 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 12
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 13 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 15
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 17 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 18
Rare Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Rare Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Rare Diabetes Mellitus

Diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus, Type I via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1358)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 23 35.5 INS IDDM23
2 type 1 diabetes mellitus 12 34.2 PTPN22 INS
3 type 1 diabetes mellitus 2 34.2 PTPN22 INS
4 diabetes mellitus 32.9 PVT1 PTPN22 MEG3 INS IL6 IDDM8
5 coronary heart disease 1 31.5 INS IL6 IGF2-AS
6 malignant otitis externa 31.2 INS IGF2-AS
7 generalized atherosclerosis 31.2 INS IL6
8 end stage renal disease 31.1 PVT1 INS IL6
9 alpha/beta t-cell lymphopenia with gamma/delta t-cell expansion, severe cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity 31.1 PTPN22 INS
10 thyroiditis 31.1 PTPN22 INS IL6
11 gestational diabetes 30.9 INS IL6 HNF1A
12 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, type ii 30.8 PTPN22 INS
13 asphyxia neonatorum 30.7 INS IL6
14 background diabetic retinopathy 30.6 INS IL6
15 abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome quantitative trait locus 2 30.6 INS IL6
16 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 4 30.2 INS HNF1A
17 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 20 13.1
18 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 22 13.1
19 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 12 13.1
20 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 19 13.1
21 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 10 13.0
22 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 2 13.0
23 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 5 13.0
24 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 21 12.9
25 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 24 12.9
26 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, x-linked 12.8
27 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 3 12.7
28 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 4 12.7
29 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 11 12.7
30 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 15 12.7
31 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 6 12.7
32 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 17 12.7
33 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 18 12.7
34 histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome 12.7
35 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 7 12.7
36 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 8 12.7
37 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 13 12.7
38 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 12.3
39 type 1 diabetes mellitus 3 12.0
40 type 1 diabetes mellitus 4 12.0
41 type 1 diabetes mellitus 5 12.0
42 type 1 diabetes mellitus 6 12.0
43 type 1 diabetes mellitus 7 12.0
44 type 1 diabetes mellitus 8 12.0
45 type 1 diabetes mellitus 10 12.0
46 type 1 diabetes mellitus 11 12.0
47 type 1 diabetes mellitus 13 12.0
48 type 1 diabetes mellitus 15 12.0
49 type 1 diabetes mellitus 17 12.0
50 type 1 diabetes mellitus 18 12.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus, Type I:

Diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus, Type I

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Diabetes Mellitus, Type I

Human phenotypes related to Diabetes Mellitus, Type I:

31 (show all 8)
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 polydipsia 31 HP:0001959
2 autoimmunity 31 HP:0002960
3 diabetes mellitus 31 HP:0000819
4 hyperglycemia 31 HP:0003074
5 ketoacidosis 31 HP:0001993
6 polyphagia 31 HP:0002591
7 polyuria 31 HP:0000103
8 decreased level of 1,5 anhydroglucitol in serum 31 HP:0410050

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

G I:

relative insulin deficiency

G U:
hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis

diabetes mellitus

abnormally increased gluconeogenesis
insufficient glucose disposal

pancreatic autoimmunity

Clinical features from OMIM:


UMLS symptoms related to Diabetes Mellitus, Type I:

polydipsia, polyuria

Drugs & Therapeutics for Diabetes Mellitus, Type I

PubMed Health treatment related to Diabetes Mellitus, Type I: 62

In type 1 diabetes , the focus of treatment is to monitor blood sugar levels every day and regularly use insulin . Insulin therapy makes up for the lack of insulin in the body and lowers the concentration of sugar in the blood. It is important to avoid using too much or too little insulin, to prevent blood sugar levels from getting too low or too high. Treatment also aims to prevent long-term complications associated with diabetes as much as possible. There are different types of insulin and different treatment approaches. Blood sugar levels are not only affected by the amount of insulin you inject but also by what you eat and drink, as well as how much energy you use during physical activity. The time of day, inflammatory diseases, other medications or hormonal changes can influence your blood sugar levels too. So most people learn to finely adjust their insulin therapy according to their own body and personal habits. In order for treatment to be successful, people need to be well informed about their diabetes , manage their own therapy and have reliable medical care. But over the long term, your general health will depend on other things besides just blood sugar levels. Aspects like blood pressure can have a big effect in diabetes. Because of this, people with diabetes often take other medications as well, for example to prevent cardiovascular disease .

Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus, Type I (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 567)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Candesartan cilexetil Approved Phase 4 145040-37-5 2540
Dinoprostone Approved Phase 4 363-24-6 5280360
Granisetron Approved, Investigational Phase 4 109889-09-0 3510
Insulin glulisine Approved Phase 4 207748-29-6
Exenatide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 141758-74-9 15991534
alemtuzumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4 216503-57-0
Canagliflozin Approved Phase 4 842133-18-0
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
Vildagliptin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 274901-16-5 6918537
Nitroglycerin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 55-63-0 4510
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Febuxostat Approved Phase 4 144060-53-7 134018
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 122320-73-4 77999
Repaglinide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 135062-02-1 65981
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
Spironolactone Approved Phase 4 52-01-7, 1952-01-7 5833
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60-87-7 4927
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-73-1, 147-24-0 3100
Metronidazole Approved Phase 4 443-48-1 4173
Regadenoson Approved, Investigational Phase 4 313348-27-5 219024
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
Ranibizumab Approved Phase 4 347396-82-1 459903
Glimepiride Approved Phase 4 93479-97-1 3476
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 37350-58-6, 51384-51-1 4171
Tramadol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 27203-92-5 33741
Gliclazide Approved Phase 4 21187-98-4 3475
Olanzapine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 132539-06-1 4585
Ziprasidone Approved Phase 4 146939-27-7 60854
Cefuroxime Approved Phase 4 55268-75-2 5479529 5361202
Protein C Approved Phase 4
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Phase 4 185243-69-0
Saxagliptin Approved Phase 4 361442-04-8 11243969
Linagliptin Approved Phase 4 668270-12-0 10096344
Glipizide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29094-61-9 3478
Adenosine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-61-7 60961
Empagliflozin Approved Phase 4 864070-44-0
Angiotensin II Approved, Investigational Phase 4 4474-91-3, 11128-99-7, 68521-88-0 172198
Caffeine Approved Phase 4 58-08-2 2519
Losartan Approved Phase 4 114798-26-4 3961
Ranolazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 142387-99-3, 95635-55-5 56959
43 sodium fluoride Approved Phase 4 7681-49-4
Ocrelizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4 637334-45-3
Diazoxide Approved Phase 4 364-98-7 3019
Naloxone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 465-65-6 5284596
Insulin detemir Approved Phase 4 169148-63-4 5311023
Atorvastatin Approved Phase 4 134523-00-5 60823
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 124-94-7 31307
Bacitracin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 1405-87-4 439542 10909430

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 3053)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Is Insulin NovoRapid Better Than Actrapid for Treating Type 1 Diabetic Patients When Simultaneously, Daily Adjusting the Insulin Dose? Unknown status NCT00145353 Phase 4 Insulin NovoRapid versus Actrapid
2 Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Pre-School Children With Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT01016457 Phase 4
3 Effects of New Longacting Insulin Analogs on Metabolic Control, Endogenous Insulin Production, GH/IGF-I Axis and Quality of Life - Comparison of NPH, Glargine Och Detemir Insulin From the Debut of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Adolescents Unknown status NCT01271517 Phase 4 NPH insulin;Glargine;Detemir
4 Impact on the Oxidative Stress of the Different Analogues of Insulin in People With Type 1 Diabetes. Clinical Trial of Low Level of Intervention. (Ineox Study) Unknown status NCT03328845 Phase 4 Toujeo SoloStar;Tresiba;Humalog Kwikpen;NovoRapid;Apidra
5 Effect of Metformin as add-on Therapy on Glycemic Control and Other Diabetes‑Related Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetic Patients:a Open-label,Self-control Study Unknown status NCT03590262 Phase 4 Metformin
6 Treatment of Hypoglycemia With Glucagon Among Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT02232971 Phase 4 Glucagon
7 Impact of Insulin Detemir Versus Insulin Glargine on Glycaemic Control and Metabolism During Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes Unknown status NCT01440439 Phase 4 Insulin glargine;Insulin detemir
8 The Effect of Saxagliptin on Glucose Fluctuation and Immune Regulation in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Unknown status NCT02307695 Phase 4 Saxagliptin;Insulin
9 Do Sulphonylureas Preserve Cortical Function During Hypoglycaemia? Unknown status NCT00472875 Phase 4 Glibenclamide
10 Immune Intervention With Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody to Preserve Beta Cell Function in Early Onset Type 1 Diabetes Unknown status NCT01280682 Phase 4 rituximab
11 Insulin Requirement for Pure- Protein Meal in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Treated With Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion - a Cross-over, Randomized Trial. Unknown status NCT02685449 Phase 4 Insulin glulisine;Insulin aspart;Insulin lispro
12 Optimal Insulin Correction Factor in Post- High Intensity Exercise Hyperglycemia in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: The FIT Study Unknown status NCT03057470 Phase 4 50% bolus insulin correction;100% bolus insulin correction;150% bolus insulin correction
13 Effect of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium Lactis BB 12 on Beta-cell Function in Children With Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes - a Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT03032354 Phase 4 Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12
14 Short-term Effects of Dapagliflozin on Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Homeostasis in Male Type 1 Diabetes Patients. Unknown status NCT02211742 Phase 4 Dapagliflozin
15 Study Comparing Prandial Insulin Aspart vs. Technosphere Insulin in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes on Multiple Daily Injections: Investigator-Initiated A Real-life Pilot Study—STAT Study Unknown status NCT03143816 Phase 4 Technosphere insulin
16 An Investigation Into the Effect of Dapagliflozin on Ketogenesis in Type 1 Diabetes Unknown status NCT02962492 Phase 4 Exenatide/Exenatide extended release;Dapagliflozin;Placebo
17 Absorption and Utilization of a Mixed Meal in Type 1 Diabetes: Creation of a Biological and In Silico Biobank for the Optimization of Artificial Pancreas Systems. A Pilot Study. Unknown status NCT01800734 Phase 4
18 Effect of Sirolimus or Mycophenolate With Tacrolimus on Survival of Pancreas and Kidney Grafts in Type 1 Diabetic Recipients After Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney Transplantation Unknown status NCT03582878 Phase 4 Sirolimus Oral Product;Mycophenolate Mofetil
19 Inspiratory Muscle Training in Patients With Autonomic Neuropathic: a Randomized Trial Unknown status NCT00752440 Phase 4
20 The Immune and Clinical Impacts of Vitamin D in Patients With Chronic Musculo-skeletal Pain Unknown status NCT01417923 Phase 4 vitamin D
21 Attenuation of Spinal Induced Hypotension With Granisetron in Type I Diabetic Parturients Unknown status NCT03091881 Phase 4 Granisetron 0.1 MG/ML;Placebos
22 GLP-1 Analogue Treatment in Uncontrolled Type 1 Diabetic Patients Unknown status NCT01592279 Phase 4 liraglutide;Insulin injections
23 A Randomized Doubleblind Placebo Controlled Crossover Study With Hexalacton in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria Unknown status NCT00843388 Phase 4 Spironolacton (hexalacton(R));placebo tablet
24 Vitamin D Concentrations and Their Effect on Glucose Metabolism in Pediatrics Unknown status NCT01386736 Phase 4 Vitamin D drops;Placebo drops
25 Studies of Early Diabetic Glomerulopathy-the Relation Between Histopathology, Kidney Function and Metabolic Control. Natural History and Effect of ARB Unknown status NCT00328302 Phase 4 Candesartan;Placebo
26 The Impact of Conventional Hemodialysis, High Flux Hemodialysis and Hemodiafiltration on Adiponectin, Vascular Function and Clinical Prognosis Unknown status NCT00155363 Phase 4
27 DirecNet Pilot Study to Evaluate the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Children Completed NCT00069615 Phase 4
28 DirecNet Inpatient Study to Test the Accuracy of Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Completed NCT00069537 Phase 4
29 DirecNet Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Effectiveness of the GlucoWatch Biographer in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Children Completed NCT00069628 Phase 4
30 A 28-week, Prospective, Single-arm, Phase 4 Study to Evaluate Treatment Optimization With Once-daily Insulin Glargine 300 U/mL in Combination With Prandial Rapid-acting Insulin Analogue in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Previously Uncontrolled on Twice-daily Basal Insulin as Part of Basal-bolus Therapy Completed NCT03406000 Phase 4 INSULIN GLARGINE (U300)
31 A Pilot Study to Assess the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Safety/Tolerability of Pramlintide Acetate When Administered by Subcutaneous Infusion in a Basal-Bolus Manner as an Adjunct to Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Therapy in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Completed NCT00502138 Phase 4 Continuous Pramlintide infusion
32 Multicentre, Open, Non-randomised Controlled Phase IV Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety for Insulin Glulisine Injected Subcutaneously in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Using Also Insulin Glargine Completed NCT00964574 Phase 4 INSULIN GLULISINE (HMR1964);INSULIN GLARGINE
33 Phase IV, Open Label, Non-comparative, Multi-center, Study of the Effects of Both Insulin Glargine & Insulin Glulisine in Type I Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Completed NCT00539448 Phase 4 insulin glargine;insulin glulisine
34 Early Insulin Treatment in Patients With Latent Autoimmune Diabetes (LADA) Completed NCT01109927 Phase 4 Insulin
35 Efficacy and Safety of Insulin Aspart in MDI or CSII in Children Below 7 Years of Age With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT00571935 Phase 4 insulin aspart;soluble human insulin
36 Comparative Evaluation of Human NPH Insulin + Insulin Aspart and Human NPH Insulin + Human Soluble Insulin in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT00597233 Phase 4 insulin aspart;soluble human insulin;insulin NPH
37 A Phase 4, Double Blind, Single Center, Randomized, Cross-Over Study of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) Pump Functionality in Subjects With Type 1 Diabetes Comparing Pretreatment vs. No Pretreatment With Recombinant Human Hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) Completed NCT03662334 Phase 4 Rapid Acting insulin with pre-treatment of rHuPH20
38 Comparison Between GLP 1 Analogues and DPP 4 Inhibitors in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT01235819 Phase 4 Insulin;Sitagliptin;Exenatide
39 Effect of Immediate Hemoglobin A1c on Glycemic Control in Children With Type I Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT00898534 Phase 4
40 A Phase 4, Randomized, Double-Blind, 2-Way Crossover Study of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) With, Compared to Without, Pretreatment With Recombinant Human Hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) Completed NCT01526733 Phase 4 Sham Injection;Recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20;Insulin aspart;Insulin lispro
41 Meal-related Insulin Aspart Therapy Versus Meal-related Human Insulin Therapy in Children 2-6 Years of Age With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Multi-centre Randomised, Open-labelled, Cross-over, Safety and Efficacy Trial Completed NCT01467141 Phase 4 insulin aspart;human insulin;isophane human insulin
42 An Open-label, Randomized, Two-period Crossover Study to Evaluate the Safety Use of the InsuPatch Device in Daily Life Conditions. Completed NCT01283425 Phase 4
43 Single Centre, Open, Controlled, Randomised (1:1), Parallel Group: Insulin Glargine vs. NPH: FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose) in Patients With DM Type 1 Who Skip the Morning Meal During Treatment With MDI (Multiple Daily Injection) Basal/Bolus Insulin Completed NCT00313937 Phase 4 Insulin glargine
44 An Open-Label, Multi Center, Clinical Trial: External Continuous Subcutaneous Infusion of Insulin Using Insulin Aspart (NovoLog®) in Subjects With Type 1 and Insulin Requiring Type 2 Diabetes Completed NCT00095446 Phase 4 insulin aspart
45 Multicentre Double-blind Placebo-controlled Parallel-group Randomized Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety of Subetta in the Combined Treatment of Patients With Type I Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT01868594 Phase 4 Subetta;Placebo
46 Pilot Study Assessing Glucose Effects of Sitagliptin (Januvia) in Adult Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Completed NCT00978796 Phase 4 Sitagliptin;Sugar Pill
47 Effect of Ethanol Intoxication on the Anti-hypoglycemic Action of Glucagon Completed NCT02516150 Phase 4 Ethanol;Glucagon
48 Open-Label Randomized Two-Way Crossover Pilot Study to Estimate the Effects of Inhaled vs. IV Infusion of Human Insulin With Regards to Glucose Disposal in Subjects With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT00315952 Phase 4 Exubera
49 Effects of Vitamin C and E on Endothelial Function in Adolescent Diabetes Completed NCT02019186 Phase 4
50 The Impact Of Insulin Glulisine In Comparison With Aspart On Postprandial Glycemia After The High-Glycemic Index Meal In Children With Type 1 Diabetes - Cross-Over Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial. Completed NCT01678235 Phase 4 Insulin glulisine;Insulin aspart

Search NIH Clinical Center for Diabetes Mellitus, Type I

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

insulin beef, isophane
insulin beef-pork, isophane
insulin degludec
Insulin Glargine
insulin human, isophane
Insulin Lispro
insulin pork, isophane
Insulin, Aspart Protamine, Human
Insulin, Aspart, Human
Insulin, Glulisine, Human
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Beef
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Beef-Pork
Insulin, Prompt Zinc, Pork
Insulin, Protamine Lispro, Human
insulin, protamine zinc, beef
Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Beef-Pork
Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Pork
Insulin, Regular, Beef
insulin, regular, beef-pork
Insulin, Regular, Pork
Insulin, Zinc, Human
Insulin, Zinc, Pork
Lente Insulin, Beef
Lente Insulin, Beef-Pork
Regular Insulin, Human
Ultralente Insulin, Beef
Ultralente Insulin, Beef-Pork
Ultralente Insulin, Human

Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Diabetes Mellitus, Type I cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Diabetes Mellitus, Type I:
Bone marrow-derived adult mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of type I diabetes
Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells for the treatment of diabetes mellitus
Dendritic cells for type I diabetes
Dental pulp stem cell-derived islet clusters for treating diabetes
DIABECELL, insulin-producing cells for type 1 diabetes
Encapsulated embryonic stem cell-derived NKX6.1-positive cells for diabetes
Encapsulated embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic progenitor cells for treatment of diabetes
Endothelial progenitor cell and islet cotransplantation for diabetes
Fibroblast-derived pancreatic progenitor cells for treatment of diabetes
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for new-onset type 1 diabetes
Hematopoietic stem cells for early-onset type I diabetes mellitus
Hematopoietic stem cells for treatment of early-onset type I diabetes mellitus
Hematopoietic stem cells for type I diabetes mellitus
Human islet transplantation to treat diabetes
Porcine embryonic pancreatic tissue transplantation for diabetes
Prochymal, mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus
Regulatory T cells for type I diabetes
Stem cell-derived pancreatic islets for diabetes treatment
StemGenex, adipose-derived stem cells for diabetes
Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of type I diabetes
VC-01, embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic progenitor cells for treatment of diabetes
Embryonic/Adult Cultured Cells Related to Diabetes Mellitus, Type I:
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (family)
Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (family)
Mouse immunosuppressive dendritic cells PMIDs: 23148758 18552749 17665986
Immunosuppressive dendritic cells PMIDs: 23148758 18552749 17665986
Islet-like cell clusters PMIDs: 23845187
Encapsulated neonatal porcine islets (DIABECELL) PMIDs: 18814261 21358330 23088180 19063691 16298643 11202575 17381690 16131605 21535153 17607741 15808678
Pancreatic endoderm and endocrine precursors in cell suspension
Pancreatic endoderm/endocrine precursor-like cells PMIDs: 20587750 24788136 18834446 22623968 18034635
Mouse Islets PMIDs: 22362173
Pancreatic islets PMIDs: 22362173
Umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells PMIDs: 22362173
Pancreatic progenitor-like cells PMIDs: 24506886
Peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells (family) PMIDs: 23190701
Peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells PMIDs: 23190701
Peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells PMIDs: 23190701
Bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (family)
Pancreatic islets (cadavers) PMIDs: 15983207 10911004
Fetal pancreatic tissue PMIDs: 16768546 19433788
Regulatory T cells PMIDs: 15322272 16903917
Islet-like structures PMIDs: 24268157
Adipose-derived stem cells (StemGenex)
Wharton-Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells

Cochrane evidence based reviews: diabetes mellitus, type 1

Genetic Tests for Diabetes Mellitus, Type I

Genetic tests related to Diabetes Mellitus, Type I:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 29 HNF1A IL6 ITPR3 PTPN22

Anatomical Context for Diabetes Mellitus, Type I

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Diabetes Mellitus, Type I:

Pancreas, Kidney, Testes, T Cells, Bone, Pancreatic Islet, Brain
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Diabetes Mellitus, Type I:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Bone Bone Marrow Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
2 Pancreas Islets of Langerhans Mature Beta Cells Affected by disease, potential therapeutic candidate
3 Blood Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
4 Adipose Subcutaneous White Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
5 Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
6 Adipose Subcutaneous White Adipose Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Publications for Diabetes Mellitus, Type I

Articles related to Diabetes Mellitus, Type I:

(show top 50) (show all 8061)
# Title Authors PMID Year
A functional variant of lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase is associated with type I diabetes. 54 56 6
15004560 2004
Genome-wide association study and meta-analysis find that over 40 loci affect risk of type 1 diabetes. 6 56
19430480 2009
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data identifies additional type 1 diabetes risk loci. 6 56
18978792 2008
Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls. 6 56
17554300 2007
Systematic search for single nucleotide polymorphisms in a lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase gene (PTPN22): association between a promoter polymorphism and type 1 diabetes in Asian populations. 56 6
16470599 2006
Type 1 diabetes and the OAS gene cluster: association with splicing polymorphism or haplotype? 6 56
16014697 2006
Association of a functional 17beta-estradiol sensitive IL6-174G/C promoter polymorphism with early-onset type 1 diabetes in females. 6 56
12719374 2003
Prediction of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in siblings of children with diabetes. A population-based study. The Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group. 54 56 61
9435304 1998
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is associated with CTLA4 polymorphisms in multiple ethnic groups. 6 61 54
9259273 1997
WFS1 mutations are frequent monogenic causes of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus in Lebanon. 56 54
18806274 2008
Prime role for an insulin epitope in the development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. 56 54
15889095 2005
Expanded T cells from pancreatic lymph nodes of type 1 diabetic subjects recognize an insulin epitope. 54 56
15889096 2005
Two distinct MICA gene markers discriminate major autoimmune diabetes types. 54 56
11502807 2001
Linkage disequilibrium of a type 1 diabetes susceptibility locus with a regulatory IL12B allele. 56 61
11175794 2001
A novel subtype of type 1 diabetes mellitus characterized by a rapid onset and an absence of diabetes-related antibodies. Osaka IDDM Study Group. 56 61
10655528 2000
Human leukocyte antigen-A24 and -DQA1*0301 in Japanese insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: independent contributions to susceptibility to the disease and additive contributions to acceleration of beta-cell destruction. 56 61
10523020 1999
A second-generation screen of the human genome for susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 61 56
9662408 1998
A search for type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes in families from the United Kingdom. 61 56
9662409 1998
Codon 17 polymorphism of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 gene in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Addison's disease. 6 54
9398726 1997
Two-locus maximum lod score analysis of a multifactorial trait: joint consideration of IDDM2 and IDDM4 with IDDM1 in type 1 diabetes. 61 56
7573054 1995
Genetic mapping of a susceptibility locus for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus on chromosome 11q. 56 61
8072544 1994
On the pathogenesis of IDDM. 61 56
7821744 1994
TAP1 alleles in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a newly defined centromeric boundary of disease susceptibility. 56 61
8248212 1993
Statistical evaluation of multiple-locus linkage data in experimental species and its relevance to human studies: application to nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). 56 61
8352278 1993
Susceptibility to insulin dependent diabetes mellitus maps to a 4.1 kb segment of DNA spanning the insulin gene and associated VNTR. 61 56
8358440 1993
Age-dependent HLA genetic heterogeneity of type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 61 56
1469084 1992
Insulin-IGF2 region on chromosome 11p encodes a gene implicated in HLA-DR4-dependent diabetes susceptibility. 61 56
1944595 1991
Identification and mapping to chromosome 1 of a susceptibility locus for periinsulitis in non-obese diabetic mice. 61 56
1896073 1991
High-resolution linkage mapping for susceptibility genes in human polygenic disease: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and chromosome 11q. 61 56
1990836 1991
Worldwide differences in the incidence of type I diabetes are associated with amino acid variation at position 57 of the HLA-DQ beta chain. 61 56
2217170 1990
T-cell receptor genes and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): no evidence for linkage from affected sib pairs. 61 56
1971998 1990
Analysis of HLA-DQ genotypes and susceptibility in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 56 61
2348836 1990
A combination of HLA-DQ beta Asp57-negative and HLA DQ alpha Arg52 confers susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 61 56
2318983 1990
Association of IDDM and attenuated response of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase to yellow fever vaccine. 61 6
2573556 1989
A diabetes-susceptible HLA haplotype is best defined by a combination of HLA-DR and -DQ alleles. 56 61
2784133 1989
Linkage studies of HLA and insulin gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms in families with IDDM. 56 61
2567262 1989
Genetic heterogeneity, modes of inheritance, and risk estimates for a joint study of Caucasians with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 56 61
3057885 1988
Aspartic acid at position 57 of the HLA-DQ beta chain protects against type I diabetes: a family study. 56 61
3186714 1988
Insulin-gene sharing in sib pairs with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: no evidence for linkage. 61 56
2892397 1988
A combined segregation and linkage analysis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 61 56
3578273 1987
Transcomplementation of HLA genes in IDDM. HLA-DQ alpha- and beta-chains produce hybrid molecules in DR3/4 heterozygotes. 61 56
3491769 1987
HLA-dependent GM effects in insulin-dependent diabetes: evidence from pairs of affected siblings. 56 61
3788976 1986
Preferential transmission of diabetic alleles within the HLA gene complex. 61 56
3490623 1986
HLA-DR4 in insulin-dependent diabetic parents and their diabetic offspring: a clue to dominant inheritance. 56 61
3489237 1986
Polymorphic restriction endonuclease sites linked to the HLA-DR alpha gene: localization and use as genetic markers of insulin-dependent diabetes. 56 61
2999792 1985
A solution to the genetic and environmental puzzles of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 61 56
6142151 1984
A polymorphic locus near the human insulin gene is associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 61 56
6363172 1984
Linkage disequilibrium between insulin-dependent diabetes and the Kidd blood group Jkb allele. 61 56
6951830 1982
The modes of inheritance of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or the genetics of IDDM, no longer a nightmare but still a headache. 56 61
7034532 1981
Close genetic linkage between diabetes mellitus and kidd blood group. 56 61
6117683 1981

Variations for Diabetes Mellitus, Type I

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Diabetes Mellitus, Type I:

6 (show all 16) ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 HNF1A NM_000545.6(HNF1A):c.814C>T (p.Arg272Cys)SNV Pathogenic 447503 rs1555212014 12:121432067-121432067 12:120994264-120994264
2 HNF1A NM_000545.6(HNF1A):c.872dup (p.Gly292fs)duplication Pathogenic 14927 rs587776825 12:121432117-121432118 12:120994314-120994315
3 HNF1A NM_000545.6(HNF1A):c.1340C>T (p.Pro447Leu)SNV Pathogenic 14928 rs137853236 12:121435307-121435307 12:120997504-120997504
4 PTPN22 NM_015967.6(PTPN22):c.-1123C>GSNV risk factor 8910 rs2488457 1:114415368-114415368 1:113872746-113872746
5 IL6 IL6, -174G-CSNV risk factor 14718
6 HNF1A NM_000545.6(HNF1A):c.608G>A (p.Arg203His)SNV Likely pathogenic 129235 rs587780357 12:121431404-121431404 12:120993601-120993601
7 FOXP3 NM_014009.4(FOXP3):c.398C>T (p.Pro133Leu)SNV Likely pathogenic 268095 rs782511378 X:49113940-49113940 X:49257483-49257483
8 HNF1A NM_000545.6(HNF1A):c.92G>A (p.Gly31Asp)SNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 14948 rs137853247 12:121416663-121416663 12:120978860-120978860
9 HNF1A NM_000545.6(HNF1A):c.1135C>G (p.Pro379Ala)SNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 431970 rs754729248 12:121434371-121434371 12:120996568-120996568
10 HNF1A NM_000545.6(HNF1A):c.1501+6C>TSNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 435420 rs374306837 12:121435474-121435474 12:120997671-120997671
11 46;XX;inv(14)(q24.1q32.1)dninversion Uncertain significance 267889
12 CEL NM_001807.5(CEL):c.1966G>C (p.Ala656Pro)SNV Uncertain significance 128688 rs587780309 9:135946855-135946855 9:133071468-133071468
13 OAS1 NM_016816.4(OAS1):c.484G>A (p.Gly162Ser)SNV Uncertain significance 13985 rs1131454 12:113348870-113348870 12:112911065-112911065
14 OAS1 NM_016816.4(OAS1):c.1039-1=SNV Uncertain significance 13984 rs10774671 12:113357193-113357193 12:112919388-112919388
15 PTPN22 NM_015967.7(PTPN22):c.1858C>T (p.Arg620Trp)SNV Benign 8909 rs2476601 1:114377568-114377568 1:113834946-113834946
16 CT