Categories: Blood diseases, Infectious diseases, Oral diseases, Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Diphtheria

MalaCards integrated aliases for Diphtheria:

Name: Diphtheria 12 75 53 59 55 43 3 15 17 72 33
Corynebacterium Infections 44 72
Corynebacterium Infection 12


Orphanet epidemiological data:

Prevalence: <1/1000000 (Europe); Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: any age;


Orphanet: 59  
Rare infectious diseases

External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:11405
MeSH 44 D003354
ICD10 33 A36 A36.9
MESH via Orphanet 45 D004165
ICD10 via Orphanet 34 A36.0 A36.1 A36.2 more
UMLS via Orphanet 73 C0012546
Orphanet 59 ORPHA1679
UMLS 72 C0010153 C0012546

Summaries for Diphtheria

MedlinePlus : 43 Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection. You can catch it from a person who has the infection and coughs or sneezes. You can also get infected by coming in contact with an object, such as a toy, that has bacteria on it. Diphtheria usually affects the nose and throat. Symptoms include Sore throat Swollen glands in the neck Fever Weakness Your doctor will diagnose it based on your signs and symptoms and a lab test. Getting treatment for diphtheria quickly is important. If your doctor suspects that you have it, you'll start treatment before the lab tests come back. Treatment is with antibiotics. The diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccine can prevent diphtheria, but its protection does not last forever. Children need another dose, or booster, at about age 12. Then, as adults, they should get a booster every 10 years. Diphtheria is very rare in the United States because of the vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MalaCards based summary : Diphtheria, also known as corynebacterium infections, is related to tetanus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and has symptoms including fever, pruritus and tinnitus. An important gene associated with Diphtheria is HBEGF (Heparin Binding EGF Like Growth Factor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Developmental Biology and Akt Signaling. The drugs Pentetic acid and Edetic Acid have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, t cells and skin, and related phenotypes are Increased viability with SS1P at EC90 and growth/size/body region

Disease Ontology : 12 A primary bacterial infectious disease that is characterized by sore throat, low fever, and an adherent membrane (a pseudomembrane) on the tonsils, pharynx, and/or nasal cavity. A milder form of diphtheria can be restricted to the skin. It is caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, an aerobic Gram-positive bacterium. Diphtheria toxin spreads through the bloodstream and can lead to potentially life-threatening complications that affect other organs of the body, such as the heart and kidneys.

CDC : 3 Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria causes a thick covering in the back of the throat. It can lead to difficulty breathing, heart failure, paralysis, and even death. CDC recommends vaccines for infants, children, teens and adults to prevent diphtheria.

Wikipedia : 75 Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Signs and symptoms may... more...

Related Diseases for Diphtheria

Diseases related to Diphtheria via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 482)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 tetanus 30.6 IL2RA IL2 IL13 CD40LG
2 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 29.8 IL2RA IL2 CSF2
3 brucellosis 29.6 IL2RA IL2 CD40LG
4 leukemia, acute myeloid 29.3 PARP1 IL3RA IL3 IL2 CSF2
5 schistosomiasis 28.9 IL2 IL13 CD40LG
6 immune deficiency disease 28.7 IL2RA IL2 IL13 CD40LG
7 keratoconjunctivitis 28.6 IL3 IL2 IL13
8 hematologic cancer 27.9 IL3RA IL3 IL2RA IL2 CSF2
9 hypereosinophilic syndrome 27.9 IL3 IL2RA IL13 CSF2
10 cutaneous diphtheria 12.8
11 granulomatous lobular mastitis 11.5
12 pertussis 11.2
13 pseudomembranous conjunctivitis 11.2
14 diphtheritic peritonitis 11.2
15 specific antibody deficiency 11.2
16 poliomyelitis 10.9
17 haemophilus influenzae 10.9
18 measles 10.7
19 scarlet fever 10.6
20 endocarditis 10.6
21 myocarditis 10.6
22 rubella 10.5
23 mumps 10.5
24 typhoid fever 10.5
25 tonsillitis 10.5
26 croup 10.4
27 pharyngitis 10.4
28 cholera 10.4
29 smallpox 10.4
30 variola major 10.4
31 allergic hypersensitivity disease 10.4
32 hepatitis b 10.4
33 myeloid leukemia 10.3
34 primary bacterial infectious disease 10.3 IL2 HBEGF EEF2
35 helix syndrome 10.3
36 severe combined immunodeficiency 10.3
37 sudden infant death syndrome 10.3
38 multinucleated neurons, anhydramnios, renal dysplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hydranencephaly 10.3
39 infective endocarditis 10.3
40 lymphocytic leukemia 10.3
41 chickenpox 10.3
42 encephalopathy 10.3
43 leukemia 10.2
44 septic arthritis 10.2
45 hepatitis a 10.2
46 polyneuropathy 10.2
47 leukemia, acute lymphoblastic 10.2
48 influenza 10.2
49 neuritis 10.2
50 anthrax disease 10.2

Comorbidity relations with Diphtheria via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Acute Cystitis

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Diphtheria:

Diseases related to Diphtheria

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Diphtheria

UMLS symptoms related to Diphtheria:

fever, pruritus, tinnitus, snoring, sore throat, coughing, vertigo/dizziness, equilibration disorder

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Diphtheria according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased viability with SS1P at EC90 GR00376-A-1 8.92 DPH1 DPH2 DPH3 FURIN

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Diphtheria:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.15 CD9 CSF2 DPH1 DPH3 EEF2 FURIN
2 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.06 CD40LG CD9 CSF2 DPH1 DPH2 FURIN
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.96 CD40LG CD9 CSF2 DPH2 FURIN IL13
4 embryo MP:0005380 9.95 CSF2 DPH1 DPH3 EEF2 FURIN PARP1
5 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.77 CD40LG CSF2 DPH1 DPH2 DPH3 EEF2
6 integument MP:0010771 9.7 CD40LG CSF2 DPH1 FURIN HBEGF IL13
7 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.17 CD9 CSF2 DPH1 HBEGF IL13 IL2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Diphtheria

Drugs for Diphtheria (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 193)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Pentetic acid Approved Phase 4 67-43-6
Edetic Acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 60-00-4, 62-33-9 6049
Iron Approved, Experimental Phase 4 15438-31-0, 7439-89-6 23925 27284
Adalimumab Approved Phase 4 331731-18-1 16219006
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Phase 4 185243-69-0
Ofloxacin Approved Phase 4 82419-36-1 4583
Levofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 100986-85-4 149096
8 Daratumumab Approved Phase 4 945721-28-8
Ixazomib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1072833-77-2
Lenalidomide Approved Phase 4 191732-72-6 216326
Bortezomib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 179324-69-7 93860 387447
Lopinavir Approved Phase 4 192725-17-0 92727
Ritonavir Approved, Investigational Phase 4 155213-67-5 392622
Efavirenz Approved, Investigational Phase 4 154598-52-4 64139
Emtricitabine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 143491-57-0 60877
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 7440-70-2 271
Lactitol Investigational Phase 4 585-86-4, 585-88-6 493591
BCG vaccine Investigational Phase 4
Tenofovir Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 147127-20-6 464205
20 Antidotes Phase 4
21 Diphtheria Antitoxin Phase 4
22 Protective Agents Phase 4
23 Antitoxins Phase 4
24 Tetanus Antitoxin Phase 4
25 Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein Phase 4
26 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
27 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 4
28 Chelating Agents Phase 4
29 Iron Chelating Agents Phase 4
30 Anticoagulants Phase 4
31 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4
32 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 4
33 Cathartics Phase 4
34 Laxatives Phase 4
35 MF59 oil emulsion Phase 4
36 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
37 Analgesics Phase 4
38 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
39 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
40 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
41 Aluminum phosphate Phase 4
42 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
43 Chrysanthemum Phase 4
44 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
45 Antiviral Agents Phase 4
46 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 4
47 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers Phase 4
48 Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors Phase 4
49 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors Phase 4
protease inhibitors Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 497)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Open Label Multicentric Randomized Phase IV Post Marketing Safety, Immunogenicity and Lot-to-Lot Consistency Analysis of Shan 5 [DTPwHB-Hib (Liquid) Pentavalent Combination Vaccine] in Indian Infants Unknown status NCT00877357 Phase 4
2 Safety and Immunogenicity of Adult Formulation Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids Adsorbed Combined With Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine Following Blood and Morrow Transplantation in Adults Unknown status NCT00336115 Phase 4
3 An Immunogenicity and Safety Study of Combined Adsorbed Tetanus, Low Dose Diphtheria and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Td5ap and Td1aP) Given as a School-leaving Booster to 14-15-year-old Children Primed With a Five Component Acellular Pertussis Vaccine at 3, 5 and 12 Months of Age, and a Booster Dose at 5½ Years of Age Unknown status NCT00870350 Phase 4
4 The Efficacy and Safety of Vaccination Against Pertussis. Tetanus and Diphtheria in Patients Suffering From Rheumatoid Arthritis Unknown status NCT01301703 Phase 4
5 The Influence of BCG Vaccine as a Booster TDaP-IPV Vaccination: an Explorative Study Unknown status NCT02771782 Phase 4
6 1-Year Longitudinal Follow-up Study of Serologic Responses to 7-valent Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccination and Opsonophagocytic Activities for Streptococcus Pneumoniae Among Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Unknown status NCT00885625 Phase 4
7 Safety Among Adolescents and Adults of Revaccination With Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (Adacel®) 4 to 5 Years After a Previous Dose Completed NCT00347958 Phase 4
8 An Open Label Multicentric Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of Indigenously Developed DTPwHB-Hib (Liquid) Pentavalent Combination Vaccine (Shan 5) in Indian Infants. Completed NCT00617812 Phase 4
9 A Single Blind, Multicentric, Comparative, Vaccine Interchangeability Trial of Shan 5 (Liquid) and Easy Five (Liquid) [Diphtheria-Tetanus- Pertussis, Hepatitis B and Hib Pentavalent Combination Vaccines] in Indian Infants. Completed NCT00674908 Phase 4
10 Antibody Persistence in 11 to 13-year-old Children Previously Vaccinated at 6 Years Old With Either REVAXIS or DT Polio, and Immune Response to a Booster Dose of TETRAVAC-ACELLULAIRE Completed NCT01546909 Phase 4
11 Comparison in US Adolescents of the Safety and Immunogenicity of Two Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccines: ADACEL™ and BOOSTRIX® Completed NCT00319553 Phase 4
12 Regulatory Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) Study for ADACEL™ (Adsorbed Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids and Component Pertussis Combined Vaccine for Adult) Completed NCT01137435 Phase 4
13 Immune Responses in Adults to Revaccination With Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (ADACEL®) 10 Years After a Previous Dose Completed NCT00712959 Phase 4
14 Immunogenicity and Safety of Canadian Manufactured Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids Adsorbed (Td) for Adult Use Vaccine Compared With U.S. Manufactured Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids Adsorbed for Adult Use Vaccine In Persons 60 Years of Age and Older and Immunogenicity and Safety of Canadian Td Vaccine in Persons 11 Through 59 Years of Age Completed NCT00601835 Phase 4
15 Regulatory Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) Study for TETRAXIM™(Combined Vaccine of Adsorbed Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis and Enhanced Inactivated Poliomyelitis) Completed NCT01437423 Phase 4
16 Post-marketing, Randomized, Open-label Study to Assess the Immunogenicity and Safety of Concomitant Administration of V260 and Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (DTP-IPV) in Japanese Healthy Infants Completed NCT01926015 Phase 4
17 A Phase IV, Single-blind, Randomized, Controlled, Monocentric Study to Assess the Interchangeability of Quinvaxem (DTwP-HepB-Hib) as the 2nd and 3rd Dose After Initial Vaccination With Tritanrix HB+Hib (DTwP-HepB/Hib) With Respect to Safety and Immunogenicity in Healthy Infants at 6, 10 and 14 Weeks of Age Completed NCT01357720 Phase 4
18 Reactogenicity of Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Booster in Adolescents Who Have Received 5 Prior Doses of BIKEN Acellular Pertussis Vaccine in Combination With Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids (TRIPEDIA®) or Who Have Received Primary Vaccination With 3 Doses of Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccine, Plus at Least 1 Pertussis Booster Vaccination Completed NCT00304265 Phase 4
19 Immunogenicity of Adacel® and BOOSTRIX® Vaccines in Adolescents Completed NCT01629589 Phase 4
20 Safety and Immunogenicity of Adacel® Vaccine Administered to Persons 10 Years of Age Completed NCT01311557 Phase 4
21 Safety and Immunogenicity of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (ADACEL®) in Persons ≥65 Years of Age Completed NCT00457249 Phase 4
22 Evaluation of GSK Biological's dTpa-IPV Booster Vaccine in Children and Adolescents, 5 Years After Previous dTpa-IPV Boosting. Completed NCT00635128 Phase 4
23 Immunogenicity and Safety of Sanofi Pasteur Pentaxim Combined Vaccine in Infants in Thailand Completed NCT00255021 Phase 4
24 Evaluation of GSK Biologicals' dTpa Booster Vaccine in Young Adults 10 Years After Previous dTpa Boosting. Completed NCT00610168 Phase 4
25 Evaluation of GSK Biologicals' Boostrix™ Polio in Healthy Adults, 10 Years After a Booster Vaccination Completed NCT01323959 Phase 4
26 Safety and Immunogenicity in Adults of Revaccination With Adacel® Vaccine 10 Years After a Previous Dose Completed NCT01439165 Phase 4
27 A Phase 4, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of a Combined Tetanus, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Tdap, Boostrix®) and Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus [Types 6, 11, 16, 18] Recombinant Vaccine (Gardasil®) in Healthy Adolescents When Administered With MenACWY Conjugate Vaccine Completed NCT01424644 Phase 4
28 Immunogenicity and Safety of Meningococcal (Groups A, C, Y, and W-135) Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine (Menactra®) in Adolescents in the US When Administered Concomitantly With Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (Tdap Vaccine) Completed NCT00777257 Phase 4
29 Safety and Immunogenicity of DAPTACEL® (CP10/5/5/3DT Aventis Pasteur 5-component Pertussis Vaccine in Combination With Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids Adsorbed) Administered as a 5th Dose in 4 to 6-Year-Old Children Previously Immunized With PENTACEL™ (HCP20/20/5/3DT-mIPV//PRP-T) Completed NCT00802867 Phase 4
30 Safety & Immunogenicity of a Booster Dose of dTPa Vaccine (Boostrix®) Co-admnd. With Aventis Pasteur's Meningococcal (Serogroups A, C, Y and W-135) Polysaccharide Vaccine (Menactra™) vs Admn. of Either Vaccine Alone in Healthy Adolescents Completed NCT00282295 Phase 4
31 Immunogenicity and Safety of the Sanofi Pasteur's DTacP-IPV Combined Vaccine (TETRAXIM™) Given as a Booster Dose at 4 to 6 Years of Life in Children Previously Vaccinated With PENTAXIM™ in the Study E2I34 Completed NCT01031303 Phase 4
32 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of a Booster Dose of GSK Biologicals' Infanrix Hexa™ (217744) in Healthy Infants Born to Mothers Vaccinated With Boostrix™ During Pregnancy or Immediately Post-delivery Completed NCT02853929 Phase 4
33 A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Study to Estimate the Effect of Anakinra (r-metHuIL-1ra) on Vaccine Antibody Response in Subjects With Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Completed NCT00111410 Phase 4 Anakinra (r-metHuIL-1ra)
34 An Open, Multicentric, Post-marketing Surveillance Study to Assess the Safety and Reactogenicity of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' DTPa-IPV/Hib Vaccine Administered at 3, 4, 5 and 18 Months of Age, in Healthy Infants. Completed NCT00325156 Phase 4
35 Immunogenicity and Safety of a Tetanus-diphtheria Vaccine and a 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine After Concomitant Vaccination in ≥50-year-old Adults Completed NCT03552445 Phase 4
36 Immunogenicity and Safety of the Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis and Inactivated Poliovirus (DPT-IPV) Vaccine Squarekids Co-administered With GSK Biologicals' Human Rotavirus (HRV) Vaccine Rotarix (GSK444563) in Healthy Infants Completed NCT02907216 Phase 4
37 Phase IV, Open Label Trial to Evaluate Immunogenicity of Tdap Vaccine in Post-Partum Women to Optimize Vaccination Schedule for Women Who May Have a Subsequent Child Completed NCT01711645 Phase 4
38 Assessment of the Immunogenicity and Safety of PENTAXIM™ in Philippines Completed NCT00254917 Phase 4
39 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' Boostrix™ Vaccine Using a New Syringe Presentation in Healthy Adolescents Aged 10-15 Years Completed NCT01362322 Phase 4
40 Open Clinical Study to Assess the Immune Response and Safety of a Booster Dose (5th Dose) of a Combination Vaccine Against Diphteria-Tetanus-Pertussis-Polio Given to Healthy Adolescents 15-16 Years of Age. Completed NCT00514059 Phase 4 Boostrix polio
41 An Immunogenicity and Safety Evaluation of Menactra® (Meningococcal [Groups A, C, Y and W-135] Polysaccharide Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine) When Administered to Healthy Subjects at 9 Months and Concomitantly With Pentacel® at 15 to 18 Months of Age. Completed NCT01659996 Phase 4
42 Study to Assess and Compare the Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib Vaccine (INFANRIX™ HEXA) and Aventis Pasteur MSD's DTPa-HBV-IPV-Hib Vaccine (HEXAVAC™) Given at 3, 5 and 11-12 Months of Age Completed NCT01457547 Phase 4
43 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' Infanrix Hexa Vaccine in Healthy Infants Completed NCT00753649 Phase 4
44 Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity Study of a New Formulation of GSK Biologicals' DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib Vaccine Administered as a Booster Dose to 18-23 Months Old Children Completed NCT00611559 Phase 4
45 Antibody Persistence in Children Previously Vaccinated With Three Doses of Infanrix Hexa™ or Infanrix-IPV/Hib™ Completed NCT01358825 Phase 4
46 Evaluation of GSK Biologicals' dTpa Booster Vaccine in Adults, Given 10 Years After Previous dTpa Boosting. Completed NCT00548171 Phase 4
47 Safety of the DTacP-IPV//PRP~T Combined Vaccine (PENTAXIM®) Given as a Three-Dose Primary Vaccination at 2, 3, and 4 Months of Age in Infants in China Completed NCT01491087 Phase 4
48 An Open, Randomized, Multicenter Study of the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of VAQTA™ Given Concomitantly With PedvaxHIB™ and Infanrix™ in Healthy Children 15 Months of Age Completed NCT00289913 Phase 4
49 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of GSK Biologicals' dTpa Vaccine, Boostrix™ (263855) in Pregnant Women Completed NCT02377349 Phase 4 Saline placebo
50 A Phase 4, Randomized, Open-label Trial Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of DTaP Vaccine in Healthy Infants Given With a 7-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Japan. Completed NCT01250756 Phase 4

Search NIH Clinical Center for Diphtheria

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :

Clostridium tetani toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated)
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Diphtheria Antitoxin
Equine diphtheria antitoxin
Procaine benzylpenicillin

Cochrane evidence based reviews: corynebacterium infections

Genetic Tests for Diphtheria

Anatomical Context for Diphtheria

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Diphtheria:

Testes, T Cells, Skin, Heart, Kidney, Liver, Bone

Publications for Diphtheria

Articles related to Diphtheria:

(show top 50) (show all 14491)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Mapping diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine coverage in Africa, 2000-2016: a spatial and temporal modelling study. 38 17
30961907 2019
A 6-year Prospective, Observational, Multi-Center Post-Marketing Surveillance of the Safety of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine in Korea. 38 17
30940999 2019
Talk to Patients About: Tetanus. 17
30995333 2019
Expression of IL-13Ralpha2 in liver cancer cells and its effect on targeted therapy of liver cancer. 9 38
19916021 2010
Active immunization induces toxicity of diphtheria toxin in diphtheria resistant mice--implications for neuroinflammatory models. 9 38
20138048 2010
Targeted injury of type II alveolar epithelial cells induces pulmonary fibrosis. 9 38
19850947 2010
Intracranial elimination of human glioblastoma brain tumors in nude rats using the bispecific ligand-directed toxin, DTEGF13 and convection enhanced delivery. 9 38
19517064 2009
How punctual ablation of regulatory T cells unleashes an autoimmune lesion within the pancreatic islets. 9 38
19818653 2009
Development of targeted therapy for ovarian cancer mediated by a plasmid expressing diphtheria toxin under the control of H19 regulatory sequences. 9 38
19656414 2009
A Phase II trial of Denileukin Diftitox in patients with previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer. 9 38
19433964 2009
Urine podocyte mRNAs mark progression of renal disease. 9 38
19389856 2009
Acetylcholine-induced activation of M3 muscarinic receptors stimulates robust matrix metalloproteinase gene expression in human colon cancer cells. 9 38
19221016 2009
Genetically engineering transferrin to improve its in vitro ability to deliver cytotoxins. 9 38
18992290 2009
Recombinant immunotoxins for the treatment of chemoresistant hematologic malignancies. 9 38
19689336 2009
Inhibition of adrenocortical carcinoma by diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197. 9 38
19996587 2009
Recombinant immunotoxins containing truncated bacterial toxins for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. 9 38
19344187 2009
[Fluorescent derivatives of diphtheria toxin subunit B and their interaction with Vero cells]. 9 38
19877418 2009
A novel hairless mouse model on an atopic dermatitis-prone genetic background generated by receptor-mediated transgenesis. 9 38
18686008 2008
Increased expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator system by Helicobacter pylori in gastric epithelial cells. 9 38
18599586 2008
Engineered modular recombinant transporters: application of new platform for targeted radiotherapeutic agents to alpha-particle emitting 211 At. 9 38
18722270 2008
Optimizing denileukin diftitox (Ontak) therapy. 9 38
18684057 2008
De novo maintenance therapy with denileukin diftitox (Ontak) in a patient with peripheral T-cell lymphoma is associated with prolonged remission. 9 38
18383317 2008
Genetically designing a more potent antipancreatic cancer agent by simultaneously co-targeting human IL13 and EGF receptors in a mouse xenograft model. 9 38
18222985 2008
Dendritic cells are required for effective cross-presentation in the murine liver. 9 38
18213574 2008
Phase I clinical study of diphtheria toxin-interleukin 3 fusion protein in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplasia. 9 38
18297533 2008
Anti-glioblastoma effect of a recombinant bispecific cytotoxin cotargeting human IL-13 and EGF receptors in a mouse xenograft model. 9 38
18084721 2008
Phosphorylation, desensitization and internalization of human alpha1B-adrenoceptors induced by insulin-like growth factor-I. 9 38
17915215 2008
Effect of DAB(389)IL-2 immunotoxin on the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats. 9 38
17603081 2007
Recombinant immunoproapoptotic proteins with furin site can translocate and kill HER2-positive cancer cells. 9 38
18089813 2007
A bispecific recombinant cytotoxin (DTEGF13) targeting human interleukin-13 and epidermal growth factor receptors in a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer. 9 38
17975161 2007
Association between IgG2 and IgG3 subclass responses to toxin A and recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated disease. 9 38
17544998 2007
Protective role of macrophages in noninflammatory lung injury caused by selective ablation of alveolar epithelial type II Cells. 9 38
17404282 2007
Inhibition of transferrin iron release increases in vitro drug carrier efficacy. 9 38
17239470 2007
Selective depletion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells induces a scurfy-like disease. 9 38
17200412 2007
Endogenous ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 and its 32 kDa tryptic fragment. 9 38
17665640 2007
Denileukin diftitox: a biotherapeutic paradigm shift in the treatment of lymphoid-derived disorders. 9 38
17187516 2007
A diphtheria toxin receptor deficient in epidermal growth factor-like biological activity. 9 38
17071947 2006
Expression of interleukin-3 receptor subunits on defined subpopulations of acute myeloid leukemia blasts predicts the cytotoxicity of diphtheria toxin interleukin-3 fusion protein against malignant progenitors that engraft in immunodeficient mice. 9 38
16882709 2006
Human alpha-defensins neutralize toxins of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase family. 9 38
16817779 2006
Immunotoxins in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. 9 38
17073592 2006
Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells induces features of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis. 9 38
16892061 2006
Duration of the initial TCR stimulus controls the magnitude but not functionality of the CD8+ T cell response. 9 38
16908626 2006
Immunotoxins for targeted cancer therapy. 9 38
17025272 2006
Fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrates may increase plasma anti-diphtheria toxin IgG concentrations: Implications for diphtheria fusion protein therapy. 9 38
16645883 2006
Endogenous ADP-ribosylation for eukaryotic elongation factor 2: evidence of two different sites and reactions. 9 38
16142694 2006
Thyrotoxicosis after denileukin diftitox therapy in patients with mycosis fungoides. 9 38
16595600 2006
Phase II clinical studies of denileukin diftitox diphtheria toxin fusion protein in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. 9 38
16586495 2006
Intracranial therapy of glioblastoma with the fusion protein DTIL13 in immunodeficient mice. 9 38
16358262 2006
Immunotoxin pharmacokinetics: a comparison of the anti-glioblastoma bi-specific fusion protein (DTAT13) to DTAT and DTIL13. 9 38
16314943 2006
Regression of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type with denileukin diftitox (Ontak) and bexarotene (Targretin): report of a case. 9 38
16634908 2006

Variations for Diphtheria

Expression for Diphtheria

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Diphtheria.

Pathways for Diphtheria

Pathways related to Diphtheria according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 33)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
13.31 IL3RA IL3 IL2RA IL2 IL13 CSF2
Show member pathways
13.21 IL3RA IL3 IL2RA IL2 CSF2 CD9
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12.78 IL3 IL2RA IL2 IL13 CD40LG
8 12.71 TXNRD1 IL3RA IL3 IL2RA IL2 IL13
9 12.46 IL3 IL2RA IL2 CD40LG
Show member pathways
12.28 IL3RA IL3 IL2RA IL2 IL13 CSF2
Show member pathways
12.17 IL3 IL2RA IL2 IL13 HBEGF
Show member pathways
12.04 IL3RA IL3 IL2RA IL2 CSF2
Show member pathways
11.99 IL3RA IL3 IL2RA IL2 IL13
Show member pathways
11.92 IL2RA IL2 IL13
Show member pathways
11.86 IL3RA IL3 IL2RA IL2
16 11.83 IL3RA IL3 IL2RA IL2 CSF2
17 11.79 IL3RA IL3 IL2RA IL2
18 11.72 IL2 IL13 CSF2
19 11.71 IL3RA IL3 IL2RA CSF2 CD9
20 11.7 IL2RA IL2 IL13
21 11.66 IL3RA IL2 CSF2
22 11.63 IL2 IL13 CSF2
Show member pathways
11.57 IL2 CSF2 CD40LG
Show member pathways
25 11.42 IL2RA IL2 IL13
26 11.25 IL2RA IL2 CD40LG
Show member pathways
11.23 IL3 IL2RA IL2 CSF2 CD40LG
28 11.15 IL2RA IL2 IL13
Show member pathways
30 11.11 IL3 IL2 IL13 CSF2 CD40LG
31 11.07 IL2 IL13
32 11.02 IL3 IL2 IL13 CSF2
33 10.93 IL3 IL2 IL13 CSF2 CD40LG

GO Terms for Diphtheria

Cellular components related to Diphtheria according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.86 IL3 IL2 IL13 HBEGF FURIN EEF2
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.56 IL3 IL2 IL13 HBEGF FURIN CSF2
3 cell surface GO:0009986 9.55 IL2RA HBEGF FURIN CD9 CD40LG
4 external side of plasma membrane GO:0009897 9.02 IL3RA IL2RA IL13 CD9 CD40LG

Biological processes related to Diphtheria according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 14)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune response GO:0006955 9.8 IL3 IL2RA IL2 IL13 CSF2 CD40LG
2 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.67 IL2 IL13 EEF2
3 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.63 IL3RA IL3 IL2RA IL2 IL13 CSF2
4 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.61 IL2RA IL2 CD40LG
5 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.56 IL3 IL2 IL13 CSF2
6 positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation GO:0042104 9.54 IL2RA IL2
7 cell proliferation GO:0008283 9.52 TXNRD1 DPH1
8 positive regulation of T cell differentiation GO:0045582 9.51 IL2RA IL2
9 regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation GO:0045589 9.48 IL2RA IL2
10 interleukin-2-mediated signaling pathway GO:0038110 9.46 IL2RA IL2
11 MAPK cascade GO:0000165 9.43 IL3RA IL3 IL2RA IL2 HBEGF CSF2
12 negative regulation of lymphocyte proliferation GO:0050672 9.4 IL2RA IL2
13 regulation of T cell homeostatic proliferation GO:0046013 9.37 IL2RA IL2
14 peptidyl-diphthamide biosynthetic process from peptidyl-histidine GO:0017183 8.92 DPH7 DPH3 DPH2 DPH1

Molecular functions related to Diphtheria according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.26 IL3 IL2 HBEGF CSF2
2 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.02 IL3 IL2 IL13 CSF2 CD40LG

Sources for Diphtheria

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
71 Tocris
73 UMLS via Orphanet
Loading form....