MCID: DSC009
MIFTS: 44

Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Categories: Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus:

Name: Discoid Lupus Erythematosus 59 33
Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid 72
Lupus Erythematosus Discoid 55

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

59
discoid lupus erythematosus
Prevalence: 1-9/100000 (United States);

Classifications:

Orphanet: 59  
Rare skin diseases


External Ids:

ICD10 33 L93.0
MESH via Orphanet 45 D008179
ICD10 via Orphanet 34 L93.0
UMLS via Orphanet 73 C0024138
Orphanet 59 ORPHA90281
UMLS 72 C0024138

Summaries for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

MalaCards based summary : Discoid Lupus Erythematosus, also known as lupus erythematosus, discoid, is related to keratosis and lichen sclerosus, and has symptoms including pruritus, exanthema and heliotrope rash. An important gene associated with Discoid Lupus Erythematosus is IFNA2 (Interferon Alpha 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Allograft rejection and Keratinization. The drugs Hydroxychloroquine and Antirheumatic Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, t cells and testes.

Wikipedia : 75 Discoid lupus erythematosus is the most common type of chronic cutaneous lupus (CCLE), an autoimmune... more...

Related Diseases for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Diseases related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 290)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 keratosis 31.2 KRT10 IVL FLG
2 lichen sclerosus 31.0 HLA-DRB1 GZMB
3 connective tissue disease 30.7 IL10 HLA-DRB1 APOH
4 bowen's disease 30.7 KRT16 KRT10
5 irritant dermatitis 30.6 KRT16 FLG
6 graft-versus-host disease 30.5 IL10 HLA-DRB1 GZMB
7 polyarteritis nodosa 30.4 IFNA2 APOH
8 contact dermatitis 30.4 KRT16 IVL IL10 FLG
9 lichen planus 30.4 KRT16 KRT10 IVL GZMB FLG
10 keratoacanthoma 30.3 KRT16 KRT10 GZMB FLG
11 allergic contact dermatitis 30.3 NAT2 IL10 FLG
12 mixed connective tissue disease 30.2 IL10 HLA-DRB1 APOH
13 skin disease 30.2 KRT16 KRT10 IVL IL10 FLG
14 autoimmune disease 30.1 IL10 IFNA1 HLA-DRB1 APOH
15 discoid lupus erythematosus of eyelid 12.6
16 cutaneous lupus erythematosus 11.9
17 pseudopelade of brocq 11.9
18 lupus erythematosus 11.8
19 chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus 11.2
20 systemic lupus erythematosus 10.9
21 squamous cell carcinoma 10.8
22 alopecia 10.8
23 rare cutaneous lupus erythematosus 10.7
24 dermatitis 10.6
25 chronic granulomatous disease 10.6
26 pustulosis of palm and sole 10.5
27 psoriasis 10.5
28 systemic scleroderma 10.5
29 blepharitis 10.5
30 lichen disease 10.5 IVL FLG
31 sarcoidosis 1 10.5
32 vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease susceptibility 6 10.5
33 vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease susceptibility 1 10.5
34 exanthem 10.5
35 porphyria 10.5
36 panniculitis 10.5
37 juvenile myasthenia gravis 10.5 IL10 HLA-DRB1
38 papillon-lefevre syndrome 10.4 HLA-DRB1 GZMB
39 scleroderma, familial progressive 10.4
40 skin carcinoma 10.4
41 bullous pemphigoid 10.4
42 subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus 10.4
43 dowling-degos disease 1 10.4
44 neutropenia 10.4
45 localized scleroderma 10.4
46 dermatitis herpetiformis 10.4
47 pemphigus 10.4
48 leukoplakia 10.4
49 orofacial granulomatosis 10.4 IL10 FLG
50 filamentary keratitis 10.4 KRT10 FLG

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus:



Diseases related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

UMLS symptoms related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus:


pruritus, exanthema, heliotrope rash, lupus-like rash

Drugs & Therapeutics for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Drugs for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 41)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Hydroxychloroquine Approved Phase 3 118-42-3 3652
2 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 3
3 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3
4 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3
5 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3
6 Antimalarials Phase 3
7
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Phase 2 185243-69-0
8
Apremilast Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 608141-41-9 11561674
9
Alitretinoin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 5300-03-8 444795 449171
10 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2
11 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 2
12 Angiogenesis Modulating Agents Phase 2
13 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2
14 Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors Phase 1, Phase 2
15 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 1, Phase 2
16 Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors Phase 1, Phase 2
17 Antibodies Phase 2
18 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 2
19 Immunoglobulins Phase 2
20
Betamethasone Approved, Vet_approved 378-44-9 9782
21
belimumab Approved 356547-88-1 5957 10451420
22
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Early Phase 1 68-04-2
23
Tofacitinib Approved, Investigational Early Phase 1 477600-75-2
24
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Early Phase 1 77-92-9 311
25
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Early Phase 1 7440-70-2 271
26 glucocorticoids
27 Hormones
28 Respiratory System Agents
29 Hormone Antagonists
30 Anti-Asthmatic Agents
31 Betamethasone Valerate 2152-44-5
32 Betamethasone sodium phosphate
33 Betamethasone-17,21-dipropionate
34 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
35 Betamethasone benzoate
36 Complement System Proteins
37 Citrate Early Phase 1
38 Protein Kinase Inhibitors Early Phase 1
39 Chelating Agents Early Phase 1
40 Anticoagulants Early Phase 1
41 Calcium, Dietary Early Phase 1

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 29)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Efficacy of 595 nm Pulsed-dye Laser as an Adjunctive Treatment of Discoid Lupus Erythematosus, A Randomized, Patient/Assessor Blinded Placebo Control Trial Unknown status NCT03178188 Phase 2, Phase 3
2 Hydroxycloroquin (Plaquenil) Behandling af Gentagne Graviditetstab (Abortus Habitualis) - et Randomiseret, Dobbeltblindet, Placebo Kontrolleret Studium Recruiting NCT03305263 Phase 3 Hydroxychloroquine;Hydroxychloroquine placebo
3 A Phase 2 Open Label Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Etanercept (Enbrel®)for the Treatment of Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Unknown status NCT00797784 Phase 2 etanercept(Enbrel®)
4 A Phase Ib Study of Milatuzumab Administered Subcutaneously in Patients With Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Unknown status NCT01845740 Phase 1, Phase 2 milatuzumab;Placebo
5 A Phase 2, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of R333 6% Ointment Administered Topically to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Patients With Active Cutaneous Discoid Lesions Completed NCT01597050 Phase 2 R932333;Placebo
6 A Phase 2, Pilot, Multicenter, Sequential, Ascending Dose Study to Evaluate the Preliminary Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Efficacy of CC-11050 in Subjects With Discoid Lupus Erythematosus and Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Completed NCT01300208 Phase 2 CC-11050
7 Efficacy and Safety of ASF-1096 Cream 0.5% in the Treatment of Patients With Newly Developed Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) Lesions. An International Multi-Centre Clinical Phase 2, Placebo Controlled and Double Blind Proof of Concept Study Completed NCT00625521 Phase 2 ASF 1096 0.5 % cream applied twice daily;Cream vehicle for ASF 1096 cream applied twice daily
8 Efficacy and Safety of ASF-1096 Cream 0.5% in the Treatment of Patients With Newly Developed Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) Lesions. An International Multi-Centre Clinical Phase 2, Placebo Controlled and Double Blind Proof of Concept Study (2) Completed NCT00625157 Phase 2 ASF 1096 0.5 % cream;ASF 1096 placebo cream
9 A Pilot Trial of Topical Thalidomide for the Management of Chronic Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Completed NCT00001680 Phase 2 Thalidomide
10 Clinical and Immune-modulating Effects of CC-10004 in Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Completed NCT00708916 Phase 1, Phase 2 CC-10004
11 A Single Arm, Phase II Open Label Trial to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Intra-dermal Injection of Etanercept for Remission Induction in Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Completed NCT02656082 Phase 2 Etanercept
12 Efficacy and Safety of Twice-daily Application of Delgocitinib Cream 20 mg/g for 6 Weeks in Subjects With Active Discoid Lupus Erythematosus. Recruiting NCT03958955 Phase 2 Delgocitinib cream;Delgocitinib cream vehicle
13 A 2-Part Phase 2 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of BIIB059 in Subjects With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Active Skin Manifestations and in Subjects With Active Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus With or Without Systemic Manifestations Active, not recruiting NCT02847598 Phase 2 BIIB059;Placebo
14 A Pilot Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Secukinumab in Alleviating Symptoms of Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Not yet recruiting NCT03866317 Phase 2 Secukinumab
15 A Phase 2, Pilot, Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Sequential, Ascending Dose Study to Characterize the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Activity of CC-930 in Subjects With Recalcitrant Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) Terminated NCT01466725 Phase 2 CC-930;Placebo
16 Efficacy and Safety of Oral Alitretinoin (Toctino®) in the Treatment of Patients With Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus: A Multicentre, Open-Label, Prospective Pilot Study Terminated NCT01407679 Phase 2 Alitretinoin
17 Discoid Lupus Erythematosus of the Scalp and a Trial of Biologic Therapy With Raptiva Terminated NCT00308204 Phase 2 Raptiva (efalizumab)
18 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Single Dose, Two-period, Crossover Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Clinical Efficacy of AMG 811 in Subjects With Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Terminated NCT01164917 Phase 1 AMG811;AMG811 Placebo
19 A Phase I, Open-Label, Dose Escalation Trial Exploring the Safety and Tolerability of Autologous Polyclonal Regulatory T Cell Therapy in Adults With Active Cutaneous Lupus (ALE08) Terminated NCT02428309 Phase 1
20 Pimecrolimus 1% Cream vs. Betamethasone Valerate 0.1% Cream in the Treatment of Facial Discoid Lupus Erythematosus: a Double-Blind Randomized, Pilot Study. Completed NCT00608673 Pimecrolimus 1% cream;betamethasone valerate 0.1% cream
21 Expression of Fas Protein in Skin Biopsies of Participants With Scarring Alopecia Completed NCT00691769
22 Cross-Sectional Study in Subjects With Active Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Completed NCT01923415
23 Longitudinal Study of Skin And Systemic Biomarkers In Subjects With Active Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus And In Healthy Volunteers Completed NCT02034344
24 A Pilot Study to Evaluate Using Tape Harvesting to Collect Ribonucleic Acid From the Upper Epidermis of Healthy Volunteers and Subjects With Discoid Lupus, Subjects With Subacute Cutaneous Lupus, and Subjects With Atopic Dermatitis Completed NCT02125695
25 Efficacy and Safety of Belimumab in a Subgroup of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Patients With Higher Disease Activity (Anti-dsDNA Positive and Low Complement): A Pooled Analysis of the HGS1006-C1056 (BLISS-52) and HGS1006-C1057 (BLISS-76) Studies Completed NCT01858792 Belimumab 1 mg/kg;Belimumab 10 mg/kg
26 Open Label Phase 2 Pilot Trial of Oral Tofacitinib in Adult Subjects With Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Recruiting NCT03159936 Early Phase 1
27 Acceptability and Persistence of the Use of a Patient-centred E-health Tool for Lupus Patients Followed in a Specialised Centre in France Not yet recruiting NCT03953690
28 The Role of Trichoscopy in the Preliminary Diagnosis of Immunobollous Diseases Not yet recruiting NCT03478072
29 Evaluation of the Therapeutic Effect and Local Tolerability of Elidel® Cream 1% (Pimecrolimus) in Chronic Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (dLE) or Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (scLE) Withdrawn NCT00222183 Elidel (pimecrolimus)

Search NIH Clinical Center for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :


Betamethasone
Bupivacaine
Chloroquine
Chloroquine
Chloroquine hydrochloride
chloroquine phosphate
Dexamethasone
Hydroxychloroquine
Thalidomide
Triamcinolone

Genetic Tests for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Anatomical Context for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus:

41
Skin, T Cells, Testes, Lung, B Cells, Liver, Monocytes

Publications for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Articles related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus:

(show top 50) (show all 1406)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Coexistence of five autoimmune diseases: diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. 9 38
18320193 2008
2
Keratin and involucrin expression in discoid lupus erythematosus and lichen planus. 9 38
9341972 1997
3
Long-term results of intralesional interferon alpha-2B in discoid lupus erythematosus. 9 38
8408929 1993
4
Response of discoid and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus to recombinant interferon alpha 2a. 9 38
2258631 1990
5
Recombinant interferon alpha 2a is effective in the treatment of discoid and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. 9 38
2182099 1990
6
Evaluation of a Handheld Dermatoscope in Clinical Diagnosis of Primary Cicatricial Alopecias. 38
31190216 2019
7
Disseminated discoid lupus erythematosus mimicking Degos disease. 38
31429927 2019
8
Intravenous immunoglobulin G use in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: An uncommon cause of drug-induced discoid lupus erythematosus. 38
30734274 2019
9
Molecular Profiling of Cutaneous Lupus Lesions Identifies Subgroups Distinct from Clinical Phenotypes. 38
31426521 2019
10
Paediatric discoid lupus erythematosus: importance of subspecialty collaboration. 38
31407314 2019
11
Novel diagnostic imaging features of facial lupus panniculitis: ultrasound, CT, and MR imaging with histopathology correlate. 38
31386960 2019
12
Downregulation of integrin-αvβ6 on keratinocytes in the scar of lichen planopilaris and folliculitis decalvans: Relevance for the disappearance of epidermal Langerhans cells. 38
31166031 2019
13
Spectrum of cutaneous lupus erythematosus in South Africans with systemic lupus erythematosus. 38
31215844 2019
14
Immunological methods for the diagnosis of oral mucosal diseases. 38
30585301 2019
15
Cutaneous lupus associated with pembrolizumab therapy for advanced melanoma: a report of three cases. 38
30762712 2019
16
Clinical characteristics of pediatric cutaneous lupus erythematosus: experience from a tertiary referral center in Korea. 38
31112454 2019
17
Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia and Discoid Lupus Erythematosus: More Than a Coincidence. 38
30482575 2019
18
Oral lichen planus: A disease or a spectrum of tissue reactions? Types, causes, diagnostic algorhythms, prognosis, management strategies. 38
31090143 2019
19
[The morbidity of diseases of skin and subcutaneous cellular tissue in population of the Republic of Bashkortostan]. 38
31251857 2019
20
Premature Desquamation of the Inner Root Sheath in Noninflamed Hair Follicles as a Specific Marker for Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia. 38
30562220 2019
21
Time to progression from discoid lupus erythematosus to systemic lupus erythematosus: a retrospective cohort study. 38
31120600 2019
22
Familial association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with autoimmune diseases in the population of Sweden. 38
30407269 2019
23
[Systemic Lupus Erythematosus]. 38
30988213 2019
24
Hearing loss caused by discoid lupus erythematosus of the ear canal successfully treated with hydroxychloroquine. 38
30932231 2019
25
Coexistence of Tumid Lupus Erythematosus and Discoid Lupus Erythematosus. 38
30072022 2019
26
CyclinD1 Is Useful to Differentiate Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis From Reactive Langerhans Cells. 38
30124506 2019
27
Discoid lupus erythematosus: Reflectance confocal microscopy features correlate with horizontal histopathological sections. 38
30357933 2019
28
Lichen Planus Pigmentosus and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia Mimicking Discoid Lupus Erythematosus. 38
30427589 2019
29
Perforation of paper with pen: Simple technique to explain the carpet tack sign in discoid lupus erythematosus. 38
30905795 2019
30
Pulsed-dye laser as an adjuvant treatment for discoid lupus erythematosus: a randomized, controlled trial. 38
29676592 2019
31
Practice-based differences in paediatric discoid lupus erythematosus. 38
30768778 2019
32
Koebner phenomenon of discoid lupus erythematosus on old tattoos. 38
30486728 2019
33
Community-acquired Escherichia coli meningitis and spondylodiscitis in an adult patient with discoid lupus erythematosus. 38
31338297 2019
34
Chronic Inflammation Promotes Skin Carcinogenesis in Cancer-Prone Discoid Lupus Erythematosus. 38
30030152 2019
35
Direct immunofluorescence findings in cicatricial alopecia: A retrospective study of 155 cases. 38
30706869 2019
36
Plucked hair follicles from patients with chronic discoid lupus erythematosus show a disease-specific molecular signature. 38
31413850 2019
37
MicroRNA Expression Profiling Identifies miR-31 and miR-485-3p as Regulators in the Pathogenesis of Discoid Cutaneous Lupus. 38
30130620 2019
38
Canine Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus: Newly Discovered Variants. 38
30227971 2019
39
Racial Disparities in the Incidence of Primary Chronic Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus in the Southeastern US: The Georgia Lupus Registry. 38
29669194 2019
40
A Study of the Histopathological Features of Alopecias on Transverse Sections of Scalp Biopsies. 38
30745635 2019
41
A rare case with prominent features of both discoid lupus erythematosus and pemphigus foliaceus. 38
29858874 2019
42
Tubular Hair Casts in Trichoscopy of Hair and Scalp Disorders. 38
30820128 2019
43
Detection of DNA Autoantibodies by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay. 38
30539574 2019
44
[Chloroquine retinopathy]. 38
30570930 2018
45
A comparative immunohistochemical study of epidermal and dermal/perifollicular Langerhans cell concentration in discoid lupus erythematosus and lichen planopilaris: a cross-sectional study. 38
30376791 2018
46
Is chloroquine neuromyotoxicity in a patient with refractory discoid lupus erythematosus potentiated by concomitant use of mepacrine? 38
29808483 2018
47
Sustained Drug Free Remission of Lupus Panniculitis with Methotrexate: A Case Report From Nepal. 38
31065144 2018
48
Ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for intraoperative, real-time diagnosis of cutaneous inflammatory diseases: A preliminary study. 38
30033578 2018
49
Mepacrine-induced interstitial lung disease in discoid lupus erythematosus? 38
30022483 2018
50
White and yellow dots as new trichoscopic signs of severe female androgenetic alopecia in dark skin phototypes. 38
30043983 2018

Variations for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Expression for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus.

Pathways for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

GO Terms for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Cellular components related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.63 KRT10 IL10 IFNA2 IFNA1 ENO3 APOH
2 intermediate filament GO:0005882 9.13 KRT16 KRT10 FLG
3 cornified envelope GO:0001533 8.8 KRT10 IVL FLG

Biological processes related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 13)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 keratinization GO:0031424 9.69 KRT16 KRT10 IVL
2 aging GO:0007568 9.65 KRT16 IL10 ENO3
3 response to exogenous dsRNA GO:0043330 9.52 IFNA2 IFNA1
4 B cell differentiation GO:0030183 9.5 IL10 IFNA2 IFNA1
5 negative regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032689 9.49 IL10 HLA-DRB1
6 T cell activation involved in immune response GO:0002286 9.46 IFNA2 IFNA1
7 positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0033141 9.43 IFNA2 IFNA1
8 peptide cross-linking GO:0018149 9.43 KRT10 IVL FLG
9 establishment of skin barrier GO:0061436 9.4 KRT16 FLG
10 natural killer cell activation involved in immune response GO:0002323 9.37 IFNA2 IFNA1
11 B cell proliferation GO:0042100 9.33 IL10 IFNA2 IFNA1
12 cornification GO:0070268 9.26 KRT16 KRT10 IVL FLG
13 keratinocyte differentiation GO:0030216 8.92 KRT16 KRT10 IVL FLG

Molecular functions related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.5 IL10 IFNA2 IFNA1
2 cytokine receptor binding GO:0005126 9.26 IFNA2 IFNA1
3 type I interferon receptor binding GO:0005132 9.16 IFNA2 IFNA1
4 structural constituent of epidermis GO:0030280 8.96 KRT10 FLG
5 structural molecule activity GO:0005198 8.8 KRT16 KRT10 FLG

Sources for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

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10 dbSNP
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17 EFO
18 ExPASy
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30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
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44 MeSH
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62 PubMed
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69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
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