MCID: DSC009
MIFTS: 42

Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Categories: Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus:

Name: Discoid Lupus Erythematosus 58 32
Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid 71
Lupus Erythematosus Discoid 54

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
discoid lupus erythematosus
Prevalence: 1-9/100000 (United States);

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare skin diseases


External Ids:

ICD10 32 L93.0
MESH via Orphanet 44 D008179
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 L93.0
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0024138
Orphanet 58 ORPHA90281
UMLS 71 C0024138

Summaries for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

MalaCards based summary : Discoid Lupus Erythematosus, also known as lupus erythematosus, discoid, is related to cutaneous lupus erythematosus and keratosis, and has symptoms including pruritus, exanthema and heliotrope rash. An important gene associated with Discoid Lupus Erythematosus is IVL (Involucrin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Allograft rejection and Keratinization. The drugs Hydroxychloroquine and Antirheumatic Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, t cells and testes.

Wikipedia : 74 Discoid lupus erythematosus is the most common type of chronic cutaneous lupus (CCLE), an autoimmune... more...

Related Diseases for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Diseases related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 322)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cutaneous lupus erythematosus 32.9 IL10 IFNA1 GZMB
2 keratosis 31.1 KRT10 IVL FLG
3 stomatitis 30.5 IL10 IFNA2 IFNA1
4 graft-versus-host disease 30.3 IL10 HLA-DRB1 GZMB
5 tinea corporis 30.3 KRT16 FLG
6 autoimmune disease 30.3 IL10 IFNA1 HLA-DRB1 APOH
7 contact dermatitis 30.2 KRT16 IVL IL10 FLG
8 bowen's disease 30.2 KRT16 KRT10 IVL
9 dermatitis 30.2 KRT16 IVL IL10 GZMB FLG
10 cutaneous t cell lymphoma 30.1 IFNA2 IFNA1 GZMB
11 herpes zoster 30.1 IL10 IFNA2 IFNA1 HLA-DRB1
12 irritant dermatitis 30.1 KRT16 IVL FLG
13 skin disease 30.1 KRT16 KRT10 IVL IL10 FLG
14 mixed connective tissue disease 30.1 IL10 HLA-DRB1 APOH
15 polyarteritis nodosa 30.0 IFNA2 HLA-DRB1 APOH
16 keratoacanthoma 29.9 KRT16 KRT10 IVL GZMB FLG
17 lichen planus 29.8 KRT16 KRT10 IVL IL10 GZMB FLG
18 alopecia areata 29.7 KRT16 IL10 HLA-DRB1 GZMB FLG
19 celiac disease 1 29.7 IL10 HLA-DRB1 GZMB
20 basal cell carcinoma 29.6 KRT16 KRT10 IVL IL10
21 psoriasis 29.5 KRT16 KRT10 IVL IL10 HLA-DRB1 FLG
22 thrombocytopenia 29.3 IL10 IFNA2 IFNA1 APOH
23 discoid lupus erythematosus of eyelid 12.6
24 pseudopelade of brocq 11.9
25 lupus erythematosus 11.8
26 chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus 11.2
27 systemic lupus erythematosus 10.8
28 squamous cell carcinoma 10.8
29 alopecia 10.8
30 rare cutaneous lupus erythematosus 10.7
31 chronic granulomatous disease 10.6
32 pustulosis of palm and sole 10.5
33 systemic scleroderma 10.5
34 blepharitis 10.5
35 panniculitis 10.5
36 connective tissue disease 10.5
37 sarcoidosis 1 10.5
38 vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease susceptibility 6 10.5
39 vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease susceptibility 1 10.5
40 exanthem 10.5
41 porphyria 10.5
42 localized scleroderma 10.5
43 frontal fibrosing alopecia 10.5
44 scleroderma, familial progressive 10.4
45 skin carcinoma 10.4
46 bullous pemphigoid 10.4
47 subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus 10.4
48 erythrokeratoderma 10.4 IVL FLG
49 dowling-degos disease 1 10.4
50 neutropenia 10.4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus:



Diseases related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

UMLS symptoms related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus:


pruritus, exanthema, heliotrope rash, lupus-like rash

Drugs & Therapeutics for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Drugs for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 38)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Hydroxychloroquine Approved Phase 3 118-42-3 3652
2 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 3
3 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3
4 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3
5 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3
6 Antimalarials Phase 3
7
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Phase 2 185243-69-0
8
Apremilast Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 608141-41-9 11561674
9
Alitretinoin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 5300-03-8 444795 449171
10 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2
11 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2
12 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 2
13 Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors Phase 1, Phase 2
14 Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors Phase 1, Phase 2
15 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 2
16 Immunoglobulins Phase 2
17 Antibodies Phase 2
18
Betamethasone Approved, Vet_approved 378-44-9 9782
19
belimumab Approved 356547-88-1 5957 10451420
20
Tofacitinib Approved, Investigational Early Phase 1 477600-75-2
21
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Early Phase 1 68-04-2
22
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Early Phase 1 77-92-9 311
23
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Early Phase 1 7440-70-2 271
24 Anti-Asthmatic Agents
25 Respiratory System Agents
26 Hormone Antagonists
27 Betamethasone benzoate
28 Betamethasone Valerate 2152-44-5
29 Betamethasone sodium phosphate
30 glucocorticoids
31 Betamethasone-17,21-dipropionate
32 Hormones
33 Complement System Proteins
34 Protein Kinase Inhibitors Early Phase 1
35 Citrate Early Phase 1
36 Chelating Agents Early Phase 1
37 Anticoagulants Early Phase 1
38 Calcium, Dietary Early Phase 1

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 29)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Efficacy of 595 nm Pulsed-dye Laser as an Adjunctive Treatment of Discoid Lupus Erythematosus, A Randomized, Patient/Assessor Blinded Placebo Control Trial Unknown status NCT03178188 Phase 2, Phase 3
2 Hydroxycloroquin (Plaquenil) Behandling af Gentagne Graviditetstab (Abortus Habitualis) - et Randomiseret, Dobbeltblindet, Placebo Kontrolleret Studium Recruiting NCT03305263 Phase 3 Hydroxychloroquine;Hydroxychloroquine placebo
3 A Phase 2 Open Label Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Etanercept (Enbrel®)for the Treatment of Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Unknown status NCT00797784 Phase 2 etanercept(Enbrel®)
4 A Phase Ib Study of Milatuzumab Administered Subcutaneously in Patients With Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Unknown status NCT01845740 Phase 1, Phase 2 milatuzumab;Placebo
5 A Phase 2, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of R333 6% Ointment Administered Topically to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Patients With Active Cutaneous Discoid Lesions Completed NCT01597050 Phase 2 R932333;Placebo
6 A Phase 2, Pilot, Multicenter, Sequential, Ascending Dose Study to Evaluate the Preliminary Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Efficacy of CC-11050 in Subjects With Discoid Lupus Erythematosus and Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Completed NCT01300208 Phase 2 CC-11050
7 A Pilot Trial of Topical Thalidomide for the Management of Chronic Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Completed NCT00001680 Phase 2 Thalidomide
8 Efficacy and Safety of ASF-1096 Cream 0.5% in the Treatment of Patients With Newly Developed Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) Lesions. An International Multi-Centre Clinical Phase 2, Placebo Controlled and Double Blind Proof of Concept Study Completed NCT00625521 Phase 2 ASF 1096 0.5 % cream applied twice daily;Cream vehicle for ASF 1096 cream applied twice daily
9 Efficacy and Safety of ASF-1096 Cream 0.5% in the Treatment of Patients With Newly Developed Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) Lesions. An International Multi-Centre Clinical Phase 2, Placebo Controlled and Double Blind Proof of Concept Study (2) Completed NCT00625157 Phase 2 ASF 1096 0.5 % cream;ASF 1096 placebo cream
10 Clinical and Immune-modulating Effects of CC-10004 in Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Completed NCT00708916 Phase 1, Phase 2 CC-10004
11 A Single Arm, Phase II Open Label Trial to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Intra-dermal Injection of Etanercept for Remission Induction in Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Completed NCT02656082 Phase 2 Etanercept
12 Efficacy and Safety of Twice-daily Application of Delgocitinib Cream 20 mg/g for 6 Weeks in Subjects With Active Discoid Lupus Erythematosus. Recruiting NCT03958955 Phase 2 Delgocitinib cream;Delgocitinib cream vehicle
13 A 2-Part Phase 2 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of BIIB059 in Subjects With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Active Skin Manifestations and in Subjects With Active Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus With or Without Systemic Manifestations Active, not recruiting NCT02847598 Phase 2 BIIB059;Placebo
14 A Pilot Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Secukinumab in Alleviating Symptoms of Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Not yet recruiting NCT03866317 Phase 2 Secukinumab
15 A Phase 2, Pilot, Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Sequential, Ascending Dose Study to Characterize the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Activity of CC-930 in Subjects With Recalcitrant Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) Terminated NCT01466725 Phase 2 CC-930;Placebo
16 Efficacy and Safety of Oral Alitretinoin (Toctino®) in the Treatment of Patients With Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus: A Multicentre, Open-Label, Prospective Pilot Study Terminated NCT01407679 Phase 2 Alitretinoin
17 Discoid Lupus Erythematosus of the Scalp and a Trial of Biologic Therapy With Raptiva Terminated NCT00308204 Phase 2 Raptiva (efalizumab)
18 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Single Dose, Two-period, Crossover Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Clinical Efficacy of AMG 811 in Subjects With Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Terminated NCT01164917 Phase 1 AMG811;AMG811 Placebo
19 A Phase I, Open-Label, Dose Escalation Trial Exploring the Safety and Tolerability of Autologous Polyclonal Regulatory T Cell Therapy in Adults With Active Cutaneous Lupus (ALE08) Terminated NCT02428309 Phase 1
20 Pimecrolimus 1% Cream vs. Betamethasone Valerate 0.1% Cream in the Treatment of Facial Discoid Lupus Erythematosus: a Double-Blind Randomized, Pilot Study. Completed NCT00608673 Pimecrolimus 1% cream;betamethasone valerate 0.1% cream
21 Expression of Fas Protein in Skin Biopsies of Participants With Scarring Alopecia Completed NCT00691769
22 Cross-Sectional Study in Subjects With Active Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Completed NCT01923415
23 Longitudinal Study of Skin And Systemic Biomarkers In Subjects With Active Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus And In Healthy Volunteers Completed NCT02034344
24 A Pilot Study to Evaluate Using Tape Harvesting to Collect Ribonucleic Acid From the Upper Epidermis of Healthy Volunteers and Subjects With Discoid Lupus, Subjects With Subacute Cutaneous Lupus, and Subjects With Atopic Dermatitis Completed NCT02125695
25 Efficacy and Safety of Belimumab in a Subgroup of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Patients With Higher Disease Activity (Anti-dsDNA Positive and Low Complement): A Pooled Analysis of the HGS1006-C1056 (BLISS-52) and HGS1006-C1057 (BLISS-76) Studies Completed NCT01858792 Belimumab 1 mg/kg;Belimumab 10 mg/kg
26 Open Label Phase 2 Pilot Trial of Oral Tofacitinib in Adult Subjects With Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Recruiting NCT03159936 Early Phase 1
27 Acceptability and Persistence of the Use of a Patient-centred E-health Tool for Lupus Patients Followed in a Specialised Centre in France Not yet recruiting NCT03953690
28 The Role of Trichoscopy in the Preliminary Diagnosis of Immunobollous Diseases Not yet recruiting NCT03478072
29 Evaluation of the Therapeutic Effect and Local Tolerability of Elidel® Cream 1% (Pimecrolimus) in Chronic Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (dLE) or Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (scLE) Withdrawn NCT00222183 Elidel (pimecrolimus)

Search NIH Clinical Center for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Chloroquine
Chloroquine hydrochloride
chloroquine phosphate
Thalidomide

Genetic Tests for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Anatomical Context for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus:

40
Skin, T Cells, Testes, Lung, B Cells, Bone, Liver

Publications for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Articles related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus:

(show top 50) (show all 1433)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Coexistence of five autoimmune diseases: diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. 54 61
18320193 2008
2
Keratin and involucrin expression in discoid lupus erythematosus and lichen planus. 54 61
9341972 1997
3
Long-term results of intralesional interferon alpha-2B in discoid lupus erythematosus. 54 61
8408929 1993
4
Response of discoid and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus to recombinant interferon alpha 2a. 54 61
2258631 1990
5
Recombinant interferon alpha 2a is effective in the treatment of discoid and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. 54 61
2182099 1990
6
Two Unusual Cases of Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Associated With Xanthomatized Macrophages. 61
31464721 2020
7
Basal cell carcinoma arising over lesion of discoid lupus erythematosus: a rare occurrence. 61
31847697 2020
8
Rapid response to treatment with thalidomide in an adolescent with generalized discoid lupus erythematosus. 61
31793060 2020
9
A rare form of discoid lupus erythematosus as a rosacea and angiofibroma: A case report. 61
31998507 2020
10
Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the Management of Lupus Erythematosus Panniculitis. 61
32025447 2020
11
A Case of Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome With Discoid Lupus Erythematosus. 61
31839865 2020
12
Time to progression from discoid lupus erythematosus to systemic lupus erythematosus: a retrospective cohort study. 61
31120600 2020
13
Successful treatment with hydroxychloroquine for systemic lupus erythematosus with cutaneous involvement accompanied by a xanthomatous reaction. 61
31789124 2020
14
Perforation of paper with pen: Simple technique to explain the carpet tack sign in discoid lupus erythematosus. 61
30905795 2019
15
PD-1H (VISTA)-mediated suppression of autoimmunity in systemic and cutaneous lupus erythematosus. 61
31826980 2019
16
Dilation of Multiple Eccrine Ducts as a Highly Specific Marker for Cicatricial Alopecia. 61
31764231 2019
17
Clinic experience in discoid lupus erythematosus: a retrospective study of 132 cases. 61
31998004 2019
18
Clinical recognition and management of alopecia in women of color. 61
31909150 2019
19
Case report of discoid lupus erythematosus in association with electronic cigarette use. 61
31763427 2019
20
Hypertrophic Discoid Lupus Erythematosus of the Vulva Mimicking Lichen Simplex Chronicus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. 61
31725484 2019
21
T-cell polarization differs in various stages of discoid lupus erythematosus skin. 61
31721152 2019
22
Novel diagnostic imaging features of facial lupus panniculitis: ultrasound, CT, and MR imaging with histopathology correlate. 61
31386960 2019
23
Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (discoid lupus) induced by palbociclib. 61
31724158 2019
24
Adult-onset linear discoid lupus erythematosus on the forehead mimicking en coup de sabre: a case report. 61
31771644 2019
25
A secondary discoid lupus erythematosus induced by scald of edible oil: An illustration of Koebner phenomenon. 61
31660688 2019
26
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma as a complication of discoid lupus erythematosus. 61
31562700 2019
27
Practice-based differences in paediatric discoid lupus erythematosus. 61
30768778 2019
28
Paediatric discoid lupus erythematosus: importance of subspecialty collaboration. 61
31407314 2019
29
Hearing loss caused by discoid lupus erythematosus of the ear canal successfully treated with hydroxychloroquine. 61
30932231 2019
30
Evaluation of a Handheld Dermatoscope in Clinical Diagnosis of Primary Cicatricial Alopecias. 61
31190216 2019
31
Disseminated discoid lupus erythematosus mimicking Degos disease. 61
31429927 2019
32
Intravenous immunoglobulin G use in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: An uncommon cause of drug-induced discoid lupus erythematosus. 61
30734274 2019
33
Molecular Profiling of Cutaneous Lupus Lesions Identifies Subgroups Distinct from Clinical Phenotypes. 61
31426521 2019
34
[Immunohistochemical analysis for C3d, C4d, IgG, IgG4, and CD123 in diagnosis of autoimmune skin diseases]. 61
31570674 2019
35
Distinguishing Lipedematous Scalp, Lipedematous Alopecia, and Diffuse Alopecia Areata. 61
31559257 2019
36
Immunological methods for the diagnosis of oral mucosal diseases. 61
30585301 2019
37
Spectrum of cutaneous lupus erythematosus in South Africans with systemic lupus erythematosus. 61
31215844 2019
38
Downregulation of integrin-αvβ6 on keratinocytes in the scar of lichen planopilaris and folliculitis decalvans: Relevance for the disappearance of epidermal Langerhans cells. 61
31166031 2019
39
Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia and Discoid Lupus Erythematosus: More Than a Coincidence. 61
30482575 2019
40
Oral lichen planus: A disease or a spectrum of tissue reactions? Types, causes, diagnostic algorhythms, prognosis, management strategies. 61
31090143 2019
41
Cutaneous lupus associated with pembrolizumab therapy for advanced melanoma: a report of three cases. 61
30762712 2019
42
Clinical characteristics of pediatric cutaneous lupus erythematosus: experience from a tertiary referral center in Korea. 61
31112454 2019
43
[The morbidity of diseases of skin and subcutaneous cellular tissue in population of the Republic of Bashkortostan]. 61
31251857 2019
44
Premature Desquamation of the Inner Root Sheath in Noninflamed Hair Follicles as a Specific Marker for Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia. 61
30562220 2019
45
Familial association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with autoimmune diseases in the population of Sweden. 61
30407269 2019
46
[Systemic Lupus Erythematosus]. 61
30988213 2019
47
Coexistence of Tumid Lupus Erythematosus and Discoid Lupus Erythematosus. 61
30072022 2019
48
Lichen Planus Pigmentosus and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia Mimicking Discoid Lupus Erythematosus. 61
30427589 2019
49
Discoid lupus erythematosus: Reflectance confocal microscopy features correlate with horizontal histopathological sections. 61
30357933 2019
50
CyclinD1 Is Useful to Differentiate Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis From Reactive Langerhans Cells. 61
30124506 2019

Variations for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Expression for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus.

Pathways for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Pathways related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.29 IL10 IFNA2 IFNA1 HLA-DRB1 GZMB
2
Show member pathways
12.01 KRT16 KRT10 IVL FLG
3
Show member pathways
11.91 IL10 IFNA2 IFNA1
4 11.51 IL10 IFNA2 IFNA1 HLA-DRB1
5 11.44 IL10 IFNA2 IFNA1
6 10.91 KRT16 KRT10 IL10 HLA-DRB1
7 10.87 IL10 HLA-DRB1

GO Terms for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Cellular components related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cornified envelope GO:0001533 8.8 KRT10 IVL FLG

Biological processes related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 keratinization GO:0031424 9.69 IVL KRT10 KRT16
2 aging GO:0007568 9.65 ENO3 IL10 KRT16
3 B cell differentiation GO:0030183 9.5 IL10 IFNA2 IFNA1
4 negative regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032689 9.49 HLA-DRB1 IL10
5 establishment of skin barrier GO:0061436 9.46 KRT16 FLG
6 T cell activation involved in immune response GO:0002286 9.43 IFNA2 IFNA1
7 B cell proliferation GO:0042100 9.43 IL10 IFNA2 IFNA1
8 positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0033141 9.4 IFNA2 IFNA1
9 natural killer cell activation involved in immune response GO:0002323 9.37 IFNA2 IFNA1
10 peptide cross-linking GO:0018149 9.33 KRT10 IVL FLG
11 cornification GO:0070268 9.26 KRT16 KRT10 IVL FLG
12 keratinocyte differentiation GO:0030216 8.92 KRT16 KRT10 IVL FLG

Molecular functions related to Discoid Lupus Erythematosus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 structural molecule activity GO:0005198 9.33 KRT16 KRT10 FLG
2 cytokine receptor binding GO:0005126 9.26 IFNA2 IFNA1
3 type I interferon receptor binding GO:0005132 8.96 IFNA2 IFNA1
4 structural constituent of epidermis GO:0030280 8.62 KRT10 FLG

Sources for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

3 CDC
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10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
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30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
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43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
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63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
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70 Tocris
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72 UMLS via Orphanet
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