MCID: DRG003
MIFTS: 46

Drug Dependence

Categories: Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Drug Dependence

MalaCards integrated aliases for Drug Dependence:

Name: Drug Dependence 12 54 15 17 70

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9974
ICD9CM 34 304.60
SNOMED-CT 67 191860009
UMLS 70 C0029792 C1510472

Summaries for Drug Dependence

Disease Ontology : 12 A substance dependence that involves the continued use of drugs despite problems related to use of the substance.

MalaCards based summary : Drug Dependence is related to barbiturate dependence and polysubstance abuse. An important gene associated with Drug Dependence is OPRM1 (Opioid Receptor Mu 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. The drugs Ketamine and Lidocaine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include cortex, prefrontal cortex and amygdala, and related phenotypes are Decreased viability and Decreased viability

Related Diseases for Drug Dependence

Diseases related to Drug Dependence via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 168)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 barbiturate dependence 32.2 SLC6A4 OPRM1
2 polysubstance abuse 32.1 DRD3 DRD2 CNR1
3 cannabis dependence 32.0 PENK GABRA2 CNR1
4 hallucinogen dependence 31.7 TTC12 GABRA2 DRD2 CNR1 ANKK1
5 chronic pain 30.9 PNOC OPRM1 CNR1
6 conduct disorder 30.8 SLC6A4 POMC GABRA2 DRD2
7 opiate dependence 30.6 SLC6A4 POMC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
8 cocaine abuse 30.6 SLC6A4 OPRK1 DRD2
9 mental depression 30.5 SLC6A4 POMC DRD2 CRH
10 personality disorder 30.5 SLC6A4 DRD3 DRD2 CRH ANKK1
11 cocaine dependence 30.5 SLC6A4 POMC PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
12 opioid addiction 30.5 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2
13 social phobia 30.4 SLC6A4 DRD2 CRH
14 acute stress disorder 30.3 SLC6A4 POMC CRH
15 borderline personality disorder 30.3 SLC6A4 DRD2 CRH
16 morphine dependence 30.3 PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CRH
17 withdrawal disorder 30.3 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1
18 substance dependence 30.2 SLC6A4 POMC PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
19 antisocial personality disorder 30.2 SLC6A4 GABRA2 DRD2 CHRM2 ANKK1 ADH1B
20 post-traumatic stress disorder 30.2 SLC6A4 POMC DRD2 CRH CNR1
21 sleep disorder 30.2 SLC6A4 POMC PDYN CRH
22 cannabis abuse 30.1 GABRA2 DRD2 CNR1 ANKK1
23 somatoform disorder 30.1 SLC6A4 OPRM1 CRH
24 endogenous depression 30.0 SLC6A4 POMC DRD2 CRH
25 migraine without aura 30.0 SLC6A4 DRD3 DRD2
26 opioid abuse 29.9 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
27 mood disorder 29.9 SLC6A4 POMC DRD3 DRD2 CRH CNR1
28 substance abuse 29.9 SLC6A4 POMC PDYN OPRM1 GABRA2 DRD3
29 anorexia nervosa 29.8 SLC6A4 POMC CRH CNR1
30 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 29.8 SLC6A4 OPRM1 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1 ANKK1
31 constipation 29.7 SLC6A4 PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 CNR1
32 oppositional defiant disorder 29.7 SLC6A4 GABRA2 DRD2 DRD1 ANKK1
33 alcohol use disorder 29.7 SLC6A4 OPRM1 GABRA2 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
34 heroin dependence 29.5 TTC12 SLC6A4 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1 DRD2
35 panic disorder 29.4 SLC6A4 POMC DRD3 DRD2 DRD1 CRH
36 psychotic disorder 29.4 SLC6A4 PDYN OPRM1 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
37 anxiety 29.3 SLC6A4 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
38 obsessive-compulsive disorder 29.3 SLC6A4 POMC PDYN DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
39 pain agnosia 29.1 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
40 migraine with or without aura 1 29.1 SLC6A4 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1 DRD3
41 tobacco addiction 29.1 TTC12 SLC6A4 PDYN OPRM1 GABRA2 DRD3
42 alcohol dependence 28.8 TTC12 SLC6A4 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1
43 schizophrenia 28.6 SLC6A4 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1 GABRA2
44 disease of mental health 27.2 TTC12 SLC6A4 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN
45 prolactin producing pituitary tumor 10.4 POMC DRD2
46 barbiturate abuse 10.4 POMC OPRM1
47 premenstrual tension 10.4 POMC ANKK1
48 alcohol-induced mental disorder 10.4 SLC6A4 DRD2
49 taqi polymorphism 10.4 DRD2 ANKK1
50 ectopic cushing syndrome 10.4 POMC CRH

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Drug Dependence:



Diseases related to Drug Dependence

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Drug Dependence

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00173-A 9.55 ANKK1
2 Decreased viability GR00221-A-1 9.55 GABRA2
3 Decreased viability GR00221-A-2 9.55 ANKK1 GABRA2
4 Decreased viability GR00221-A-4 9.55 ANKK1 GABRA2
5 Decreased viability GR00249-S 9.55 OPRK1 OPRL1 SLC6A4
6 Decreased viability GR00381-A-1 9.55 SLC6A4
7 Decreased viability GR00381-A-3 9.55 SLC6A4
8 Decreased viability GR00386-A-1 9.55 CHRM2 DRD1 OPRL1 POMC
9 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 9.55 OPRK1 OPRM1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Drug Dependence:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.33 CHRM2 CHRNB3 CNR1 CRH DRD1 DRD2
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.2 CHRM2 CNR1 CRH DRD1 DRD2 DRD3
3 integument MP:0010771 10.13 CHRM2 CNR1 CRH DRD1 DRD2 GABRA2
4 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.09 CNR1 CRH DRD1 DRD2 DRD3 OPRM1
5 nervous system MP:0003631 10 CHRM2 CNR1 CRH DRD1 DRD2 DRD3
6 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.97 CNR1 DRD1 DRD2 DRD3 OPRK1 OPRM1
7 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.61 CNR1 CRH DRD2 GABRA2 OPRD1 OPRM1
8 normal MP:0002873 9.23 CNR1 CRH DRD1 DRD2 OPRL1 OPRM1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Drug Dependence

Drugs for Drug Dependence (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 100)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 6740-88-1 3821
2
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
3
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
4
Diazepam Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 439-14-5 3016
5
Cocaine Approved, Illicit Phase 4 50-36-2 446220 5760
6
Methadone Approved Phase 4 76-99-3 4095
7
Oxytocin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-56-6 53477758 439302
8 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4
9 Anesthetics, Dissociative Phase 4
10 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
11 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4
12 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
13 Anesthetics Phase 4
14 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
15 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
16 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4
17 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
18 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4
19 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
20 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
21 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
22 Antiemetics Phase 4
23 GABA Modulators Phase 4
24 Opiate Alkaloids Phase 4
25
Heroin Phase 4 5462328
26
Clonidine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 4205-90-7 2803
27
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 50-02-2 5743
28
Succinylcholine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 306-40-1 5314
29
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 103-90-2 1983
30
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 1177-87-3
31
Ketorolac Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
32
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 28523-86-6 5206
33
Ondansetron Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 99614-02-5 4595
34
Rocuronium Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 119302-91-9, 143558-00-3 441290
35 calcium channel blockers Phase 2, Phase 3
36 Calcium, Dietary Phase 2, Phase 3
37 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 2, Phase 3
38 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
39 Adrenergic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
40 Sympatholytics Phase 2, Phase 3
41 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 2, Phase 3
42 Detox adjuvant Phase 2, Phase 3
43 Anesthetics, Inhalation Phase 2, Phase 3
44 BB 1101 Phase 2, Phase 3
45
Calcium Nutraceutical Phase 2, Phase 3 7440-70-2 271
46
Dopamine Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 62-31-7, 51-61-6 681
47
Nicotine Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 54-11-5 942 89594
48
Zonisamide Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 68291-97-4 5734
49
Topiramate Approved Phase 2 97240-79-4 5284627
50
Capecitabine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 154361-50-9 60953

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 57)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Intravenous Lidocaine for Perioperative and Postoperative Analgesia Unknown status NCT03921567 Phase 4 Lidocaine Hydrochloride;Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Ketamine;Placebo
2 Health Services Research: Extended Release Naltrexone for Opioid-Dependent Youth Completed NCT01843023 Phase 4 Extended Release Naltrexone;Buprenorphine
3 A PHASE 4, RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE-BLIND, DOUBLE-DUMMY, PLACEBO AND ACTIVE-CONTROLLED, SINGLE-DOSE, FIVE-WAY CROSSOVER STUDY EVALUATING THE ABUSE POTENTIAL OF THREE DOSES OF NEURONTIN(REGISTERED) TAKEN ORALLY IN HEALTHY, NON-DRUG DEPENDENT PARTICIPANTS WITH SEDATIVE DRUG ABUSE EXPERIENCE Not yet recruiting NCT04570436 Phase 4 gabapentin 600 mg;gabapentin 1200 mg;gabapentin 1800 mg;diazepam 20 mg
4 A Randomized Controlled Trial Testing Buprenorphine as a Treatment in Opiate Dependent Pain Patients Terminated NCT00552578 Phase 4 buprenorphine/naloxone;buprenorphine/naloxone
5 Oxytocin and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Drug Dependence Terminated NCT00975416 Phase 4 Intranasal Oxytocin;Placebo
6 A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Buprenorphine/Naloxone With Naltrexone for Treatment in Opioid Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults Withdrawn NCT01015066 Phase 4 Buprenorphine/naloxone;Naltrexone
7 Job Seekers Training for Patients With Drug Dependence Completed NCT00102362 Phase 3
8 Recovery Housing For Drug Dependent Pregnant Women Completed NCT00497302 Phase 2, Phase 3
9 Improving Treatment Outcomes for Prescription Opioid Dependence Recruiting NCT02543944 Phase 2, Phase 3 Gabapentin;Buprenorphine;Clonidine;Naltrexone (oral);Naltrexone (depot);Placebo
10 Effect of Intraoperative and Post-operative Opioids on Persistent Opioid Use in the Surgical Patient Recruiting NCT03367988 Phase 2, Phase 3 Opioid Anesthesia;Opioid-free Anesthesia
11 Youth Drug Abuse Family and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Completed NCT00198874 Phase 2
12 Effect of Zonisamide on Cocaine Reinforcement, Craving, and Relapse Completed NCT01137890 Phase 1, Phase 2 Zonisamide;Placebo;Cocaine Hydrochloride
13 Clinical Trial of Topiramate for Cocaine Addiction Completed NCT00685178 Phase 2 topiramate;placebo + NonCR
14 Effectiveness of Extended Treatment for Drug Dependence - City Supplement Completed NCT01153464 Phase 2
15 Social Cognition,Attentional Network and Nicotine Drug Dependency - A Pharmacological Clinical Trail Completed NCT00618280 Phase 1, Phase 2 nicotine nasal spray
16 A Phase 2 Open-Label Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Telatinib in Combination With Chemotherapy as First-Line Therapy in Subjects With Advanced Gastric Cancer Completed NCT00952497 Phase 2 Cisplatin, Capecitabine, Telatinib
17 Preliminar Efficacy and Safety of Ibogaine in the Treatment of Methadone Recruiting NCT04003948 Phase 2 Ibogaine Hydrochloride
18 Psilocybin-facilitated Treatment for Cocaine Use: A Pilot Study Recruiting NCT02037126 Phase 2 Psilocybin;Diphenhydramine
19 Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of the Efficacy of D-Cycloserine for Enhancing the Effects of CBT for Substance Use Terminated NCT00430573 Phase 2 D-cycloserine;Placebo
20 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment for Opioid Dependence-Experiment II-1 Withdrawn NCT00000329 Phase 2 Opioid-Related Disorders
21 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment for Opioid Dependence-Experiment I(2) Withdrawn NCT00000327 Phase 2 Heroin Dependence
22 Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment for Opioid Dependence-Experiment III Withdrawn NCT00000328 Phase 2 Opioid-Related Disorders
23 Drug Discrimination in Methadone-Maintained Humans Study 3 Completed NCT01068847 Phase 1 2-4 of the drugs listed below
24 Drug Discrimination in Methadone-Maintained Humans Study 1 Completed NCT00593463 Phase 1 Cycloserine;Diltiazem;Gabapentin;Isradipine;Naloxone;Nifedipine;Placebo;Verapamil
25 Cognitive Therapy for Suicide Attempters With Drug Dependence Disorder Completed NCT00218725 Phase 1
26 Reducing Drug Use and HIV Risk in Drug-dependent Adults Arrested for Prostitution Completed NCT01560221 Phase 1 Methadone;Buprenorphine
27 TRIO Bladder: A Phase Ib Study of Durvalumab (MEDI 4736) Plus Tremelimumab Followed by Concurrent Durvalumab Plus Bladder Radiation, Based on Molecular Subtypes in Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Withdrawn NCT04073160 Phase 1 Tremelimumab;Durvalumab;Intravesicular Therapy
28 Clinician-patient Interaction During Addiction Consultation and Drug Overdose Risk Unknown status NCT01769651
29 Optimizing Outcomes Using Suboxone for Opiate Dependence Completed NCT00591617
30 Factors Associated With Treatment Adherence in Substance Users Completed NCT02930577
31 Treatment of Intimate Partner Violence and Substance Abuse in a Substance Abuse: a Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT00847873
32 Impact of Exercise and Affirmations (IntenSati) on Addiction-related Cognitive and Psychosocial Deficits Completed NCT01171677
33 Intensive Outpatient v. Outpatient Treatment With Buprenorphine Among African Americans Completed NCT01096550
34 Automatic Versus Evaluative Components of Cue Reactivity Completed NCT01036126
35 Brain Activation in Response to Motivational and Affective Stimuli: Pharmacological Manipulations Completed NCT00047866
36 Behavioral Economics of Human Drug Self-Administration Completed NCT00005765 nicotine;alcohol
37 The Effect of Fetal Gender on Maternal Substance Abuse Treatment Completed NCT00882648
38 Enhancing the Role of Commune Health Workers in HIV and Drug Control: A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT02130921
39 Automated Recovery Line for Medication Assisted Treatment Completed NCT02124980
40 Evaluation of the Effects of a Drug With Fiscalized Substances Dispensation, Health Education and Pharmacovigilance Continuing Education Program in Community Pharmacies: Study Protocol for a Multicenter, Cluster-randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT03388567
41 Behavioral Treatment Development for Co-occurring Opioid Dependence and Anxiety Disorders Completed NCT02252068
42 Stress, Distress Intolerance, and Drug Dependence Completed NCT00430482
43 Influence of Nicotine on Cognitive Function in Schizophrenic Patients With and Without Comorbid Drug Dependence Completed NCT01037075
44 Effectiveness of Extended Treatments for Drug Dependence Completed NCT00685659
45 Evaluation of Transfer From Subutex or Other Treatment for Opioid Drug Dependence to Suboxone: Acceptability, Safety and Impact on Medication Dispensing Completed NCT00725608 buprenorphine/naloxone
46 Risk Perception in Drug-Dependent Adults With and Without Schizophrenia Completed NCT01031563
47 Compulsory Treatment of Alcohol and Drug Dependent Patients and Dual Diagnosis in 5 Counties of Health Region South-East, Norway Completed NCT00970372
48 Driving Ability of Drug Dependant Patients in Maintenance Therapy Completed NCT01150435
49 Validation of a New Method to Detect CYP2D6 Poor Metabolizers by Monitoring Seric Concentrations of O-demethyl-tramadol and Tramadol to Make a Ratio in Comparison With Genotyping in Post-operative Patients Treated With Intravenous Tramadol Completed NCT00952159
50 The Use of Chemsex (Drug Use in a Sexual Context) Among MSM (Men Who Have Sex With Men) and Transgender People in France, Whether or Not Taking PrEP, and Its Impact on PrEP Adherence Recruiting NCT04709016

Search NIH Clinical Center for Drug Dependence

Genetic Tests for Drug Dependence

Anatomical Context for Drug Dependence

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Drug Dependence:

40
Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Amygdala, Brain, Spinal Cord, Heart, Hypothalamus

Publications for Drug Dependence

Articles related to Drug Dependence:

(show top 50) (show all 3864)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Association of a variant in the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 2 gene (CHRM2) with nicotine addiction. 61 54
19644963 2010
2
The dietary polyphenols trans-resveratrol and curcumin selectively bind human CB1 cannabinoid receptors with nanomolar affinities and function as antagonists/inverse agonists. 54 61
19359525 2009
3
Peptide kappa opioid receptor ligands: potential for drug development. 61 54
19430912 2009
4
Interaction between two independent CNR1 variants increases risk for cocaine dependence in European Americans: a replication study in family-based sample and population-based sample. 61 54
19052543 2009
5
Haplotypic variants in DRD2, ANKK1, TTC12, and NCAM1 are associated with comorbid alcohol and drug dependence. 61 54
18828801 2008
6
A role for brain stress systems in addiction. 54 61
18614026 2008
7
Association analysis of genes encoding the nociceptin receptor (OPRL1) and its endogenous ligand (PNOC) with alcohol or illicit drug dependence. 54 61
17910740 2008
8
The opioid system in alcohol and drug dependence: family-based association study. 61 54
17503481 2007
9
Alcohol dependence with comorbid drug dependence: genetic and phenotypic associations suggest a more severe form of the disorder with stronger genetic contribution to risk. 61 54
17567401 2007
10
Dopamine D3 receptor ligands for the treatment of tobacco dependence. 61 54
17155853 2007
11
11C-JHU75528: a radiotracer for PET imaging of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. 54 61
17015906 2006
12
[How do self-help agencies work for recovery of drug dependence in Japan?]. 61 54
17037343 2006
13
Association between two mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) haplotype blocks and drug or alcohol dependence. 61 54
16476706 2006
14
The dopamine D3 receptor and drug dependence: effects on reward or beyond? 61 54
15963538 2005
15
Allelic association of a dopamine transporter gene polymorphism with antisocial behaviour in heroin-dependent patients. 61 54
16109590 2005
16
CHRM2 gene predisposes to alcohol dependence, drug dependence and affective disorders: results from an extended case-control structured association study. 61 54
16000316 2005
17
How individual sensitivity to opiates can be predicted by gene analyses. 61 54
15925706 2005
18
Possible pharmacotherapy of the opioid kappa receptor agonist for drug dependence. 61 54
15542743 2004
19
Analysis of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) promoter polymorphism in male heroin-dependent subjects: behavioural and personality correlates. 61 54
15088154 2004
20
[A study on effectiveness of recovery from drug dependence by participates with "DARC"]. 61 54
15160890 2004
21
Temporal upregulation of prodynorphin mRNA in the primate striatum after cocaine self-administration. 54 61
12786988 2003
22
Association study of cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) alleles and drug dependence. 61 54
11526463 2001
23
Family-based study of DRD2 alleles in alcohol and drug dependence. 61 54
11054774 2000
24
[A study of recovery factor about drug addiction recovery center "DARC"]. 54 61
11019561 2000
25
Association of alcohol or other drug dependence with alleles of the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1). 61 54
9756053 1998
26
Genetically driven variation in serotonin uptake: is there a link to affective spectrum, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disorders? 61 54
9693390 1998
27
Homozygosity at the dopamine D3 receptor gene is associated with opiate dependence. 54 61
9702742 1998
28
Enhanced stimulatory adenylyl cyclase signaling during opioid dependence is associated with a reduction in palmitoylated Gs alpha. 61 54
9415709 1997
29
Mu opioid receptor gene variants: lack of association with alcohol dependence. 61 54
9399694 1997
30
The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene: a genetic risk factor in smoking. 54 61
8845863 1996
31
Association and linkage studies of the TAQI A1 allele at the dopamine D2 receptor gene in samples of female and male alcoholics. 61 54
7485259 1995
32
Differential psychopathological profile of male intimate partner violence perpetrators depending on Problematic alcohol use. 61
33714033 2021
33
Fragility of reward vs antifragility of defense brain systems in drug dependence. 61
33529536 2021
34
Exploring allele specific methylation in drug dependence susceptibility. 61
32917399 2021
35
Assessing oral health of crack users in Brazil: Perceptions and associated factors, findings from a mixed methods study. 61
32912074 2021
36
Mechanism for differential recruitment of orbitostriatal transmission during actions and outcomes following chronic alcohol exposure. 61
33729155 2021
37
The role of HINT1 protein in morphine addiction: An animal model-based study. 61
32171181 2021
38
Prescribing Pattern of Hypnotic Medications in Patients Initiating Treatment at Japanese Hospitals: A Nationwide, Retrospective, Longitudinal, Observational Study Using a Claims Database. 61
33713330 2021
39
The 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor agonists DOI and 25CN-NBOH decrease marble burying and reverse 8-OH-DPAT-induced deficit in spontaneous alternation. 61
31693871 2021
40
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) produce anti-anxiety response in acute stress exposure rats via activation of amygdala CB1R. 61
33279640 2021
41
[Thirty years of nefopam abuse in France]. 61
33618914 2021
42
Behavioral Health Care Quality Among Marketplace Insurers in 2019. 61
33334154 2021
43
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Salvinorin A and Salvia divinorum: Clinical and Forensic Aspects. 61
33546518 2021
44
Geographically based risk assessment of sleep disorders and disease states impacting medical readiness across active duty army installations from military medical databases in fiscal year 2017. 61
33020028 2021
45
High hepatitis C treatment uptake among people with recent drug dependence in New South Wales, Australia. 61
32931879 2021
46
Oxytocin prevents cue-induced reinstatement of oxycodone seeking: Involvement of DNA methylation in the hippocampus. 61
33609013 2021
47
Augmentation in Healthcare Utilization of Patients with Opioid Use Disorder After Methadone Maintenance Treatment: A Retrospective Nationwide Study. 61
33559050 2021
48
Quality of life as a predictor of time to heroin relapse among male residents following release from compulsory rehabilitation centres in Vietnam. 61
32985029 2021
49
Microglia depletion by PLX3397 has no effect on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in male mice. 61
33639199 2021
50
Priorities and practices of risk reduction among gay and bisexual men in Australia who use crystal methamphetamine for sex. 61
33601217 2021

Variations for Drug Dependence

Expression for Drug Dependence

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Drug Dependence.

Pathways for Drug Dependence

Pathways related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.86 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
2
Show member pathways
12.81 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
3
Show member pathways
12.33 OPRM1 GABRA2 DRD1 CNR1
4 12.07 POMC DRD2 DRD1 CHRM2
6
Show member pathways
11.74 PDYN DRD2 DRD1
7 11.71 POMC OPRM1 OPRD1
8
Show member pathways
11.71 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1 CHRM2
9 11.64 DRD3 CNR1 CHRM2
10 10.73 POMC DRD2 ANKK1
11
Show member pathways
10.62 SLC6A4 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
12 10.25 POMC CRH

GO Terms for Drug Dependence

Cellular components related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 19)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.34 SLC6A4 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
2 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 10.1 SLC6A4 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 GABRA2
3 cell junction GO:0030054 10.06 SLC6A4 GABRA2 DRD1 CNR1 CHRNB3 CHRM2
4 neuron projection GO:0043005 10 SLC6A4 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 GABRA2
5 axon GO:0030424 9.96 PENK OPRM1 GABRA2 DRD2 CNR1
6 neuronal cell body GO:0043025 9.95 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRK1 GABRA2 CRH
7 synapse GO:0045202 9.93 SLC6A4 PNOC PDYN OPRK1 GABRA2 DRD3
8 dendrite GO:0030425 9.91 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 GABRA2
9 membrane raft GO:0045121 9.88 SLC6A4 OPRM1 OPRD1 CNR1
10 perikaryon GO:0043204 9.88 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2 CRH
11 postsynaptic membrane GO:0045211 9.87 OPRD1 GABRA2 CHRNB3 CHRM2
12 GABA-ergic synapse GO:0098982 9.8 GABRA2 DRD3 DRD2 CNR1
13 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.77 SLC6A4 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2 CHRM2
14 integral component of synaptic vesicle membrane GO:0030285 9.7 OPRK1 OPRD1 GABRA2
15 dendrite membrane GO:0032590 9.69 OPRM1 OPRD1 GABRA2
16 symmetric synapse GO:0032280 9.55 PENK CHRM2
17 spine apparatus GO:0097444 9.54 OPRM1 OPRD1
18 axon terminus GO:0043679 9.5 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2
19 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.17 SLC6A4 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2 CNR1

Biological processes related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 63)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.2 POMC PNOC PENK OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1
2 response to drug GO:0042493 10.06 SLC6A4 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1 CRH
3 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 10.03 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRK1 GABRA2 CRH
4 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.95 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD3 DRD2 CRH
5 locomotory behavior GO:0007626 9.94 PENK OPRK1 DRD3 DRD2
6 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007193 9.91 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
7 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 9.91 OPRM1 OPRD1 DRD1 CNR1 CHRM2
8 response to estradiol GO:0032355 9.9 SLC6A4 PENK OPRL1
9 response to toxic substance GO:0009636 9.89 SLC6A4 PENK DRD2
10 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.89 PENK OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 CNR1
11 learning or memory GO:0007611 9.88 DRD3 CRH CNR1
12 regulation of sensory perception of pain GO:0051930 9.88 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
13 phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007200 9.87 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
14 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 9.87 OPRM1 DRD2 CHRNB3
15 adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007188 9.87 DRD2 CNR1 CHRM2
16 response to nicotine GO:0035094 9.87 PENK DRD2 CNR1 CHRNB3
17 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration involved in phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled signaling pathway GO:0051482 9.86 OPRL1 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
18 visual learning GO:0008542 9.85 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
19 response to cocaine GO:0042220 9.85 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD3 DRD2 CRH CNR1
20 negative regulation of blood pressure GO:0045776 9.84 OPRL1 DRD3 DRD2 CNR1
21 eating behavior GO:0042755 9.83 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
22 response to radiation GO:0009314 9.82 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1
23 adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway GO:0071880 9.81 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
24 estrous cycle GO:0044849 9.8 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1
25 dopamine metabolic process GO:0042417 9.8 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
26 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 9.8 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
27 negative regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0051481 9.79 OPRM1 DRD3 DRD2
28 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.79 OPRK1 DRD3 DRD2
29 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic GO:0001963 9.78 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1 CRH
30 prepulse inhibition GO:0060134 9.77 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
31 negative regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity GO:1901386 9.77 OPRL1 DRD3 DRD2
32 phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0060158 9.76 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
33 opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0038003 9.76 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
34 neuropeptide signaling pathway GO:0007218 9.76 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
35 dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007212 9.73 DRD2 DRD1
36 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity GO:0007194 9.73 DRD3 DRD2
37 negative regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling GO:0043951 9.73 OPRM1 OPRL1
38 positive regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling GO:0043950 9.73 OPRM1 CRH
39 response to morphine GO:0043278 9.73 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD3 DRD2 CNR1
40 behavior GO:0007610 9.72 OPRL1 OPRK1
41 positive regulation of renal sodium excretion GO:0035815 9.72 DRD3 DRD2
42 positive regulation of urine volume GO:0035810 9.72 OPRL1 DRD2
43 regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic GO:0032228 9.72 DRD2 CNR1
44 G protein-coupled receptor internalization GO:0002031 9.72 DRD3 DRD2
45 regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051584 9.72 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
46 startle response GO:0001964 9.71 PENK DRD2
47 negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic GO:0051967 9.71 DRD3 DRD2
48 adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007191 9.71 DRD3 DRD1
49 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.71 OPRM1 DRD2
50 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007197 9.7 OPRM1 CHRM2

Molecular functions related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled receptor activity GO:0004930 9.97 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD3 DRD2
2 peptide binding GO:0042277 9.71 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
3 neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0030594 9.69 GABRA2 CHRNB3 CHRM2
4 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 9.61 PNOC PENK CRH
5 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0004952 9.54 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
6 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.49 DRD2 DRD1
7 receptor serine/threonine kinase binding GO:0033612 9.48 OPRK1 OPRD1
8 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go GO:0001591 9.46 DRD3 DRD2
9 opioid receptor binding GO:0031628 9.43 PNOC PENK PDYN
10 opioid peptide activity GO:0001515 9.33 PNOC PENK PDYN
11 neuropeptide binding GO:0042923 9.26 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
12 opioid receptor activity GO:0004985 8.92 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1

Sources for Drug Dependence

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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