MCID: DRG003
MIFTS: 47

Drug Dependence

Categories: Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Drug Dependence

MalaCards integrated aliases for Drug Dependence:

Name: Drug Dependence 12 54 15 17 71

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9974
ICD9CM 34 304.60
UMLS 71 C0029792 C1510472

Summaries for Drug Dependence

Disease Ontology : 12 A substance dependence that involves the continued use of drugs despite problems related to use of the substance.

MalaCards based summary : Drug Dependence is related to polysubstance abuse and hallucinogen dependence. An important gene associated with Drug Dependence is OPRM1 (Opioid Receptor Mu 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. The drugs Aripiprazole and Cocaine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, brain and cortex, and related phenotypes are Decreased viability and Decreased viability

Related Diseases for Drug Dependence

Diseases related to Drug Dependence via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 254)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 polysubstance abuse 33.2 DRD3 DRD2 CNR1
2 hallucinogen dependence 32.3 GABRA2 DRD2 CNR1 ANKK1
3 cannabis dependence 32.2 PENK GABRA2 DRD2 CNR1
4 barbiturate dependence 31.8 SLC6A4 OPRM1
5 opioid addiction 30.5 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2
6 acute stress disorder 30.5 SLC6A4 POMC CRH
7 cocaine dependence 30.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1
8 cannabis abuse 30.3 OPRM1 DRD2 CNR1
9 conduct disorder 30.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC GABRA2 DRD2
10 neonatal abstinence syndrome 30.2 PNOC PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
11 phobic disorder 30.1 SLC6A4 POMC DRD2 CRH
12 post-traumatic stress disorder 30.1 SLC6A4 POMC DRD2 CRH CNR1
13 personality disorder 30.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2 CRH ANKK1
14 generalized anxiety disorder 30.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 DRD2
15 opiate dependence 30.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC PENK PDYN OPRM1
16 morphine dependence 29.9 PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
17 endogenous depression 29.9 SLC6A4 POMC CRH
18 antisocial personality disorder 29.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 GABRA2 DRD2 CHRM2 ANKK1
19 sexual disorder 29.9 SLC6A4 POMC DRD3 DRD2
20 somatoform disorder 29.9 SLC6A4 OPRM1 OPRL1 CRH
21 borderline personality disorder 29.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 DRD2 CRH
22 sleep disorder 29.8 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC DRD2
23 migraine without aura 29.8 SLC6A4 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
24 anorexia nervosa 29.7 SLC6A4 POMC CRH CNR1
25 substance dependence 29.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
26 oppositional defiant disorder 29.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 DRD2
27 cocaine abuse 29.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRK1 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
28 alcohol use disorder 29.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 GABRA2 DRD3 DRD2
29 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 29.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
30 mental depression 29.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
31 mood disorder 29.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
32 constipation 29.4 SLC6A4 PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
33 withdrawal disorder 29.4 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
34 pain agnosia 29.3 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
35 opioid abuse 29.2 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1
36 panic disorder 29.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
37 psychotic disorder 29.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 DRD3 DRD2
38 substance abuse 29.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
39 obsessive-compulsive disorder 29.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN DRD3 DRD2
40 heroin dependence 28.9 TTC12 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1
41 anxiety 28.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1
42 eating disorder 28.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC OPRM1 DRD3 DRD2
43 tobacco addiction 28.5 TTC12 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 GABRA2
44 bipolar disorder 28.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PDYN GABRA2 DRD3 DRD2
45 disease of mental health 28.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
46 alcohol dependence 28.2 TTC12 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PDYN
47 schizophrenia 28.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 GABRA2
48 migraine with or without aura 1 28.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1
49 malaria 10.8
50 prolactin producing pituitary tumor 10.5 POMC DRD2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Drug Dependence:



Diseases related to Drug Dependence

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Drug Dependence

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00173-A 9.55 ANKK1
2 Decreased viability GR00221-A-1 9.55 GABRA2
3 Decreased viability GR00221-A-2 9.55 ANKK1 GABRA2
4 Decreased viability GR00221-A-4 9.55 ANKK1 GABRA2
5 Decreased viability GR00249-S 9.55 OPRK1 OPRL1 SLC6A4
6 Decreased viability GR00381-A-1 9.55 SLC6A4
7 Decreased viability GR00381-A-3 9.55 SLC6A4
8 Decreased viability GR00386-A-1 9.55 CHRM2 DRD1 OPRL1 POMC
9 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 9.55 OPRK1 OPRM1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Drug Dependence:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.39 CHRM2 CHRNB3 CNR1 CRH DRD1 DRD2
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.22 CHRM2 CNR1 CRH DRD1 DRD2 DRD3
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.18 CHRM2 CNR1 CRH DRD1 DRD2 DRD3
4 integument MP:0010771 10.16 CHRM2 CNR1 CRH DRD1 DRD2 GABRA2
5 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.11 CNR1 CRH DRD1 DRD2 DRD3 GABRA2
6 nervous system MP:0003631 10.03 CHRM2 CNR1 CRH DRD1 DRD2 DRD3
7 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.01 CNR1 DRD1 DRD2 DRD3 OPRK1 OPRM1
8 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.61 CNR1 CRH DRD2 GABRA2 OPRD1 OPRM1
9 normal MP:0002873 9.28 CNR1 CRH DRD1 DRD2 OPRL1 OPRM1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Drug Dependence

Drugs for Drug Dependence (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 165)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
2
Cocaine Approved, Illicit Phase 4 50-36-2 446220 5760
3
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 6740-88-1 3821
4
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
5
Methadone Approved Phase 4 76-99-3 4095
6
Oxytocin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-56-6 53477758 439302
7 Serotonin Receptor Agonists Phase 4
8 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4
9 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
10 Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
11 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
12 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
13 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4
14 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4
15 Anesthetics Phase 4
16 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
17 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4
18 Anesthetics, Dissociative Phase 4
19 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
20 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
21 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4
22 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
23 Opiate Alkaloids Phase 4
24
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-67-9 5202
25
Biperiden Approved, Investigational Phase 3 514-65-8 2381
26
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 437-38-7 3345
27
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 60142-96-3 3446
28
Ketorolac Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 66635-83-4, 74103-06-3 3826
29
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 2078-54-8 4943
30
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 103-90-2 1983
31
Rocuronium Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 119302-91-9, 143558-00-3 441290
32
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 1177-87-3
33
Ondansetron Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 99614-02-5 4595
34
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 50-02-2 5743
35
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 28523-86-6 5206
36
Succinylcholine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 306-40-1 5314
37
Clonidine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 4205-90-7 2803
38 Parasympatholytics Phase 3
39 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 3
40 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 3
41 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 3
42 Biperiden lactate Phase 3
43
Heroin Phase 3 5462328
44 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 2, Phase 3
45 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 2, Phase 3
46 Adrenergic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
47 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 2, Phase 3
48 Anticonvulsants Phase 2, Phase 3
49 Calcium, Dietary Phase 2, Phase 3
50 calcium channel blockers Phase 2, Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 141)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 An Evaluation of Innovative Methods for Integrating Buprenorphine Opioid Treatment in HIV Primary Care Settings Unknown status NCT00124358 Phase 4 Buprenorphine
2 Integration of Buprenorphine Into HIV Clinical Settings - Primary Care Model (PCM) Completed NCT00798538 Phase 4
3 Health Services Research: Extended Release Naltrexone for Opioid-Dependent Youth Completed NCT01843023 Phase 4 Extended Release Naltrexone;Buprenorphine
4 Aripiprazole (Abilify) Therapy for Reducing Comorbid Substance Abuse Completed NCT00208169 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
5 On-Site Addiction Treatment With Buprenorphine in HIV Clinical Care Settings Completed NCT00317460 Phase 4
6 Intravenous Lidocaine for Perioperative and Postoperative Analgesia Recruiting NCT03921567 Phase 4 Lidocaine Hydrochloride;Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Ketamine;Placebo
7 Neuroplasticity Following Theta-Burst Stimulation in Cocaine Use Disorder Recruiting NCT02927236 Phase 4
8 Oxytocin and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Drug Dependence Terminated NCT00975416 Phase 4 Intranasal Oxytocin;Placebo
9 A Randomized Controlled Trial Testing Buprenorphine as a Treatment in Opiate Dependent Pain Patients Terminated NCT00552578 Phase 4 buprenorphine/naloxone;buprenorphine/naloxone
10 A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Buprenorphine/Naloxone With Naltrexone for Treatment in Opioid Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults Withdrawn NCT01015066 Phase 4 Buprenorphine/naloxone;Naltrexone
11 Cocaine/Crack Dependence: A Study of the Possible Reduction of Compulsion Under the Use of Biperiden Completed NCT01251393 Phase 3 Biperiden;Placebo
12 Job Seekers Training for Patients With Drug Dependence Completed NCT00102362 Phase 3
13 Linkage of Alcohol Abusers to Primary Care Completed NCT00278447 Phase 3
14 BOSCOT: A Randomised Control Trial of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Plus Treatment as Usual Versus Treatment as Usual in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder Completed NCT00538135 Phase 3
15 Preventing Drug Use in Low Income Clinic Populations Completed NCT01942876 Phase 2, Phase 3
16 Reinforcing Effects of Intravenous Buprenorphine Versus Buprenorphine/Naloxone in Buprenorphine-maintained Intravenous Drug Users (P05207) Completed NCT00710385 Phase 3 Heroin;Naloxone;Low Bup Dose;High Bup Dose;Low Bup/Nal Dose;High Bup/Nal Dose;Placebo (PCB)
17 Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Completed NCT00000467 Phase 3
18 The Impact of Concomitant Ultra Low Dose Infusion Naloxone and Therapeutic Infusion Opioid on Opioid Requirements in Pediatric ICU Patients Completed NCT00286052 Phase 3 Low Dose Naloxone
19 Effect of Intraoperative and Post-operative Opioids on Persistent Opioid Use in the Surgical Patient Recruiting NCT03367988 Phase 2, Phase 3 Opioid Anesthesia;Opioid-free Anesthesia
20 Improving Treatment Outcomes for Prescription Opioid Dependence Recruiting NCT02543944 Phase 2, Phase 3 Gabapentin;Buprenorphine;Clonidine;Naltrexone (oral);Naltrexone (depot);Placebo
21 Effectiveness of Extended Treatment for Drug Dependence - City Supplement Completed NCT01153464 Phase 2
22 Efficacy of Drug-HIV Counseling Among IDU at Methadone Clinics in Jakarta Completed NCT01360463 Phase 2
23 Efficacy of Varenicline for Smokeless Tobacco Use in India Completed NCT01098305 Phase 2 Varenicline
24 Glutamatergic Modulation to Facilitate Naltrexone Initiation in Opioid Dependence Completed NCT02437344 Phase 2 CI-581aa;Naltrexone titration and XR-NTX initiation
25 Vigabatrin for Treatment of Cocaine Dependence: A Phase II Study Completed NCT00611130 Phase 2 vigabatrin;placebo
26 A Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Proof of Concept Study to Evaluate the Analgesic Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous CR845 During the Post-Operative Period in Subjects Undergoing Laparoscopic-Assisted Hysterectomy Completed NCT00877799 Phase 2 CR845;CR845;CR845;Placebo;Placebo
27 Brief Intervention for Regular Prescription Drug Use and Prescription Drug Use Disorders in General Hospital Completed NCT00514839 Phase 2
28 A Multi-Center, Double-Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Study to Evaluate the Analgesic Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous CR845 Dosed Preoperatively and Postoperatively in Patients Undergoing a Laparoscopic Hysterectomy Completed NCT01361568 Phase 2 CR845;Placebo;CR845;Placebo
29 Buprenorphine Effectiveness Evaluation in HIV Enhancement (BEEHIVE): A Randomized Trial of HIV Clinic-based Buprenorphine/Naloxone vs. Case Management and Referral in Opioid-dependent Individuals Completed NCT00130819 Phase 2
30 Group IPT for Women Prisoners With Comorbid Substance Use and Depression Completed NCT00606996 Phase 2
31 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo and Active-Controlled, Six-Period Crossover Study to Evaluate the Likeability, Safety, and Abuse Liability of NRP104 in Healthy Adult Volunteers With Histories of Stimulant Abuse Completed NCT00248092 Phase 1, Phase 2 NRP104
32 A Double-Blind Placebo- and Active-Controlled, Single-Dose Crossover PD and PK Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability and Abuse Liability of IV Administered NRP104 25 mg and 50 mg in Adult Volunteers With Histories of Stimulant Abuse Completed NCT00247572 Phase 2 NRP104
33 A Single-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel Group, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Analgesic Efficacy and Safety of CR845 Dosed in Patients With Pain Following Bunionectomy Surgery Completed NCT01789476 Phase 2 CR845;Placebo
34 Cannabis Dependence: Imaging and Medication Development - 1 Completed NCT00158249 Phase 2 citicoline;placebo
35 Effect of Zonisamide on Cocaine Reinforcement, Craving, and Relapse Completed NCT01137890 Phase 1, Phase 2 Zonisamide;Placebo;Cocaine Hydrochloride
36 Nicotine Delivery and Subjective Effects of 4 mg Nicotine Polacrilex Chewing Gum Compared With Swedish Portion Snus Completed NCT01182129 Phase 1, Phase 2 Nicotine;Nicotine
37 Clinical Trial of Topiramate for Cocaine Addiction Completed NCT00685178 Phase 2 topiramate;placebo + NonCR
38 An Open Label, Flexible Dose Study of Very Low Doses of Naltrexone-Buprenorphine Transfer to Extend-Release Naltrexone (VIVITROL®) in Opioid Addiction Completed NCT01690546 Phase 2 very low dose naltrexone;extended release naltrexone;buprenorphine/naloxone
39 Screening Medications for Cocaine Cessation and Relapse Prevention Completed NCT00218023 Phase 2 Modafinil;Levodopa/Carbidopa;Naltrexone HCl;Placebo
40 Brief Introductory Therapy for Opioid Dependence Completed NCT00406484 Phase 2
41 Youth Drug Abuse Family and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Completed NCT00198874 Phase 2
42 Medications Development for Alcohol Abuse: NMDA Agents -- A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Memantine for Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00246415 Phase 2 Memantine
43 A Double-Blind,Randomized,Placebo-Controlled Trial of Mecamylamine Hydrochloride for the Treatment of SSRI-Refractory Major Depressive Disorder. Completed NCT00319319 Phase 2 Mecamylamine hydrochloride (Inversine)
44 Aminophylline Improves Early Postoperative Cognitive Recovery After Sevoflurane Anaesthesia: A Dose-Dependent Study Completed NCT01022151 Phase 2 Placebo [group P];0.2 mL/kg of aminophylline 10 mg/mL [group A2];0.2 mL/kg of aminophylline 15 mg/mL [group A3];0.2 mL/kg of aminophylline 20 mg/mL [group A4];0.2 mL/kg of aminophylline 25 mg/mL [group A5];Doxapram 1 mg/kg [group D]
45 Psilocybin-facilitated Treatment for Cocaine Use: A Pilot Study Recruiting NCT02037126 Phase 2 Psilocybin;Diphenhydramine
46 Efficacy and Safety Study of a IMSS Developed Phytopharmaceutical for the Treatment of Anxiety. Double Blind and Randomized Clinical Trial Controlled With Alprazolam Recruiting NCT03702803 Phase 2 alprazolam 1mg
47 Frontoparietal Synchronization to Modulate Drug Craving in Opioid Use Disorder: A Randomized Experimental Trial Recruiting NCT03907644 Phase 1, Phase 2
48 Preliminar Efficacy and Safety of Ibogaine in the Treatment of Methadone Not yet recruiting NCT04003948 Phase 2 Ibogaine Hydrochloride
49 Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of the Efficacy of D-Cycloserine for Enhancing the Effects of CBT for Substance Use Terminated NCT00430573 Phase 2 D-cycloserine;Placebo
50 Dextroamphetamine Treatment for Comorbid Cocaine Dependence and ADHD Terminated NCT00514202 Phase 2 Placebo;Dextroamphetamine SR

Search NIH Clinical Center for Drug Dependence

Genetic Tests for Drug Dependence

Anatomical Context for Drug Dependence

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Drug Dependence:

40
Testes, Brain, Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Heart, Liver, Amygdala

Publications for Drug Dependence

Articles related to Drug Dependence:

(show top 50) (show all 3795)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Association of a variant in the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 2 gene (CHRM2) with nicotine addiction. 61 54
19644963 2010
2
The dietary polyphenols trans-resveratrol and curcumin selectively bind human CB1 cannabinoid receptors with nanomolar affinities and function as antagonists/inverse agonists. 54 61
19359525 2009
3
Peptide kappa opioid receptor ligands: potential for drug development. 61 54
19430912 2009
4
Interaction between two independent CNR1 variants increases risk for cocaine dependence in European Americans: a replication study in family-based sample and population-based sample. 61 54
19052543 2009
5
Haplotypic variants in DRD2, ANKK1, TTC12, and NCAM1 are associated with comorbid alcohol and drug dependence. 61 54
18828801 2008
6
A role for brain stress systems in addiction. 61 54
18614026 2008
7
Association analysis of genes encoding the nociceptin receptor (OPRL1) and its endogenous ligand (PNOC) with alcohol or illicit drug dependence. 61 54
17910740 2008
8
The opioid system in alcohol and drug dependence: family-based association study. 54 61
17503481 2007
9
Alcohol dependence with comorbid drug dependence: genetic and phenotypic associations suggest a more severe form of the disorder with stronger genetic contribution to risk. 54 61
17567401 2007
10
Dopamine D3 receptor ligands for the treatment of tobacco dependence. 54 61
17155853 2007
11
11C-JHU75528: a radiotracer for PET imaging of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. 54 61
17015906 2006
12
[How do self-help agencies work for recovery of drug dependence in Japan?]. 61 54
17037343 2006
13
Association between two mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) haplotype blocks and drug or alcohol dependence. 61 54
16476706 2006
14
Allelic association of a dopamine transporter gene polymorphism with antisocial behaviour in heroin-dependent patients. 54 61
16109590 2005
15
The dopamine D3 receptor and drug dependence: effects on reward or beyond? 54 61
15963538 2005
16
CHRM2 gene predisposes to alcohol dependence, drug dependence and affective disorders: results from an extended case-control structured association study. 54 61
16000316 2005
17
How individual sensitivity to opiates can be predicted by gene analyses. 61 54
15925706 2005
18
Possible pharmacotherapy of the opioid kappa receptor agonist for drug dependence. 54 61
15542743 2004
19
Analysis of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) promoter polymorphism in male heroin-dependent subjects: behavioural and personality correlates. 61 54
15088154 2004
20
[A study on effectiveness of recovery from drug dependence by participates with "DARC"]. 61 54
15160890 2004
21
Temporal upregulation of prodynorphin mRNA in the primate striatum after cocaine self-administration. 61 54
12786988 2003
22
Association study of cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) alleles and drug dependence. 61 54
11526463 2001
23
Family-based study of DRD2 alleles in alcohol and drug dependence. 61 54
11054774 2000
24
[A study of recovery factor about drug addiction recovery center "DARC"]. 61 54
11019561 2000
25
Association of alcohol or other drug dependence with alleles of the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1). 61 54
9756053 1998
26
Genetically driven variation in serotonin uptake: is there a link to affective spectrum, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disorders? 61 54
9693390 1998
27
Homozygosity at the dopamine D3 receptor gene is associated with opiate dependence. 61 54
9702742 1998
28
Enhanced stimulatory adenylyl cyclase signaling during opioid dependence is associated with a reduction in palmitoylated Gs alpha. 61 54
9415709 1997
29
Mu opioid receptor gene variants: lack of association with alcohol dependence. 54 61
9399694 1997
30
The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene: a genetic risk factor in smoking. 54 61
8845863 1996
31
Association and linkage studies of the TAQI A1 allele at the dopamine D2 receptor gene in samples of female and male alcoholics. 61 54
7485259 1995
32
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 signaling in cellular and behavioral responses to psychostimulant drugs. 61
32454064 2020
33
Factors associated with PTSD symptom improvement among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans receiving evidenced-based psychotherapy. 61
32421589 2020
34
Incidence and treatment costs of severe bacterial infections among people who inject heroin: A cohort study in South London, England. 61
32422537 2020
35
Long-term changes in delay discounting following a smoking cessation treatment for patients with depression. 61
32370930 2020
36
Frequency of health-care utilization by adults who use illicit drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
31705770 2020
37
The neuroprotective effect of NeuroAid on morphine-induced amnesia with respect to the expression of TFAM, PGC-1α, ΔfosB and CART genes in the hippocampus of male Wistar rats. 61
32198124 2020
38
Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Quality of Life in High-Dose Benzodiazepine and Related Z-Drug Users. 61
32570244 2020
39
Inhibitors of neuropeptide peptidases engaged in pain and drug dependence. 61
32526240 2020
40
Risk taking, sensation seeking and personality as related to changes in substance use from adolescence to young adulthood. 61
32512252 2020
41
Do clinical psychologists have a role in clients' use of psychotropic medication? A mixed methods investigation exploring current forms of involvement. 61
32374486 2020
42
Risk of severe maternal morbidity or death in relation to elevated hemoglobin A1c preconception, and in early pregnancy: A population-based cohort study. 61
32427997 2020
43
Psychological Morbidity and Chronic Disease Among Adults With Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Privately Insured Beneficiaries. 61
32299672 2020
44
A Family-Based Genome Wide Association Study of Externalizing Behaviors. 61
32239439 2020
45
Older Adults Who Meditate Regularly Perform Better on Neuropsychological Functioning and Visual Working Memory Tests: A Three-month Waitlist Control Design Study with a Cohort of Seniors in Assisted Living Facilities. 61
32249696 2020
46
Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases caused by drugs of abuse. 61
31801994 2020
47
Glial cells as therapeutic targets for smoking cessation. 61
32461156 2020
48
Mental disorders and medical conditions associated with causing injury or death: A population-based study. 61
32169724 2020
49
Self-reported Health Diagnoses and Demographic Correlates With Kratom Use: Results From an Online Survey. 61
31567595 2020
50
Pharmacogenetics of drug dependence: Polymorphisms of genes involved in GABA neurotransmission. 61
31472163 2020

Variations for Drug Dependence

Expression for Drug Dependence

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Drug Dependence.

Pathways for Drug Dependence

Pathways related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.86 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
2
Show member pathways
12.81 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
3
Show member pathways
12.55 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1 CHRM2
4 12.09 POMC DRD2 DRD1 CHRM2
6
Show member pathways
11.78 SLC6A3 PDYN DRD2 DRD1
7 11.74 POMC OPRM1 OPRD1
8
Show member pathways
11.71 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1 CHRM2
9 11.68 DRD3 CNR1 CHRM2
10 10.73 POMC DRD2 ANKK1
11
Show member pathways
10.72 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
12 10.28 POMC CRH

GO Terms for Drug Dependence

Cellular components related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 22)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integral component of membrane GO:0016021 10.41 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
2 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1
3 cell junction GO:0030054 10.08 SLC6A4 GABRA2 DRD1 CNR1 CHRNB3 CHRM2
4 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 10.07 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
5 neuron projection GO:0043005 10.06 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
6 synapse GO:0045202 10.06 SLC6A4 PNOC OPRK1 GABRA2 DRD3 DRD2
7 neuronal cell body GO:0043025 10.03 SLC6A3 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRK1 GABRA2
8 dendrite GO:0030425 10.02 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 GABRA2
9 axon GO:0030424 10 SLC6A3 PENK OPRM1 GABRA2 DRD2 CNR1
10 glutamatergic synapse GO:0098978 9.97 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1 CNR1 CHRM2
11 membrane raft GO:0045121 9.93 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRD1 CNR1
12 perikaryon GO:0043204 9.91 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2 CRH
13 postsynaptic membrane GO:0045211 9.89 OPRD1 GABRA2 CHRNB3 CHRM2
14 GABA-ergic synapse GO:0098982 9.88 GABRA2 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1 CNR1
15 integral component of synaptic vesicle membrane GO:0030285 9.74 OPRK1 OPRD1 GABRA2
16 dendrite membrane GO:0032590 9.72 OPRM1 OPRD1 GABRA2
17 dopaminergic synapse GO:0098691 9.71 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2 CHRNB3
18 axon terminus GO:0043679 9.7 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2
19 symmetric synapse GO:0032280 9.58 PENK CHRM2
20 spine apparatus GO:0097444 9.56 OPRM1 OPRD1
21 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2 DRD1
22 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.28 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2

Biological processes related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 80)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.28 POMC PNOC PENK OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1
2 response to drug GO:0042493 10.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1 CRH
3 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 10.06 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRK1 GABRA2 CRH
4 cell-cell signaling GO:0007267 10.03 POMC DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
5 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 10 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
6 locomotory behavior GO:0007626 9.98 SLC6A3 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD3 DRD2
7 adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007188 9.97 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1 CNR1 CHRM2
8 response to toxic substance GO:0009636 9.96 SLC6A4 PENK DRD3 DRD2
9 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 9.95 OPRM1 OPRD1 DRD1 CNR1 CHRM2
10 response to estradiol GO:0032355 9.93 SLC6A4 PENK OPRL1
11 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007193 9.93 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
12 regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis GO:2000300 9.92 DRD2 DRD1 CHRNB3 CHRM2
13 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.92 PENK OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 CNR1
14 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.92 SLC6A3 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD3 DRD2
15 memory GO:0007613 9.91 SLC6A4 DRD1 CNR1
16 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration involved in phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled signaling pathway GO:0051482 9.91 OPRL1 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
17 learning or memory GO:0007611 9.9 DRD3 CRH CNR1
18 regulation of sensory perception of pain GO:0051930 9.9 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
19 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 9.89 OPRM1 DRD2 CHRNB3
20 phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007200 9.89 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
21 response to nicotine GO:0035094 9.89 SLC6A3 PENK DRD2 CNR1 CHRNB3
22 visual learning GO:0008542 9.88 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
23 negative regulation of blood pressure GO:0045776 9.88 OPRL1 DRD3 DRD2 CNR1
24 eating behavior GO:0042755 9.88 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
25 neurotransmitter transport GO:0006836 9.87 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 GABRA2
26 response to radiation GO:0009314 9.87 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1
27 response to amphetamine GO:0001975 9.86 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
28 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.86 OPRK1 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
29 neuropeptide signaling pathway GO:0007218 9.86 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
30 associative learning GO:0008306 9.85 DRD2 DRD1 CRH
31 response to morphine GO:0043278 9.85 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD3 DRD2 CNR1
32 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic GO:0001963 9.84 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1 CRH
33 adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway GO:0071880 9.83 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
34 dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007212 9.83 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
35 estrous cycle GO:0044849 9.83 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1
36 negative regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity GO:1901386 9.82 OPRL1 DRD3 DRD2
37 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.82 OPRM1 DRD3 DRD2
38 dopamine metabolic process GO:0042417 9.81 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
39 phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0060158 9.81 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
40 prepulse inhibition GO:0060134 9.81 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
41 adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007191 9.79 OPRM1 DRD3 DRD1
42 opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0038003 9.78 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
43 regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051584 9.77 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
44 response to iron ion GO:0010039 9.76 SLC6A3 DRD2
45 negative regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0051481 9.76 DRD3 DRD2
46 startle response GO:0001964 9.75 PENK DRD2
47 negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic GO:0051967 9.75 DRD3 DRD2
48 regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic GO:0032228 9.75 DRD2 CNR1
49 behavior GO:0007610 9.75 OPRL1 OPRK1
50 neurotransmitter biosynthetic process GO:0042136 9.75 SLC6A4 SLC6A3

Molecular functions related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled receptor activity GO:0004930 10.06 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD3 DRD2
2 peptide binding GO:0042277 9.76 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
3 neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0030594 9.72 GABRA2 CHRNB3 CHRM2
4 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 9.67 PNOC PENK CRH
5 adrenergic receptor activity GO:0004935 9.65 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
6 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0004952 9.61 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
7 neuropeptide binding GO:0042923 9.56 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
8 drug binding GO:0008144 9.55 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2 CNR1 CHRNB3
9 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go GO:0001591 9.54 DRD3 DRD2
10 opioid receptor binding GO:0031628 9.54 PNOC PENK PDYN
11 monoamine transmembrane transporter activity GO:0008504 9.52 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
12 receptor serine/threonine kinase binding GO:0033612 9.51 OPRK1 OPRD1
13 opioid peptide activity GO:0001515 9.5 PNOC PENK PDYN
14 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.26 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
15 opioid receptor activity GO:0004985 8.92 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1

Sources for Drug Dependence

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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