MCID: DRG026
MIFTS: 51

Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

Categories: Blood diseases, Immune diseases, Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

MalaCards integrated aliases for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms:

Name: Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms 54
Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms 54 60
Drug Reaction Eosinophilic Systemic Syndrome 54 60
Dress Syndrome 54 60

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

60
drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages;

Classifications:



Summaries for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

NIH Rare Diseases : 54 The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.Orpha Number: 139402Disease definitionDRESS syndrome (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is a hypersensitivity reaction characterized by a generalized skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, lymphocytosis and visceral involvement (hepatitis, nephritis, pneumonitis, pericarditis and myocarditis) and, in some patients, reactivation of human herpes virus 6.EpidemiologyPrevalence is unknown.EtiologyOnset usually occurs 2-6 weeks after administration of the causal medication. DRESS syndrome is most frequently associated with anticonvulsants and sulfonamides but other medications (allopurinol, cyclosporine, azathioprine, gold salts and antiviral agents) have also been implicated. The manifestations may persist for several weeks after withdrawal of the causative medication.Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.

MalaCards based summary : Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms, also known as drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, is related to severe cutaneous adverse reaction and myocarditis. An important gene associated with Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms is HLA-B (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class I, B), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Apoptosis and survival Anti-apoptotic TNFs/NF-kB/Bcl-2 pathway and Downstream signaling in naive CD8+ T cells. The drugs Dapsone and leucovorin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, liver and thyroid, and related phenotypes are encephalitis and fever

Wikipedia : 77 Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), also termed drug-induced hypersensitivity... more...

Related Diseases for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

Diseases related to Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 213)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 severe cutaneous adverse reaction 30.6 HLA-B TNF
2 myocarditis 30.5 HLA-B TNF
3 exanthem 30.5 CRP TNF
4 intermediate uveitis 30.2 HLA-B TNF
5 uveitis 30.2 HLA-B TNF
6 graft-versus-host disease 30.2 HLA-B TNF
7 pneumonia 30.1 CRP TNF
8 adult-onset still's disease 30.1 CRP TNF
9 familial mediterranean fever 30.1 CRP TNF
10 kawasaki disease 30.0 CRP TNF
11 diabetes mellitus 29.7 CRP HLA-B TNF
12 panuveitis 29.7 HLA-B TNF
13 cytomegalovirus infection 29.7 HLA-B TNF
14 endocarditis 29.6 CRP TNF
15 rheumatoid arthritis 29.6 CRP HLA-B TNF
16 brucellosis 29.6 CRP TNF
17 vasculitis 29.6 CRP HLA-B TNF
18 purpura 29.6 CRP TNF
19 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis 29.6 CRP TNF
20 hypereosinophilic syndrome 11.2
21 allergic hypersensitivity disease 10.7
22 hepatitis 10.4
23 x-linked intellectual disability-macrocephaly-macroorchidism syndrome 10.3
24 vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease susceptibility 1 10.2
25 alopecia 10.2
26 erythema multiforme 10.2
27 interstitial nephritis 10.2
28 stevens-johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis 10.2
29 spondyloarthropathy 10.2 HLA-B TNF
30 nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease 10.2 HLA-B TNF
31 cytomegalovirus retinitis 10.1 HLA-B TNF
32 alveolar echinococcosis 10.1 HLA-B TNF
33 echinococcosis 10.1 HLA-B TNF
34 indeterminate leprosy 10.1 HLA-B TNF
35 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 10.1 HLA-B TNF
36 glaucomatocyclitic crisis 10.1 HLA-B TNF
37 geographic tongue 10.1 HLA-B TNF
38 complex regional pain syndrome 10.1 HLA-B TNF
39 aphthous stomatitis 10.1 HLA-B TNF
40 rheumatic heart disease 10.1 HLA-B TNF
41 uveal disease 10.1 HLA-B TNF
42 dengue hemorrhagic fever 10.1 HLA-B TNF
43 sclerosing cholangitis 10.1 HLA-B TNF
44 arthropathy 10.1 CRP TNF
45 salpingitis 10.1 CRP TNF
46 relapsing fever 10.1 CRP TNF
47 central nervous system vasculitis 10.1 CRP TNF
48 louse-borne relapsing fever 10.1 CRP TNF
49 rubella 10.1 HLA-B TNF
50 streptococcal meningitis 10.1 CRP TNF

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms:



Diseases related to Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

Human phenotypes related to Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms:

60 33 (show all 28)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 encephalitis 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002383
2 fever 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001945
3 weight loss 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001824
4 thyroiditis 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0100646
5 erythema 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0010783
6 macule 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0012733
7 skin rash 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000988
8 lymphadenopathy 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002716
9 erythroderma 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001019
10 cardiac arrest 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001695
11 immunologic hypersensitivity 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0100326
12 angioedema 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0100665
13 elevated hepatic transaminase 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002910
14 pulmonary infiltrates 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002113
15 interstitial pneumonitis 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0006515
16 lymphocytosis 60 33 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0100827
17 renal insufficiency 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000083
18 dyspnea 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002094
19 hepatitis 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0012115
20 peripheral neuropathy 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0009830
21 nephrotic syndrome 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000100
22 myocarditis 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0012819
23 cough 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0012735
24 acute hepatic failure 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0006554
25 eosinophilia 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001880
26 tubulointerstitial nephritis 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001970
27 pustule 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0200039
28 enanthema 60 33 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0030249

Drugs & Therapeutics for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

Drugs for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 74)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dapsone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 80-08-0 2955
2
leucovorin Approved Phase 4 58-05-9 143 6006
3
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-30-3 6037
4 Antimalarials Phase 4
5 Folic Acid Antagonists Phase 4
6 Vitamin B9 Phase 4
7 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4
8 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 4
9 Vitamin B Complex Phase 4
10 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
11 Folate Phase 4
12 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
13 Immunoglobulins Phase 3
14 Antibodies Phase 3
15
Alprazolam Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 1 28981-97-7 2118
16 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 1
17 GABA Modulators Phase 1
18 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 1,Not Applicable
19 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 1
20 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 1,Not Applicable
21 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 1,Not Applicable
22 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 1,Not Applicable
23 GABA Agents Phase 1,Not Applicable
24
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 53-03-2 5865
25
Clobetasol Approved, Experimental, Investigational Not Applicable 25122-46-7, 25122-41-2 5311051 32798
26
Allopurinol Approved Not Applicable 315-30-0 2094
27
Oxcarbazepine Approved Not Applicable 28721-07-5 34312
28
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 298-46-4 2554
29
Valproic Acid Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 99-66-1 3121
30
Eslicarbazepine acetate Approved Not Applicable 236395-14-5, 75970-99-9 123618
31
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 84057-84-1 3878
32
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
33
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 302-25-0
34
tannic acid Approved Not Applicable 1401-55-4
35
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 185243-69-0
36
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 50-24-8 5755
37
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Not Applicable 2921-57-5
38
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 83-43-2 6741
39
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Not Applicable 7440-70-2 271
40
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Not Applicable 2920-86-7
41 Dermatologic Agents Not Applicable
42 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Not Applicable
43 Hormones Not Applicable
44 Emollients Not Applicable
45 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Not Applicable
46 glucocorticoids Not Applicable
47 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Not Applicable
48 Hormone Antagonists Not Applicable
49 Antioxidants Not Applicable
50 Free Radical Scavengers Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 12)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Clinical Utility Of Genetic Screening For HLA-B*1301, On Susceptibility To Dapsone Hypersensitivity Syndrome Unknown status NCT02550080 Phase 4 Dapsone
2 Treatment of Hypersensitivity Syndrome (DRESS) With Tegeline® (Human Immunoglobulin) Terminated NCT00505648 Phase 3 Tegeline®
3 A Study of the Abuse Liability Potential of Cenobamate in Recreational Drug Users Completed NCT03509285 Phase 1 Alprazolam Placebo;Cenobamate placebo;Alprazolam;Cenobamate
4 Comparison Between Corticosteroid and Topical Steroids in the DRESS Unknown status NCT01987076 Not Applicable Prednisone;Clobetasol
5 HLA-B*5801 Screening to Prevent Allopurinol-induced Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reaction Unknown status NCT03046914 Not Applicable
6 Immunological and Viral Parameters in Patients Receiving Anti-epileptic Drugs Completed NCT02556320 Not Applicable anti-epileptic drug
7 Evaluation of TNF-α Blockade Effect in Patients With Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions Completed NCT01276314 Not Applicable anti- TNF-a;Prednisolone
8 T Cell Response in Hypersensitivity Syndrome Completed NCT00213447
9 Multiple Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome Recruiting NCT03784482
10 Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions in Thailand Recruiting NCT02574988
11 An Exploratory Study of Genetic and Clinical Factors for Serious Skin Reactions Among Users of Eslicarbazepine Acetate Recruiting NCT02520557
12 Survey Study for Velaglucerase Alfa (VPRIV) in Japan Recruiting NCT03625882

Search NIH Clinical Center for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

Genetic Tests for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

Anatomical Context for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms:

42
Skin, Liver, Thyroid, T Cells, Kidney, Testes, Heart

Publications for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

Articles related to Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms:

(show top 50) (show all 341)
# Title Authors Year
1
A Case Report of Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Caused by Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) Complicated by Iodine-Induced Thyrotoxicosis. ( 30937841 )
2019
2
Predictors of disease severity in drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. ( 30058562 )
2019
3
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome induced by combination of vemurafenib and cobimetinib in melanoma: A series of 11 cases. ( 30081108 )
2019
4
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) Syndrome Identified in the Electronic Health Record Allergy Module. ( 30176295 )
2019
5
Valaciclovir: a culprit drug for drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms not to be neglected. Three cases. ( 30222854 )
2019
6
Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms severity score: A useful tool for assessing disease severity and predicting fatal cytomegalovirus disease. ( 30240780 )
2019
7
Abnormal erythrocyte morphology in drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. ( 30403959 )
2019
8
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DReSS): How Far Have We Come? ( 30652265 )
2019
9
Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms due to lamotrigine differs from that due to other drugs. ( 30663091 )
2019
10
Facial pustules due to drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms may histopathologically mimic eosinophilic pustular folliculitis: A case report. ( 30666704 )
2019
11
Comments on: Abnormal erythrocyte morphology in drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. ( 30685268 )
2019
12
Increased Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Patients with Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms Syndrome. ( 30735685 )
2019
13
Erythema Gyratum Repens as a Manifestation of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms. ( 30745644 )
2019
14
HLA-A*32:01 is strongly associated with vancomycin-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. ( 30776417 )
2019
15
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) in children. ( 30830064 )
2019
16
Can we allow a further intake of drugs poorly suspected as responsible in responsible in drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)? A study of practice. ( 30834582 )
2019
17
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms Syndrome associated with Ethambutol use: A Case Report. ( 30848209 )
2019
18
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms presenting as leukoencephalopathy. ( 30868617 )
2019
19
A Drug Reaction With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms Syndrome Associated With Clobazam. ( 30870346 )
2019
20
Oxacillin-Induced Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS). ( 30877266 )
2019
21
Drug Reaction With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS Syndrome). ( 30879852 )
2019
22
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in a cohort of Asian children. ( 30920020 )
2019
23
Pazopanib-Associated Drug Reaction With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms Syndrome: A Case Report. ( 30946042 )
2019
24
Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DiHS)/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS): An update in 2019. ( 31000444 )
2019
25
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome caused by first-line antituberculous drugs: two case reports and a review of the literature. ( 31021423 )
2019
26
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in pediatric patients: A clinicopathological study of 16 cases in the National Center of Pharmacovigilance of Tunisia. ( 31023620 )
2019
27
Vancomycin-Induced Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) Syndrome Masquerading as Elusive Sepsis. ( 31093389 )
2019
28
Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome induced by imatinib. ( 30706827 )
2019
29
Drug Rash With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms: Captopril, an Unusual Culprit Drug. ( 31045940 )
2019
30
Relapsing Course of Sulfasalazine-Induced Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) Complicated by Alopecia Universalis and Vitiligo. ( 30578426 )
2018
31
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms/drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DRESS/DIHS) caused by levofloxacin in a patient with systemic scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjogren syndrome. ( 30484869 )
2018
32
Refractory cardiac myocarditis associated with drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome due to anti-bipolar disorder drugs: a case report. ( 31020177 )
2018
33
Imatinib-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in solid tumors: a patient with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and successful desensitization management. ( 30096127 )
2018
34
Use of antiviral medications in drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS): A case of infantile DRESS. ( 29334124 )
2018
35
Lamotrigine-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) during primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. ( 29367368 )
2018
36
Paediatric case series of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS): 12-year experience at a single referral centre in Hong Kong and the first reported use of infliximab. ( 29384118 )
2018
37
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms Associated with Reactivation of Epstein-Barr Virus and/or Cytomegalovirus Leading to Hemophagocytic Syndrome in One of Two Patients. ( 29386835 )
2018
38
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome: Case report of severe multiorgan involvement to perindopril/amlodipine combination antihypertensive. ( 29387775 )
2018
39
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) Syndrome Secondary to Furosemide: Case Report and Review of Literature. ( 29440628 )
2018
40
Dapsone-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms associated with HLA-B*13:01. ( 29512326 )
2018
41
Overexpression of cytotoxic proteins correlates with liver function impairment in patients with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). ( 29521632 )
2018
42
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms: An Update and Review of Recent Literature. ( 29527023 )
2018
43
Up-regulation of Human Herpesvirus 6B-derived microRNAs in the Serum of Patients with Drug-induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome/Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms. ( 29542806 )
2018
44
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) hepatitis: an uncommon complication of CMV reactivation in drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. ( 29568844 )
2018
45
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome due to ethambutol. ( 29602678 )
2018
46
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome induced by benznidazole. ( 29635801 )
2018
47
C-Reactive Protein and Procalcitonin in Case Reports of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) Syndrome. ( 29656292 )
2018
48
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms: DRESS syndrome. ( 29687681 )
2018
49
Classic autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus after a case of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). ( 29693052 )
2018
50
Recent Advances in Drug-Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome/Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms. ( 29744372 )
2018

Variations for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

Expression for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms.

Pathways for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

Pathways related to Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
11.02 TNF TNFRSF4
2
Show member pathways
10.74 TNF TNFRSF4
3 9.9 CRP TNF

GO Terms for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

Cellular components related to Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell surface GO:0009986 8.8 HLA-B TNF TNFRSF4

Biological processes related to Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune response GO:0006955 9.33 HLA-B TNF TNFRSF4
2 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium GO:0050830 9.32 CRP TNF
3 tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway GO:0033209 9.26 TNF TNFRSF4
4 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.13 CRP TNF TNFRSF4
5 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 8.62 CRP TNF

Sources for Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms

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10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
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20 FMA
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31 HGMD
32 HMDB
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
36 ICD9CM
37 IUPHAR
38 KEGG
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45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
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50 NCI
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52 NDF-RT
55 NINDS
56 Novoseek
58 OMIM
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
65 QIAGEN
70 SNOMED-CT via HPO
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 TGDB
73 Tocris
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75 UMLS via Orphanet
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