MCID: DYS005
MIFTS: 40

Dyslexia

Categories: Genetic diseases, Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Dyslexia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Dyslexia:

Name: Dyslexia 12 54 37 15 40 73

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:4428
ICD10 33 F81.0
MeSH 44 D004410
NCIt 50 C96410
KEGG 37 H01899
UMLS 73 C0476254

Summaries for Dyslexia

NINDS : 54 Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read. These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, common characteristics among people with dyslexia are difficulty with phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds), spelling, and/or rapid visual-verbal responding. In individuals with adult onset of dyslexia, it usually occurs as a result of brain injury or in the context of dementia; this contrasts with individuals with dyslexia who simply were never identified as children or adolescents.  Dyslexia can be inherited in some families, and recent studies have identified a number of genes that may predispose an individual to developing dyslexia.

MalaCards based summary : Dyslexia is related to dyslexia 1 and dyslexia 2, and has symptoms including aprosodia An important gene associated with Dyslexia is DYX3 (Dyslexia Susceptibility 3). The drugs Levodopa and Dopamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and eye.

Disease Ontology : 12 A reading disorder resulting from a developmental reading disability involving the inability to process graphic symbols resulting in impairment of reading ability.

Wikipedia : 76 Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal... more...

Related Diseases for Dyslexia

Diseases in the Dyslexia family:

Dyslexia 1 Dyslexia 9
Dyslexia 2 Dyslexia 3
Dyslexia 6 Dyslexia 5
Dyslexia 8

Diseases related to Dyslexia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 71)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dyslexia 1 34.1 DNAAF4 DNAAF4-CCPG1
2 dyslexia 2 33.8 DCDC2 DYX2 KIAA0319
3 reading disorder 31.9 DCDC2 DIP2A DNAAF4 GCFC2 KIAA0319 KIAA0319L
4 dyslexia 9 12.1
5 dyslexia 3 12.1
6 dyslexia 6 12.1
7 dyslexia 5 12.1
8 dyslexia 8 12.1
9 alexia 12.1
10 learning disability 11.4
11 dyscalculia 11.4
12 semantic dementia 11.4
13 stormorken syndrome 11.2
14 dysgraphia 11.0
15 agnosia 10.7
16 apraxia 10.6
17 agraphia 10.6
18 dysphasia, familial developmental 10.5
19 specific language impairment 10.5
20 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 10.4
21 dementia 10.3
22 autism 10.3
23 aphasia 10.2
24 anxiety 10.2
25 developmental coordination disorder 10.2
26 developmental dyspraxia 10.2
27 specific developmental disorder 10.1 DCDC2 DNAAF4 KIAA0319
28 schizophrenia 10.1
29 hyperlexia 10.1
30 epilepsy 10.1
31 perrault syndrome 1 10.0 DYX1 DYX3 DYX5 DYX6 DYX8 DYX9
32 strabismus 10.0
33 frontotemporal dementia 10.0
34 autism spectrum disorder 10.0
35 stuttering 10.0
36 amblyopia 10.0
37 depression 10.0
38 frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism-17 10.0
39 breast cancer 9.8
40 cleft palate, isolated 9.8
41 deafness, unilateral 9.8
42 tune deafness 9.8
43 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type iii 9.8
44 phenylketonuria 9.8
45 muscular dystrophy, duchenne type 9.8
46 aging 9.8
47 astigmatism 9.8
48 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 9.8
49 frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tdp43 inclusions, grn-related 9.8
50 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 9.8

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Dyslexia:



Diseases related to Dyslexia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Dyslexia

UMLS symptoms related to Dyslexia:


aprosodia

Drugs & Therapeutics for Dyslexia

Drugs for Dyslexia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 37)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7 6047
2
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
3
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
4
Amphetamine Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 300-62-9 5826 3007
5
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
6 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
7 Protective Agents Phase 4
8 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
9 Sympathomimetics Phase 4
10 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
11 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
12 Cardiotonic Agents Phase 4
13 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
14 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
15 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
16 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
17 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Phase 4
18 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
19 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
20 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
21 Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
22 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
23 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
24 adderall Phase 4
25
Lovastatin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 75330-75-5 53232
26 L 647318 Phase 2
27 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 2
28 Dihydromevinolin Phase 2
29 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2
30 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
31 Antimetabolites Phase 2
32 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 2
33 tannic acid Approved Not Applicable
34
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
35
Racepinephrine Approved 329-65-7 838
36
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved 51-43-4 5816
37 Epinephryl borate

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 57)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Dopaminergic Enhancement of Learning and Memory in Healthy Adults and Patients With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00111371 Phase 4 Levodopa
2 Effects of Atomoxetine on Brain Activation During Attention & Reading Tasks in Participants With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00716274 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
3 Treatment of ADHD With Atomoxetine in Children & Adolescents With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00607919 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
4 Treatment With Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Children and Adolescents With ADHD Completed NCT00191048 Phase 4 Atomoxetine
5 Comparison of Atomoxetine and Placebo in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or Reading Disorder (RD) Completed NCT00191906 Phase 4 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride;placebo
6 Interventions for Children With Attention and Reading Disorders Completed NCT01133847 Phase 4 Methylphenidate;Mixed Salt Amphetamine;Atomoxetine;Guanfacine
7 Randomized Clinical Trial of Phonological Interventions Unknown status NCT00818428 Phase 2, Phase 3
8 Reading Problems in Children Living in Urban Areas Completed NCT00065832 Phase 3
9 Working Memory Training in Adults With Substance Abuse and Executive Function Deficits. Unknown status NCT02068261 Phase 2
10 Implementation of Climb Up Program for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Dyslexia in a School in India Completed NCT01012778 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 My Scrivener® - Measuring Effectiveness and Dose Response in Children Completed NCT00919906 Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Interventions for Reading Disabilities in NF1 Recruiting NCT02964884 Phase 2 Lovastatin;Placebo Oral Tablet
13 Group-based Training for Parents of Children With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02107534 Not Applicable
14 Using fMRI to Evaluate Instructional Programs for Children With Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00068835 Not Applicable
15 Prediction and Intervention in Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02217696 Not Applicable
16 Effects of Music Education for Children With Reading Difficulties Unknown status NCT01388881 Not Applicable
17 Scholar Performance and Praxis Assessment in Children With Rolandic Epilepsy Unknown status NCT01046760
18 Sensory and Connectivity Abnormalities in Autism and Language Disorders Unknown status NCT00956579
19 Predictive Executive Functioning Models Using Interactive Tangible-Graphical Interface Devices in Adults Unknown status NCT02127931 Not Applicable
20 Predictive Executive Functioning Models Using Interactive Tangible-Graphical Interface Devices Unknown status NCT01711372 Not Applicable
21 Endophenotype Characterization of a Family Psychiatric Disorder Unknown status NCT02843997 Not Applicable
22 Study of Hierarchy of Afferents in Postural Control of Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02879786 Not Applicable
23 Working Memory Training for Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02429739 Not Applicable
24 Morphofunctional Imaging and Developmental Dyslexia Completed NCT00254644
25 The Effectiveness of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation in Young Dyslexic Adults Completed NCT01930500 Not Applicable
26 Functional MRI Study in Children With a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and/or Developmental Dyslexia (DD) Completed NCT02393729 Not Applicable
27 Developmental Dyslexia and Functional Maturation of Auditory Cortex Completed NCT00245804
28 Rhythm and Music to Rehabilitate Reading Disorders Completed NCT02316873 Not Applicable
29 Neurobiology and Treatment of Reading Disability in NF-1 Completed NCT00624234 Not Applicable
30 Comprehensive Program to Improve Reading and Writing Skills in At-Risk and Dyslexic Children Completed NCT00061412 Not Applicable
31 Reading Disability in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02397967 Not Applicable
32 Developmental Language Difficulties: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Studies Completed NCT02872870
33 Functional Imaging and Reading Deficit in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02422732 Not Applicable
34 Therapy for Reading Problems in Adults After Brain Injury Completed NCT00064805 Not Applicable
35 Multimodal Treatment of Phonological Alexia: Behavioral & fMRI Outcomes Completed NCT00827268 Not Applicable
36 Brain Mechanisms Underlying Reading Improvement in Central Alexia Completed NCT02062619 Not Applicable
37 The Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study Completed NCT02607384 Not Applicable
38 Reading in Preterm and Full-term Children: Neural Basis and Prediction Completed NCT01599546
39 Dyslexia, Motor Control and Proprioception Recruiting NCT03364010 Not Applicable
40 Dyslexics' Visual Attention Field Recruiting NCT03285789 Not Applicable
41 Comparison of Interventions for Developmental Dyslexia Recruiting NCT02791841 Not Applicable
42 Effects of the Combination of RRT With tDCS on Dyslexic Adults Recruiting NCT03119402 Not Applicable
43 Neuroplasticity of Multisensory Cortical Areas Induced by Musical Training: a Translational Approach (MusicPlast) Recruiting NCT03786185 Not Applicable
44 Improving Response to Intervention in Students With or at Risk of Reading Disabilities Recruiting NCT03261661 Not Applicable
45 Patient Education at Dismissal After Surgical Procedure Recruiting NCT03815500 Not Applicable
46 Efficacy of a Two-Year Intensive Reading Intervention for Middle School English Learners With Reading Difficulties Recruiting NCT03695068 Not Applicable
47 Efficacy of Coloured Overlays and Lenses for Reading Difficulty Recruiting NCT02680223 Not Applicable
48 Reading Remediation and Outcomes in Detention Recruiting NCT03261076 Not Applicable
49 Brain Imaging of Childhood Onset Psychiatric Disorders, Endocrine Disorders and Healthy Volunteers Recruiting NCT00001246
50 Characterization of Auditory Processing Involved in the Encoding of Speech Sounds Recruiting NCT02574299 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Dyslexia

Genetic Tests for Dyslexia

Anatomical Context for Dyslexia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Dyslexia:

41
Brain, Testes, Eye, Cortex, Cerebellum, Skin, Breast

Publications for Dyslexia

Articles related to Dyslexia:

(show top 50) (show all 1294)
# Title Authors Year
1
Difficulties of Drivers With Dyslexia When Reading Traffic Signs: Analysis of Reading, Eye Gazes, and Driving Performance. ( 29537345 )
2019
2
Enhanced semantic involvement during word recognition in children with dyslexia. ( 30312862 )
2019
3
Hemispheric asymmetries in the orientation and location of the lateral geniculate nucleus in dyslexia. ( 29380470 )
2018
4
Review of EEG-based pattern classification frameworks for dyslexia. ( 29904812 )
2018
5
Dyslexia and dyscalculia are characterized by common visual perception deficits. ( 29975105 )
2018
6
Decreased functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network in children with mood disorders compared to children with dyslexia during rest: An fMRI study. ( 29845006 )
2018
7
Dyslexia as a multi-deficit disorder: Working memory and auditory temporal processing. ( 29304447 )
2018
8
Doctors from overseas are missing out on dyslexia screening, researchers find. ( 29335274 )
2018
9
Tracking the effects of dyslexia in reading and spelling development: A longitudinal study of Greek readers. ( 29316015 )
2018
10
Meta-analytic findings reveal lower means but higher variances in visuospatial ability in dyslexia. ( 29938776 )
2018
11
Increased variability of stimulus-driven cortical responses is associated with genetic variability in children with and without dyslexia. ( 29894888 )
2018
12
Conceptual size in developmental dyscalculia and dyslexia. ( 29528683 )
2018
13
Analyzing Global Components in Developmental Dyscalculia and Dyslexia. ( 29515490 )
2018
14
The Influence of Dyslexia Candidate Genes on Reading Skill in Old Age. ( 29959602 )
2018
15
Children with dyslexia show a reduced processing benefit from bimodal speech information compared to their typically developing peers. ( 29352968 )
2018
16
Quantitative assessment of drawing tests in children with dyslexia and dysgraphia. ( 29748041 )
2018
17
Representational Bias in the Radial Axis in Children With Dyslexia: A Landmarks Alignment Study. ( 29938599 )
2018
18
Atypical predictive processing during visual statistical learning in children with developmental dyslexia: an event-related potential study. ( 29907920 )
2018
19
Ancestral Variations of the PCDHG Gene Cluster Predispose to Dyslexia in a Multiplex Family. ( 29409727 )
2018
20
Decoupling of the Occipitotemporal Cortex and the Brain's Default-Mode Network in Dyslexia and a Role for the Cingulate Cortex in Good Readers: A Brain Imaging Study of Brazilian Children. ( 29412010 )
2018
21
Abnormal age-related cortical folding and neurite morphology in children with developmental dyslexia. ( 29876267 )
2018
22
Performance of candidates disclosing dyslexia with other candidates in a UK medical licensing examination: cross-sectional study. ( 29330347 )
2018
23
Developmental surface dysgraphia without surface dyslexia. ( 29940788 )
2018
24
Association study of FGF18 with developmental dyslexia in Chinese population. ( 29240020 )
2018
25
Hypermyelination of the left auditory cortex in developmental dyslexia. ( 29321232 )
2018
26
Dyscalculia and dyslexia: Different behavioral, yet similar brain activity profiles during arithmetic. ( 29876258 )
2018
27
Pathways Into Literacy: The Role of Early Oral Language Abilities and Family Risk for Dyslexia. ( 29346032 )
2018
28
Comments on: "What Is Developmental Dyslexia?" Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 26. The Relationship between Eye Movements and Reading Difficulties. ( 29867069 )
2018
29
Atypical Structural Asymmetry of the Planum Temporale is Related to Family History of Dyslexia. ( 29253247 )
2018
30
No evidence for systematic white matter correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia. ( 29487792 )
2018
31
Vowel letter dyslexia. ( 29888628 )
2018
32
Language Skills, but Not Frequency Discrimination, Predict Reading Skills in Children at Risk of Dyslexia. ( 29791271 )
2018
33
Auditory temporal perceptual learning and transfer in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia. ( 29413429 )
2018
34
What is Developmental Dyslexia? ( 29401712 )
2018
35
Simulation of dyslexia. How literacy and cognitive skills can help distinguish college students with dyslexia from malingerers. ( 29782515 )
2018
36
Reading Derived Words by Italian Children With and Without Dyslexia: The Effect of Root Length. ( 29867633 )
2018
37
Developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment: distinct syntactic profiles? ( 29775094 )
2018
38
Inhibition and Updating, but Not Switching, Predict Developmental Dyslexia and Individual Variation in Reading Ability. ( 29892245 )
2018
39
A Selective Deficit in Phonetic Recalibration by Text in Developmental Dyslexia. ( 29867675 )
2018
40
Short-term adaptation to sound statistics is unimpaired in developmental dyslexia. ( 29879142 )
2018
41
Cognitive predictors of sequential motor impairments in children with dyslexia and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. ( 29764201 )
2018
42
Feedforward motor control in developmental dyslexia and developmental coordination disorder: Does comorbidity matter? ( 29547764 )
2018
43
Movement Issues Identified in Movement ABC2 Checklist Parent Ratings for Students with Persisting Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, and OWL LD and Typical Literacy Learners. ( 29606845 )
2018
44
Understanding Dyslexia in the Context of Developmental Language Disorders. ( 30458538 )
2018
45
Exploring the Overlap Between Dyslexia and Speech Sound Production Deficits. ( 30458539 )
2018
46
Cognitive Neuroscience of Dyslexia. ( 30458541 )
2018
47
The State of Dyslexia: Recent Legislation and Guidelines for Serving School-Age Children and Adolescents With Dyslexia. ( 30458542 )
2018
48
Early Identification of Dyslexia: Understanding the Issues. ( 30458543 )
2018
49
Elementary Grade Intervention Approaches to Treat Specific Learning Disabilities, Including Dyslexia. ( 30458544 )
2018
50
Why Children With Dyslexia Struggle With Writing and How to Help Them. ( 30458545 )
2018

Variations for Dyslexia

Copy number variations for Dyslexia from CNVD:

7
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 18124 1 144106777 144451305 Deletion Dyslexia
2 169290 3 139732796 140171095 Duplication Dyslexia
3 181529 4 123017758 123458923 Duplication Dyslexia
4 214702 6 65179840 66364033 Deletion Dyslexia
5 218276 7 110381300 110851860 Deletion Dyslexia
6 224996 7 40606348 40819984 Deletion Dyslexia
7 227462 7 68820751 68904999 Deletion Dyslexia
8 227539 7 69876932 70546042 Duplication Dyslexia
9 232264 8 11373083 11434911 Deletion Dyslexia
10 254314 9 6348644 6740836 Deletion Dyslexia

Expression for Dyslexia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Dyslexia.

Pathways for Dyslexia

GO Terms for Dyslexia

Biological processes related to Dyslexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system development GO:0007399 9.26 DCDC2 DNAAF4 KIAA0319 ROBO1
2 neuron migration GO:0001764 8.8 DCDC2 DNAAF4 KIAA0319

Sources for Dyslexia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....