MCID: DYS005
MIFTS: 40

Dyslexia

Categories: Genetic diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Dyslexia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Dyslexia:

Name: Dyslexia 12 53 36 15 39 17 71

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:4428
KEGG 36 H01899
MeSH 43 D004410
NCIt 49 C96410
SNOMED-CT 67 59770006
ICD10 32 F81.0
UMLS 71 C0476254

Summaries for Dyslexia

NINDS : 53 Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read. These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, common characteristics among people with dyslexia are difficulty with phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds), spelling, and/or rapid visual-verbal responding. In individuals with adult onset of dyslexia, it usually occurs as a result of brain injury or in the context of dementia; this contrasts with individuals with dyslexia who simply were never identified as children or adolescents.  Dyslexia can be inherited in some families, and recent studies have identified a number of genes that may predispose an individual to developing dyslexia.

MalaCards based summary : Dyslexia is related to dyslexia 1 and dyslexia 2, and has symptoms including aprosodia An important gene associated with Dyslexia is DYX3 (Dyslexia Susceptibility 3). The drugs Levodopa and Dopamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and eye.

Disease Ontology : 12 A reading disorder resulting from a developmental reading disability involving the inability to process graphic symbols resulting in impairment of reading ability.

KEGG : 36 Dyslexia is defined by severe difficulties in reading acquisition, often accompanied by spelling difficulties and affects a large number of people (5-10%). It is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. However, effects of individual genetic variations on dyslexia-associated deficits are only moderate. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading-language networks.

Wikipedia : 74 Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal... more...

Related Diseases for Dyslexia

Diseases in the Dyslexia family:

Dyslexia 1 Dyslexia 9
Dyslexia 2 Dyslexia 3
Dyslexia 6 Dyslexia 5
Dyslexia 8

Diseases related to Dyslexia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 173)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dyslexia 1 34.9 DNAAF4-CCPG1 DNAAF4
2 dyslexia 2 34.8 KIAA0319 DCDC2
3 learning disability 33.3 ROBO1 KIAA0319L KIAA0319 GCFC2 FOXP2 DNAAF4
4 periventricular nodular heterotopia 33.1 ROBO1 KIAA0319L KIAA0319 DNAAF4 DCDC2
5 reading disorder 33.0 ROBO1 MRPL19 KIAA0319L KIAA0319 GCFC2 FOXP2
6 dyscalculia 32.7 KIAA0319 DNAAF4
7 specific language impairment 31.6 ROBO1 MRPL19 KIAA0319 GCFC2 FOXP2 DNAAF4
8 speech and communication disorders 31.5 ROBO1 KIAA0319 GCFC2 FOXP2 DNAAF4 DCDC2
9 speech disorder 30.9 KIAA0319 FOXP2 ATP2C2
10 benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes 30.7 KIAA0319 FOXP2 DNAAF4 ATP2C2
11 writing disorder 30.6 DNAAF4 DCDC2
12 dyslexia 8 12.4
13 dyslexia 3 12.4
14 dyslexia 5 12.4
15 dyslexia 9 12.4
16 dyslexia 6 12.4
17 alexia 12.3
18 stormorken syndrome 11.7
19 semantic dementia 11.6
20 dysgraphia 11.2
21 apraxia 11.0
22 agraphia 10.9
23 agnosia 10.9
24 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 10.8
25 hand skill, relative 10.6
26 dysphasia, familial developmental 10.6
27 aphasia 10.6
28 specific developmental disorder 10.5 KIAA0319 FOXP2 DNAAF4 DCDC2
29 autism 10.5
30 specific learning disability 10.5
31 specific language disorder 10.4
32 articulation disorder 10.4
33 expressive language disorder 10.4 FOXP2 ATP2C2
34 autism spectrum disorder 10.4
35 yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome 10.3
36 dementia 10.3
37 strabismus 10.3
38 mechanical strabismus 10.3
39 developmental coordination disorder 10.3
40 developmental dyspraxia 10.3
41 frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tdp43 inclusions, grn-related 10.3
42 anxiety 10.3
43 branchiootic syndrome 1 10.2
44 suppression amblyopia 10.2
45 amblyopia 10.2
46 refractive error 10.2
47 hyperlexia 10.2
48 stuttering 10.2
49 epilepsy 10.2
50 nominal aphasia 10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Dyslexia:



Diseases related to Dyslexia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Dyslexia

UMLS symptoms related to Dyslexia:


aprosodia

Drugs & Therapeutics for Dyslexia

Drugs for Dyslexia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 35)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7 6047
2
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
3
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
4
Amphetamine Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 300-62-9 5826 3007
5
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
6 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
7 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
8 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
9 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
10 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Phase 4
11 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
12 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
13 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
14 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
15 adderall Phase 4
16 Sympathomimetics Phase 4
17 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
18
Lovastatin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 75330-75-5 53232
19 Dihydromevinolin Phase 2
20 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
21 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2
22 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 2
23 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 2
24 L 647318 Phase 2
25 Antimetabolites Phase 2
26
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved 124-94-7 31307
27
tannic acid Approved 1401-55-4
28
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
29
Montelukast Approved 158966-92-8 5281040
30 Triamcinolone diacetate
31 triamcinolone acetonide
32 Triamcinolone hexacetonide
33 Tin Fluorides
34 Pharmaceutical Solutions
35 Omega 3 Fatty Acid

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 76)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Dopaminergic Enhancement of Learning and Memory (LL_001, Project on Dyslexia) Unknown status NCT00111371 Phase 4 Levodopa
2 Open-Label Treatment With Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Child and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00191048 Phase 4 Atomoxetine
3 Neurophysiology of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Comorbid Dyslexia: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Measures of Brain Activation During Attention and Reading Tasks Pre- and Post-Atomoxetine Treatment Completed NCT00716274 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
4 A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study of Atomoxetine Hydrochloride for the Treatment of ADHD in Children and Adolescents With ADHD and Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00607919 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
5 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Comparison of Atomoxetine and Placebo in Child Outpatients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Reading Disorder, or Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disorder. Completed NCT00191906 Phase 4 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride;placebo
6 Reading ICARD: Interventions for Children With Attention and Reading Disorders Completed NCT01133847 Phase 4 Methylphenidate;Mixed Salt Amphetamine;Atomoxetine;Guanfacine
7 The Contribution of a Speech Perception Intervention to the Prevention of Phonological Awareness Deficits in Children With Speech Sound Disorders Unknown status NCT00818428 Phase 2, Phase 3
8 Early Interventions for Children With Reading Problems Completed NCT00065832 Phase 3
9 Computerized Working Memory Training in Adults With Substance Abuse and Executive Function Deficits: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT02068261 Phase 2
10 Implementation of a Multimodal Program Including Yoga and Meditation as Well as Play Therapy for ADHD and Dyslexia in a Public School in Najibabad, India Completed NCT01012778 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 My Scrivener® - Measuring Effectiveness and Dose Response in Children Completed NCT00919906 Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Neurobiology and Treatment of Reading Disability in NF1 Recruiting NCT02964884 Phase 2 Lovastatin;Placebo Oral Tablet
13 Neuronal Markers of Grapheme-phoneme Training Response for Prediction of Successful Reading Acquisition in Children at Familial Risk for Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02217696
14 Remediation in Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00068835
15 Relationships Between Proprioception, Motor Control and Reading in Children With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT03364010
16 Combining A Rhythmic Intervention With tDCS to Improve Reading Skills in Dyslexic Adults Unknown status NCT03119402
17 Effectiveness of Intervention for Developmental Dyslexia: Rhythmic Reading Training Compared to 'Abilmente' Method Unknown status NCT03199092
18 Evaluation of a Group-based Training for Parents of Children With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02107534
19 The Effectiveness of Intervention for Developmental Dyslexia: The Rhythmic Reading Training Compared With Hemisphere-Specific Stimulation and Action Video Games Unknown status NCT02791841
20 Effects of Music Education on Domain of Reading and Cognitive Abilities in Children With Reading Difficulties: a Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT01388881
21 Morphofunctional Imaging and Developmental Dyslexia Completed NCT00254644
22 Developmental Dyslexia and Functional Maturation of Auditory Cortex Completed NCT00245804
23 Study of Hierarchy of Afferents in Postural Control of Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02879786
24 Role of Auditory Cortical Oscillations in Speech Processing and Its Dysfunction in Dyslexia Through Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation Completed NCT04277351
25 Investigation of Turkish Validity and Reliability of the Dynamic Gait Index in Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT04235465
26 Computerized Working Memory Training for Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02429739
27 Asymmetry, Auditory Processing and Reading Skills in Phonological Dyslexic Children Compared to Average-reading Children Completed NCT02345876
28 Cognitively-based Treatments of Acquired Dyslexias Completed NCT00064805
29 Developmental Language Difficulties: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Studies of the Connections Between Spoken and Written Language and Specificity of These Disorders Completed NCT02872870
30 Learning Disabilities: Links to Schools and Biology Completed NCT00061412
31 Rhythm and Music to Rehabilitate Reading Disorders Completed NCT02316873
32 Static and Dynamic Balance Changes After a Scheduled Exercise Program in Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT04386161
33 Investigation of Postural Control, Grip Strength and Body Posture in Children With Intellectual Disability and Dyslexia Completed NCT04250701
34 The Effectiveness of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation in Young Dyslexic Adults - a Single Blind, Randomized, Controlled Study Completed NCT01930500
35 Functional MRI Study of the Involvement of Cortico-cerebellar and Cortico-striatal Networks in Children With a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and/or Developmental Dyslexia (DD) Completed NCT02393729
36 Multimodal Treatment of Phonological Alexia: Behavioral & fMRI Outcomes Completed NCT00827268
37 Neuropsychological Characterisation of Cognitive Deficits Involved in Reading Disability in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02397967
38 Screening for Reading Difficulties in Parkinson's Disease: An Evaluation of the Alouette Test Completed NCT03958175
39 The Effects of Play and Competition-Based Cognitive Therapy on Executive Functions and Occupational Routines in Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT03906097
40 Development of Novel Adhesive Sports Tape Modular to Facilitate Use of Discomfort Completed NCT04025619
41 Move and Feel Good : Effects of Intensive Physical Training on Brain Plasticity, Cognition and Psychological Well-being. "Effets de l'entraînement Physique Intensif Sur la plasticité cérébrale, la Cognition et le Bien être Psychologique". Completed NCT02970825
42 Efficacy of Coloured Overlays and Lenses for Adults With Reading Difficulty Completed NCT02680223
43 Neurobiology and Treatment of Reading Disability in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1) Completed NCT00624234
44 Reading in Preterm and Full-term Children: Neural Basis and Prediction Completed NCT01599546
45 A School-based Intervention to Diagnose and Treat Vision Problems in Elementary School Children With Reading Difficulty Completed NCT02607384
46 Using Gaze-directed Oculomotor Training (GDOMT) to Enhance Reading-related Oculomotor Skills and Chinese Characters Recognition CCR) for Children With Neuromuscular Disease (NMD) Completed NCT03627962
47 Neural Mechanisms of Successful Intervention in Children With Dyslexia Recruiting NCT04323488
48 University of Washington Reading & Dyslexia Research Program Recruiting NCT03945097
49 Evaluation of the Performance and Safety of a Scintillating Lamp Developed to Improve the Reading of Dyslexic Patients Recruiting NCT04157829
50 Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in the Treatment of Dyslexia: a Randomized Double-blind Study. Recruiting NCT04244578

Search NIH Clinical Center for Dyslexia

Genetic Tests for Dyslexia

Anatomical Context for Dyslexia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Dyslexia:

40
Brain, Testes, Eye, Cortex, Cerebellum, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe

Publications for Dyslexia

Articles related to Dyslexia:

(show top 50) (show all 5227)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Atypical MEG inter-subject correlation during listening to continuous natural speech in dyslexia. 61
32294536 2020
2
Music as a scaffold for listening to speech: Better neural phase-locking to song than speech. 61
32217165 2020
3
Ashwagandha in brain disorders: A review of recent developments. 61
32305638 2020
4
EEG Connectivity Analysis Using Denoising Autoencoders for the Detection of Dyslexia. 61
32466692 2020
5
Dyslexia Diagnosis by EEG Temporal and Spectral Descriptors: An Anomaly Detection Approach. 61
32496139 2020
6
Testing the interhemispheric deficit theory of dyslexia using the visual half-field technique. 61
31813327 2020
7
Putative protective neural mechanisms in prereaders with a family history of dyslexia who subsequently develop typical reading skills. 61
32166830 2020
8
Resting EEG effective connectivity at the sources in developmental dysphonetic dyslexia. Differences with non-specific reading delay. 61
32387396 2020
9
Multilevel diffusion tensor imaging classification technique for characterizing neurobehavioral disorders. 61
30519999 2020
10
Unisensory and multisensory temporal processing in autism and dyslexia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
32544540 2020
11
Dyslexia in Pediatrics: Simple Practices to Tackle a Complex Issue. 61
32576594 2020
12
Reintroducing Dyslexia: Early Identification and Implications for Pediatric Practice. 61
32576595 2020
13
Do Genes Associated with Dyslexia of Chinese Characters Evolve Neutrally? 61
32560373 2020
14
Urine metals concentrations and dyslexia among children in China. 61
32289584 2020
15
Spelling errors reveal underlying sequential and spatial processing deficits in adults with dyslexia. 61
32552235 2020
16
Holistic but with reduced right-hemisphere involvement: The case of dyslexia in Chinese character recognition. 61
32144579 2020
17
Dyslexia and Developmental Language Disorder: comorbid disorders with distinct effects on reading comprehension. 61
31631348 2020
18
Reading-related abilities underlying phonological awareness: a cross-sectional study in children with and without dyslexia. 61
32508178 2020
19
Changes in EEG complexity with neurofeedback and multi-sensory learning in children with dyslexia: A multiscale entropy analysis. 61
32516009 2020
20
Investigating the role of temporal processing in developmental dyslexia: Evidence for a specific deficit in rapid visual segmentation. 61
32495210 2020
21
Association between resting-state functional connectivity and reading in two writing systems in Japanese children with and without developmental dyslexia. 61
32567365 2020
22
Offering alphabet support in the Trail Making Test: Increasing validity for participants with insufficient automatization of the alphabet. 61
32546072 2020
23
Rare variants in dynein heavy chain genes in two individuals with situs inversus and developmental dyslexia: a case report. 61
32357925 2020
24
Summer-born struggle: The effect of school starting age on health, education, and work. 61
32052533 2020
25
Specific learning disorders in sex chromosome aneuploidies: Neural circuits of literacy and mathematics. 61
32463563 2020
26
Exploratory examination of lexical and neuroanatomic correlates of neglect dyslexia. 61
31999167 2020
27
Dyslexia as an adaptation to cortico-limbic stress system reactivity. 61
32435671 2020
28
The Prevalence of Dyslexia: A New Approach to Its Estimation. 61
32452713 2020
29
The emergence of dyslexia in the developing brain. 61
32061802 2020
30
Writing and Revision Strategies of Students With and Without Dyslexia. 61
31941395 2020
31
Assessing Dyslexia at Six Year of Age. 61
32421001 2020
32
Handwriting Delay in Dyslexia: Children at the End of Primary School Still Make Numerous Short Pauses When Producing Letters. 61
32036738 2020
33
Dyslexia Candidate Gene and Ciliary Gene Expression Dynamics During Human Neuronal Differentiation. 61
32445086 2020
34
Poor neural and perceptual phoneme discrimination during acoustic variation in dyslexia. 61
32457322 2020
35
Skill Profiles of College Students With a History of Developmental Language Disorder and Developmental Dyslexia. 61
32028829 2020
36
Preservice educators' and noneducators' knowledge and perceptions of responsibility about dyslexia. 61
31994258 2020
37
Dissociations within neglect-related reading impairments: Egocentric and allocentric neglect dyslexia. 61
32063093 2020
38
Multifactorial pathways facilitate resilience among kindergarteners at risk for dyslexia: A longitudinal behavioral and neuroimaging study. 61
32356911 2020
39
Predictive Model for Dyslexia from Fixations and Saccadic Eye Movement Events. 61
32526535 2020
40
The Reliability and Validity of an Assessment Tool for Developmental Dyslexia in Chinese Children. 61
32456019 2020
41
Generation of Dip2a homozygous knockout murine ES cell line IBMSe001-A-1 via CRISPR/Cas9 technology. 61
32361465 2020
42
The relationship of domain-general serial order memory and reading ability in school children with and without dyslexia. 61
32007625 2020
43
Spelling in developmental dyslexia in Chinese: Evidence of deficits in statistical learning and over-reliance on phonology. 61
32453619 2020
44
Both Individual and Group-Based Neuropsychological Interventions of Dyslexia Improve Processing Speed in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Study. 61
31872791 2020
45
The processing of rhythmic structures in music and prosody by children with developmental dyslexia and developmental language disorder. 61
32356924 2020
46
Better read it to me: Benefits of audio versions of variable message signs in drivers with dyslexia. 61
32474887 2020
47
Second-language learning difficulties in Italian children with reading difficulties. 61
32302006 2020
48
Visually guided eye movements reduce postural sway in dyslexic children. 61
32145309 2020
49
Acute Anterior Choroidal Artery Territory Infarction: A Retrospective Study. 61
32344281 2020
50
Feasibility of Eye Movement Recordings with the SMI Tracking Bar in 10- to 11-Year-Old Children Performing a Reading Task. 61
32330981 2020

Variations for Dyslexia

Copy number variations for Dyslexia from CNVD:

7
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 18124 1 144106777 144451305 Deletion Dyslexia
2 169290 3 139732796 140171095 Duplication Dyslexia
3 181529 4 123017758 123458923 Duplication Dyslexia
4 214702 6 65179840 66364033 Deletion Dyslexia
5 218276 7 110381300 110851860 Deletion Dyslexia
6 224996 7 40606348 40819984 Deletion Dyslexia
7 227462 7 68820751 68904999 Deletion Dyslexia
8 227539 7 69876932 70546042 Duplication Dyslexia
9 232264 8 11373083 11434911 Deletion Dyslexia
10 254314 9 6348644 6740836 Deletion Dyslexia

Expression for Dyslexia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Dyslexia.

Pathways for Dyslexia

GO Terms for Dyslexia

Biological processes related to Dyslexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neuron migration GO:0001764 8.8 KIAA0319 DNAAF4 DCDC2

Sources for Dyslexia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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