MCID: DYS005
MIFTS: 41

Dyslexia

Categories: Genetic diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Dyslexia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Dyslexia:

Name: Dyslexia 12 53 36 15 39 17 71

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:4428
KEGG 36 H01899
MeSH 43 D004410
NCIt 49 C96410
ICD10 32 F81.0
UMLS 71 C0476254

Summaries for Dyslexia

NINDS : 53 Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read. These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, common characteristics among people with dyslexia are difficulty with phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds), spelling, and/or rapid visual-verbal responding. In individuals with adult onset of dyslexia, it usually occurs as a result of brain injury or in the context of dementia; this contrasts with individuals with dyslexia who simply were never identified as children or adolescents.  Dyslexia can be inherited in some families, and recent studies have identified a number of genes that may predispose an individual to developing dyslexia.

MalaCards based summary : Dyslexia is related to dyslexia 1 and dyslexia 2, and has symptoms including aprosodia An important gene associated with Dyslexia is DYX3 (Dyslexia Susceptibility 3). The drugs Levodopa and Dopamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and eye.

Disease Ontology : 12 A reading disorder resulting from a developmental reading disability involving the inability to process graphic symbols resulting in impairment of reading ability.

KEGG : 36 Dyslexia is defined by severe difficulties in reading acquisition, often accompanied by spelling difficulties and affects a large number of people (5-10%). It is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. However, effects of individual genetic variations on dyslexia-associated deficits are only moderate. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading-language networks.

Wikipedia : 74 Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal... more...

Related Diseases for Dyslexia

Diseases in the Dyslexia family:

Dyslexia 1 Dyslexia 9
Dyslexia 2 Dyslexia 3
Dyslexia 6 Dyslexia 5
Dyslexia 8

Diseases related to Dyslexia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 172)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dyslexia 1 34.8 DNAAF4-CCPG1 DNAAF4
2 dyslexia 2 34.7 KIAA0319 DCDC2
3 dyscalculia 33.4 KIAA0319 DNAAF4 DCDC2
4 learning disability 33.3 ROBO1 KIAA0319L KIAA0319 GCFC2 FOXP2 DNAAF4
5 periventricular nodular heterotopia 33.1 ROBO1 KIAA0319L KIAA0319 DNAAF4 DCDC2
6 reading disorder 33.0 ROBO1 MRPL19 KIAA0319L KIAA0319 GCFC2 FOXP2
7 specific language impairment 31.6 ROBO1 MRPL19 KIAA0319 GCFC2 FOXP2 DNAAF4
8 speech and communication disorders 31.5 ROBO1 KIAA0319 GCFC2 FOXP2 DNAAF4 DCDC2
9 benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes 30.7 KIAA0319 GCFC2 FOXP2 DNAAF4 ATP2C2
10 writing disorder 30.3 DNAAF4 DCDC2
11 dyslexia 8 12.4
12 dyslexia 3 12.4
13 dyslexia 5 12.4
14 dyslexia 9 12.4
15 dyslexia 6 12.4
16 alexia 12.3
17 stormorken syndrome 11.7
18 semantic dementia 11.6
19 dysgraphia 11.2
20 apraxia 11.0
21 agraphia 10.9
22 agnosia 10.9
23 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 10.8
24 hand skill, relative 10.6
25 dysphasia, familial developmental 10.6
26 aphasia 10.6
27 autism 10.5
28 expressive language disorder 10.5 FOXP2 DOCK4 ATP2C2
29 specific developmental disorder 10.5 KIAA0319 FOXP2 DNAAF4 DCDC2
30 specific language disorder 10.4
31 specific learning disability 10.4
32 articulation disorder 10.4
33 band heterotopia 10.4 KIAA0319 DNAAF4 DCDC2
34 yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome 10.3
35 strabismus 10.3
36 autism spectrum disorder 10.3
37 dementia 10.3
38 mechanical strabismus 10.3
39 developmental coordination disorder 10.3
40 developmental dyspraxia 10.3
41 anxiety 10.3
42 branchiootic syndrome 1 10.2
43 frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tdp43 inclusions, grn-related 10.2
44 suppression amblyopia 10.2
45 amblyopia 10.2
46 epilepsy 10.2
47 refractive error 10.2
48 47,xyy 10.2
49 autoimmune disease 10.2
50 hyperlexia 10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Dyslexia:



Diseases related to Dyslexia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Dyslexia

UMLS symptoms related to Dyslexia:


aprosodia

Drugs & Therapeutics for Dyslexia

Drugs for Dyslexia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 36)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7 6047
2
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
3
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
4
Amphetamine Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 300-62-9 5826 3007
5
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
6 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
7 Protective Agents Phase 4
8 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
9 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Phase 4
10 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
11 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
12 Sympathomimetics Phase 4
13 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
14 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
15 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
16 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
17 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
18 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
19 Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
20 adderall Phase 4
21
Lovastatin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 75330-75-5 53232
22 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
23 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 2
24 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 2
25 L 647318 Phase 2
26 Dihydromevinolin Phase 2
27 Antimetabolites Phase 2
28 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2
29
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved 51-43-4 5816
30
Racepinephrine Approved 329-65-7 838
31
tannic acid Approved 1401-55-4
32
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
33
Montelukast Approved 158966-92-8 5281040
34 Epinephryl borate
35 Pharmaceutical Solutions
36 Tin Fluorides

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 66)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Dopaminergic Enhancement of Learning and Memory (LL_001, Project on Dyslexia) Unknown status NCT00111371 Phase 4 Levodopa
2 Open-Label Treatment With Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Child and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00191048 Phase 4 Atomoxetine
3 Neurophysiology of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Comorbid Dyslexia: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Measures of Brain Activation During Attention and Reading Tasks Pre- and Post-Atomoxetine Treatment Completed NCT00716274 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
4 A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study of Atomoxetine Hydrochloride for the Treatment of ADHD in Children and Adolescents With ADHD and Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00607919 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
5 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Comparison of Atomoxetine and Placebo in Child Outpatients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Reading Disorder, or Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disorder. Completed NCT00191906 Phase 4 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride;placebo
6 Reading ICARD: Interventions for Children With Attention and Reading Disorders Completed NCT01133847 Phase 4 Methylphenidate;Mixed Salt Amphetamine;Atomoxetine;Guanfacine
7 The Contribution of a Speech Perception Intervention to the Prevention of Phonological Awareness Deficits in Children With Speech Sound Disorders Unknown status NCT00818428 Phase 2, Phase 3
8 Early Interventions for Children With Reading Problems Completed NCT00065832 Phase 3
9 Computerized Working Memory Training in Adults With Substance Abuse and Executive Function Deficits: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT02068261 Phase 2
10 Implementation of a Multimodal Program Including Yoga and Meditation as Well as Play Therapy for ADHD and Dyslexia in a Public School in Najibabad, India Completed NCT01012778 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 My Scrivener® - Measuring Effectiveness and Dose Response in Children Completed NCT00919906 Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Neurobiology and Treatment of Reading Disability in NF1 Recruiting NCT02964884 Phase 2 Lovastatin;Placebo Oral Tablet
13 Neuronal Markers of Grapheme-phoneme Training Response for Prediction of Successful Reading Acquisition in Children at Familial Risk for Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02217696
14 Remediation in Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00068835
15 Evaluation of a Group-based Training for Parents of Children With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02107534
16 Effects of Music Education on Domain of Reading and Cognitive Abilities in Children With Reading Difficulties: a Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT01388881
17 Morphofunctional Imaging and Developmental Dyslexia Completed NCT00254644
18 Developmental Dyslexia and Functional Maturation of Auditory Cortex Completed NCT00245804
19 Study of Hierarchy of Afferents in Postural Control of Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02879786
20 Computerized Working Memory Training for Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02429739
21 Asymmetry, Auditory Processing and Reading Skills in Phonological Dyslexic Children Compared to Average-reading Children Completed NCT02345876
22 Cognitively-based Treatments of Acquired Dyslexias Completed NCT00064805
23 Developmental Language Difficulties: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Studies of the Connections Between Spoken and Written Language and Specificity of These Disorders Completed NCT02872870
24 Learning Disabilities: Links to Schools and Biology Completed NCT00061412
25 Rhythm and Music to Rehabilitate Reading Disorders Completed NCT02316873
26 The Effectiveness of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation in Young Dyslexic Adults - a Single Blind, Randomized, Controlled Study Completed NCT01930500
27 Functional MRI Study of the Involvement of Cortico-cerebellar and Cortico-striatal Networks in Children With a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and/or Developmental Dyslexia (DD) Completed NCT02393729
28 Multimodal Treatment of Phonological Alexia: Behavioral & fMRI Outcomes Completed NCT00827268
29 Neuropsychological Characterisation of Cognitive Deficits Involved in Reading Disability in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02397967
30 Screening for Reading Difficulties in Parkinson's Disease: An Evaluation of the Alouette Test Completed NCT03958175
31 The Effects of Play and Competition-Based Cognitive Therapy on Executive Functions and Occupational Routines in Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT03906097
32 Development of Novel Adhesive Sports Tape Modular to Facilitate Use of Discomfort Completed NCT04025619
33 Move and Feel Good : Effects of Intensive Physical Training on Brain Plasticity, Cognition and Psychological Well-being. "Effets de l'entraînement Physique Intensif Sur la plasticité cérébrale, la Cognition et le Bien être Psychologique". Completed NCT02970825
34 Neurobiology and Treatment of Reading Disability in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1) Completed NCT00624234
35 Reading in Preterm and Full-term Children: Neural Basis and Prediction Completed NCT01599546
36 Using Gaze-directed Oculomotor Training (GDOMT) to Enhance Reading-related Oculomotor Skills and Chinese Characters Recognition CCR) for Children With Neuromuscular Disease (NMD) Completed NCT03627962
37 A School-based Intervention to Diagnose and Treat Vision Problems in Elementary School Children With Reading Difficulty Completed NCT02607384
38 University of Washington Reading & Dyslexia Research Program Recruiting NCT03945097
39 Relationships Between Proprioception, Motor Control and Reading in Children With Dyslexia Recruiting NCT03364010
40 Combining A Rhythmic Intervention With tDCS to Improve Reading Skills in Dyslexic Adults Recruiting NCT03119402
41 Evaluation of the Visuo-attention Field of Symbols Versus Objects Visual Search in Dyslexic Subjects. DyslexiaSPOTLIGHT Recruiting NCT03285789
42 Patient Education at Dismissal After Surgical Procedure: Clinical Outcome Implications and Improvement Strategies Recruiting NCT03815500
43 The Effectiveness of Intervention for Developmental Dyslexia: The Rhythmic Reading Training Compared With Hemisphere-Specific Stimulation and Action Video Games Recruiting NCT02791841
44 Sensitivity of the Search for a Heterophory-Vertical-Labile (HV-Labile) for Ambulatory Screening for Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Recruiting NCT04122820
45 Etiology and Early Diagnosis of Neurodevelopmental Disorders Recruiting NCT02003170
46 Characterization of Ascending and Descending Auditory Processing Involved in the Encoding of Speech Sounds in Adult and Children: Variability Related to Changes in Sensory Input or a Neurodevelopmental Disorder or Targeted Remediation Recruiting NCT02574299
47 Early Academic Achievement and Intervention Response: Role of Executive Function Recruiting NCT03713125
48 Efficacy of Coloured Overlays and Lenses for Adults With Reading Difficulty Recruiting NCT02680223
49 Brain Imaging of Childhood Onset Psychiatric Disorders, Endocrine Disorders and Healthy Volunteers Recruiting NCT00001246
50 Evidence-Based Interventions to Enhance Outcomes Among Struggling Readers Recruiting NCT04059939

Search NIH Clinical Center for Dyslexia

Genetic Tests for Dyslexia

Anatomical Context for Dyslexia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Dyslexia:

40
Brain, Testes, Eye, Cortex, Cerebellum, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe

Publications for Dyslexia

Articles related to Dyslexia:

(show top 50) (show all 5097)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Cognitive-Linguistic Skills Underlying Word Reading and Spelling Difficulties in Chinese Adolescents With Dyslexia. 61
31631768 2020
2
Cerebellar function in children with and without dyslexia during single word processing. 61
31597004 2020
3
Brain activity patterns of phonemic representations are atypical in beginning readers with family risk for dyslexia. 61
31090993 2020
4
Benefits from morphological regularities in dyslexia are task dependent. 61
31081654 2020
5
The link between reading ability and visual spatial attention across development. 61
31542467 2019
6
Probability learning and feedback processing in dyslexia: A performance and heart rate analysis. 61
31435961 2019
7
Atypical gray matter in children with dyslexia before the onset of reading instruction. 61
31704534 2019
8
Author accepted manuscript: Testing the interhemispheric deficit theory of dyslexia using the visual half-field technique. 61
31813327 2019
9
Performance in candidates declaring versus those not declaring dyslexia in a licensing clinical examination. 61
31432557 2019
10
Do children with dyslexia present a handwriting deficit? Impact of word orthographic and graphic complexity on handwriting and spelling performance. 61
31841819 2019
11
Improving sentence reading performance in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia by training based on visual attention span. 61
31831849 2019
12
The Effects of Script and Orthographic Complexity on the Handwriting and Spelling Performance of Children With Dyslexia. 61
31823679 2019
13
Consensus Paper: Experimental Neurostimulation of the Cerebellum. 61
31165428 2019
14
Violent crime against children with disabilities: A nationwide prospective birth cohort-study. 61
31561190 2019
15
Does surface dyslexia/dysgraphia relate to semantic deficits in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia? 61
31682928 2019
16
Are specific learning disorders truly specific, and are they disorders? 61
31685130 2019
17
Simultaneous EEG and fMRI reveals stronger sensitivity to orthographic strings in the left occipito-temporal cortex of typical versus poor beginning readers. 61
31704655 2019
18
Semantic fluency difficulties in developmental dyslexia and developmental language disorder (DLD): poor semantic structure of the lexicon or slower retrieval processes? 61
31697020 2019
19
Developmental dyslexia in Hindi readers: Is consistent sound-symbol mapping an asset in reading? Evidence from phonological and visuospatial working memory. 61
31429158 2019
20
Lexical and grammatical development in children at family risk of dyslexia from early childhood to school entry: a cross-lagged analysis. 61
31317848 2019
21
The dyslexia susceptibility KIAA0319 gene shows a specific expression pattern during zebrafish development supporting a role beyond neuronal migration. 61
30950042 2019
22
Visual processing speed as a marker of immaturity in lexical but not sublexical dyslexia. 61
31536945 2019
23
Task-avoidant behaviour and dyslexia: A follow-up from Grade 2 to age 20. 61
31317642 2019
24
The effect of landscape photograph type on aesthetic judgments, attention, and memory in children with dyslexia. 61
31709702 2019
25
On disclosing dyslexia and other specific learning difficulties: A personal insight. 61
31750953 2019
26
How does dyslexia impact on the educational experiences of healthcare students? A qualitative study. 61
31696596 2019
27
Diagnostic implications of the double deficit model for young adolescents with dyslexia. 61
31697024 2019
28
Auditory gating in adults with dyslexia: An ERP account of diminished rapid neural adaptation. 61
31451333 2019
29
Reassessing health literacy best practices to improve medication adherence among patients with dyslexia. 61
31174951 2019
30
Delayed development of phonological constancy in toddlers at family risk for dyslexia. 61
31207365 2019
31
Auditory, Visual, and Cross-Modal Temporal Processing Skills Among Chinese Children With Developmental Dyslexia. 61
31313628 2019
32
Specific Learning Disabilities: The Family Physician's Role. 61
31730315 2019
33
Language impairment in primary progressive aphasia and other neurodegenerative diseases. 61
31767822 2019
34
Visual attention in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder before and after stimulant treatment. 61
30560740 2019
35
MicroRNAs and Child Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Brief Review. 61
31773374 2019
36
Are there shared neural correlates between dyslexia and ADHD? A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. 61
31752659 2019
37
ChiTaRS 5.0: the comprehensive database of chimeric transcripts matched with druggable fusions and 3D chromatin maps. 61
31747015 2019
38
An Epidemiological Study on the Children with Chinese Developmental Dyslexia. 61
31764410 2019
39
Dyslexia Augusti: Does Suetonius describe a pattern of signs consistent with dyslexia? 61
31464353 2019
40
Testing the visual impedance effect in children with and without reading difficulties using a new visual reasoning task. 61
31692157 2019
41
Learning Lexical Information Depends Upon Task, Learning Approach, and Reader Subtype. 61
31354088 2019
42
Cross-modal working memory binding and learning of visual-phonological associations in children with reading difficulties. 61
30706757 2019
43
Modeling Response Time with Power Law Distributions. 61
31586497 2019
44
Post-treatment reading development in children with dyslexia: the challenge remains. 61
31617056 2019
45
A meta-analysis of reading-level match dyslexia studies in consistent alphabetic orthographies. 61
31664608 2019
46
Dyslexia and Developmental Language Disorder: comorbid disorders with distinct effects on reading comprehension. 61
31631348 2019
47
Spoken Word Learning Differences Among Children With Dyslexia, Concomitant Dyslexia and Developmental Language Disorder, and Typical Development. 61
31600465 2019
48
Neglect dyslexia as a word-centred impairment: A single case study. 61
30528426 2019
49
Validation of curriculum-based reading passages and comparison of college students with and without dyslexia or ADHD. 61
31446572 2019
50
Sleep EEG oscillations in neurodevelopmental disorders without intellectual disabilities. 61
31731102 2019

Variations for Dyslexia

Copy number variations for Dyslexia from CNVD:

7
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 18124 1 144106777 144451305 Deletion Dyslexia
2 169290 3 139732796 140171095 Duplication Dyslexia
3 181529 4 123017758 123458923 Duplication Dyslexia
4 214702 6 65179840 66364033 Deletion Dyslexia
5 218276 7 110381300 110851860 Deletion Dyslexia
6 224996 7 40606348 40819984 Deletion Dyslexia
7 227462 7 68820751 68904999 Deletion Dyslexia
8 227539 7 69876932 70546042 Duplication Dyslexia
9 232264 8 11373083 11434911 Deletion Dyslexia
10 254314 9 6348644 6740836 Deletion Dyslexia

Expression for Dyslexia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Dyslexia.

Pathways for Dyslexia

GO Terms for Dyslexia

Biological processes related to Dyslexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neuron migration GO:0001764 8.8 KIAA0319 DNAAF4 DCDC2

Sources for Dyslexia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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