Aliases & Classifications for Dyslexia

Summaries for Dyslexia

NINDS : 54 Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read. These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, common characteristics among people with dyslexia are difficulty with phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds), spelling, and/or rapid visual-verbal responding. In individuals with adult onset of dyslexia, it usually occurs as a result of brain injury or in the context of dementia; this contrasts with individuals with dyslexia who simply were never identified as children or adolescents.  Dyslexia can be inherited in some families, and recent studies have identified a number of genes that may predispose an individual to developing dyslexia.

MalaCards based summary : Dyslexia is related to dyslexia 1 and dyslexia 2, and has symptoms including aprosodia An important gene associated with Dyslexia is DNAAF4 (Dynein Axonemal Assembly Factor 4). The drugs Dopamine and Levodopa have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, eye and cortex.

Disease Ontology : 12 A reading disorder resulting from a developmental reading disability involving the inability to process graphic symbols resulting in impairment of reading ability.

Wikipedia : 76 Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal... more...

Related Diseases for Dyslexia

Diseases in the Dyslexia family:

Dyslexia 1 Dyslexia 9
Dyslexia 2 Dyslexia 3
Dyslexia 6 Dyslexia 5
Dyslexia 8

Diseases related to Dyslexia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 59)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dyslexia 1 34.4 DNAAF4 DNAAF4-CCPG1
2 dyslexia 2 34.1 DCDC2 DYX2 KIAA0319
3 reading disorder 31.6 DCDC2 DIP2A DNAAF4 GCFC2 KIAA0319 KIAA0319L
4 dyslexia 9 11.9
5 dyslexia 3 11.9
6 dyslexia 6 11.9
7 dyslexia 5 11.9
8 dyslexia 8 11.9
9 alexia 11.9
10 dyscalculia 11.3
11 learning disability 11.3
12 semantic dementia 11.3
13 stormorken syndrome 11.0
14 dysgraphia 10.9
15 agnosia 10.5
16 apraxia 10.4
17 aging 10.3
18 dysphasia, familial developmental 10.2
19 specific language impairment 10.2
20 specific developmental disorder 10.2 DCDC2 DNAAF4 KIAA0319
21 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 10.2
22 neuronitis 10.2
23 dementia 10.2
24 autism 10.1
25 autism spectrum disorder 10.0
26 aphasia 10.0
27 agraphia 9.9
28 cerebritis 9.9
29 developmental coordination disorder 9.9
30 developmental dyspraxia 9.9
31 anxiety 9.8
32 stuttering 9.8
33 breast cancer 9.7
34 schizophrenia 9.7
35 strabismus 9.7
36 tune deafness 9.7
37 hyperlexia 9.7
38 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type iii 9.7
39 phenylketonuria 9.7
40 frontotemporal dementia 9.7
41 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 9.7
42 frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tdp43 inclusions, grn-related 9.7
43 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 9.7
44 anosognosia 9.7
45 sensorineural hearing loss 9.7
46 amblyopia 9.7
47 hemiplegia 9.7
48 disease of mental health 9.7
49 epilepsy 9.7
50 mood disorder 9.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Dyslexia:



Diseases related to Dyslexia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Dyslexia

UMLS symptoms related to Dyslexia:


aprosodia

Drugs & Therapeutics for Dyslexia

Drugs for Dyslexia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 36)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
2
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7 6047
3
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
4
Amphetamine Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 300-62-9 5826 3007
5
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
6 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
7 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
8 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
9 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
10 Protective Agents Phase 4
11 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
12 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
13 adderall Phase 4
14 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
15 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
16 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
17 Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
18 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
19 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
20 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
21 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
22 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Phase 4
23
Lovastatin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 75330-75-5 53232
24 Dihydromevinolin Phase 2
25 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 2
26 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
27 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 2
28 L 647318 Phase 2
29 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2
30 Antimetabolites Phase 2
31
Menthol Approved Not Applicable 2216-51-5 16666
32
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
33
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved 51-43-4 5816
34
Racepinephrine Approved 329-65-7 838
35 tannic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Not Applicable
36 Epinephryl borate

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 53)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Dopaminergic Enhancement of Learning and Memory in Healthy Adults and Patients With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00111371 Phase 4 Levodopa
2 Effects of Atomoxetine on Brain Activation During Attention & Reading Tasks in Participants With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00716274 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
3 Treatment of ADHD With Atomoxetine in Children & Adolescents With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00607919 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
4 Treatment With Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Children and Adolescents With ADHD Completed NCT00191048 Phase 4 Atomoxetine
5 Comparison of Atomoxetine and Placebo in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or Reading Disorder (RD) Completed NCT00191906 Phase 4 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride;placebo
6 Interventions for Children With Attention and Reading Disorders Completed NCT01133847 Phase 4 Methylphenidate;Mixed Salt Amphetamine;Atomoxetine;Guanfacine
7 Randomized Clinical Trial of Phonological Interventions Unknown status NCT00818428 Phase 2, Phase 3
8 Reading Problems in Children Living in Urban Areas Completed NCT00065832 Phase 3
9 Working Memory Training in Adults With Substance Abuse and Executive Function Deficits. Unknown status NCT02068261 Phase 2
10 Implementation of Climb Up Program for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Dyslexia in a School in India Completed NCT01012778 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 My Scrivener® - Measuring Effectiveness and Dose Response in Children Completed NCT00919906 Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Interventions for Reading Disabilities in NF1 Recruiting NCT02964884 Phase 2 Lovastatin;Placebo Oral Tablet
13 Group-based Training for Parents of Children With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02107534 Not Applicable
14 Using fMRI to Evaluate Instructional Programs for Children With Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00068835 Not Applicable
15 Prediction and Intervention in Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02217696 Not Applicable
16 Effects of Music Education for Children With Reading Difficulties Unknown status NCT01388881 Not Applicable
17 Scholar Performance and Praxis Assessment in Children With Rolandic Epilepsy Unknown status NCT01046760
18 Sensory and Connectivity Abnormalities in Autism and Language Disorders Unknown status NCT00956579
19 Predictive Executive Functioning Models Using Interactive Tangible-Graphical Interface Devices in Adults Unknown status NCT02127931 Not Applicable
20 Predictive Executive Functioning Models Using Interactive Tangible-Graphical Interface Devices Unknown status NCT01711372 Not Applicable
21 Endophenotype Characterization of a Family Psychiatric Disorder Unknown status NCT02843997 Not Applicable
22 Study of Hierarchy of Afferents in Postural Control of Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02879786 Not Applicable
23 Working Memory Training for Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02429739 Not Applicable
24 Morphofunctional Imaging and Developmental Dyslexia Completed NCT00254644
25 The Effectiveness of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation in Young Dyslexic Adults Completed NCT01930500 Not Applicable
26 Functional MRI Study in Children With a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and/or Developmental Dyslexia (DD) Completed NCT02393729 Not Applicable
27 Developmental Dyslexia and Functional Maturation of Auditory Cortex Completed NCT00245804
28 Rhythm and Music to Rehabilitate Reading Disorders Completed NCT02316873 Not Applicable
29 Neurobiology and Treatment of Reading Disability in NF-1 Completed NCT00624234 Not Applicable
30 Comprehensive Program to Improve Reading and Writing Skills in At-Risk and Dyslexic Children Completed NCT00061412 Not Applicable
31 Reading Disability in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02397967 Not Applicable
32 Developmental Language Difficulties: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Studies Completed NCT02872870
33 Functional Imaging and Reading Deficit in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02422732 Not Applicable
34 Therapy for Reading Problems in Adults After Brain Injury Completed NCT00064805 Not Applicable
35 Multimodal Treatment of Phonological Alexia: Behavioral & fMRI Outcomes Completed NCT00827268 Not Applicable
36 Brain Mechanisms Underlying Reading Improvement in Central Alexia Completed NCT02062619 Not Applicable
37 Reading in Preterm and Full-term Children: Neural Basis and Prediction Completed NCT01599546
38 Dyslexia, Motor Control and Proprioception Recruiting NCT03364010 Not Applicable
39 Comparison of Interventions for Developmental Dyslexia Recruiting NCT02791841 Not Applicable
40 Effects of the Combination of RRT With tDCS on Dyslexic Adults Recruiting NCT03119402 Not Applicable
41 Improving Response to Intervention in Students With or at Risk of Reading Disabilities Recruiting NCT03261661 Not Applicable
42 Efficacy of Coloured Overlays and Lenses for Reading Difficulty Recruiting NCT02680223 Not Applicable
43 Brain Imaging of Childhood Onset Psychiatric Disorders, Endocrine Disorders and Healthy Volunteers Recruiting NCT00001246
44 Characterization of Auditory Processing Involved in the Encoding of Speech Sounds Recruiting NCT02574299 Not Applicable
45 Maturation of Auditory Processing in Children With Dyslexia Compared to Average-reading Children Active, not recruiting NCT02345876
46 Rhythmic Reading Training Compared to 'Abilmente' Method Active, not recruiting NCT03199092 Not Applicable
47 App-delivered Therapy for Arabic Readers With Hemianopic Alexia Active, not recruiting NCT02482350 Not Applicable
48 The Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study Active, not recruiting NCT02607384 Not Applicable
49 Speech and Short-term Memory Functions in Dyslexia: a Combined MEG and EEG Study Enrolling by invitation NCT02622360
50 Orthophonic and / or Proprioceptive Treatment of Developmental Dyslexia. Enrolling by invitation NCT03448237 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Dyslexia

Genetic Tests for Dyslexia

Anatomical Context for Dyslexia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Dyslexia:

41
Brain, Eye, Cortex, Testes, Cerebellum, Cingulate Cortex, Thalamus

Publications for Dyslexia

Articles related to Dyslexia:

(show top 50) (show all 819)
# Title Authors Year
1
Hemispheric asymmetries in the orientation and location of the lateral geniculate nucleus in dyslexia. ( 29380470 )
2018
2
Review of EEG-based pattern classification frameworks for dyslexia. ( 29904812 )
2018
3
Dyslexia and dyscalculia are characterized by common visual perception deficits. ( 29975105 )
2018
4
Decreased functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network in children with mood disorders compared to children with dyslexia during rest: An fMRI study. ( 29845006 )
2018
5
Dyslexia as a multi-deficit disorder: Working memory and auditory temporal processing. ( 29304447 )
2018
6
Doctors from overseas are missing out on dyslexia screening, researchers find. ( 29335274 )
2018
7
Tracking the effects of dyslexia in reading and spelling development: A longitudinal study of Greek readers. ( 29316015 )
2018
8
Meta-analytic findings reveal lower means but higher variances in visuospatial ability in dyslexia. ( 29938776 )
2018
9
Increased variability of stimulus-driven cortical responses is associated with genetic variability in children with and without dyslexia. ( 29894888 )
2018
10
Conceptual size in developmental dyscalculia and dyslexia. ( 29528683 )
2018
11
Analyzing Global Components in Developmental Dyscalculia and Dyslexia. ( 29515490 )
2018
12
The Influence of Dyslexia Candidate Genes on Reading Skill in Old Age. ( 29959602 )
2018
13
Children with dyslexia show a reduced processing benefit from bimodal speech information compared to their typically developing peers. ( 29352968 )
2018
14
Quantitative assessment of drawing tests in children with dyslexia and dysgraphia. ( 29748041 )
2018
15
Representational Bias in the Radial Axis in Children With Dyslexia: A Landmarks Alignment Study. ( 29938599 )
2018
16
Atypical predictive processing during visual statistical learning in children with developmental dyslexia: an event-related potential study. ( 29907920 )
2018
17
Ancestral Variations of the PCDHG Gene Cluster Predispose to Dyslexia in a Multiplex Family. ( 29409727 )
2018
18
Decoupling of the Occipitotemporal Cortex and the Brain's Default-Mode Network in Dyslexia and a Role for the Cingulate Cortex in Good Readers: A Brain Imaging Study of Brazilian Children. ( 29412010 )
2018
19
Abnormal age-related cortical folding and neurite morphology in children with developmental dyslexia. ( 29876267 )
2018
20
Performance of candidates disclosing dyslexia with other candidates in a UK medical licensing examination: cross-sectional study. ( 29330347 )
2018
21
Developmental surface dysgraphia without surface dyslexia. ( 29940788 )
2018
22
Association study of FGF18 with developmental dyslexia in Chinese population. ( 29240020 )
2018
23
Hypermyelination of the left auditory cortex in developmental dyslexia. ( 29321232 )
2018
24
Dyscalculia and dyslexia: Different behavioral, yet similar brain activity profiles during arithmetic. ( 29876258 )
2018
25
Pathways Into Literacy: The Role of Early Oral Language Abilities and Family Risk for Dyslexia. ( 29346032 )
2018
26
Comments on: "What Is Developmental Dyslexia?" Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 26. The Relationship between Eye Movements and Reading Difficulties. ( 29867069 )
2018
27
Atypical Structural Asymmetry of the Planum Temporale is Related to Family History of Dyslexia. ( 29253247 )
2018
28
No evidence for systematic white matter correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia. ( 29487792 )
2018
29
Vowel letter dyslexia. ( 29888628 )
2018
30
Language Skills, but Not Frequency Discrimination, Predict Reading Skills in Children at Risk of Dyslexia. ( 29791271 )
2018
31
Auditory temporal perceptual learning and transfer in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia. ( 29413429 )
2018
32
What is Developmental Dyslexia? ( 29401712 )
2018
33
Simulation of dyslexia. How literacy and cognitive skills can help distinguish college students with dyslexia from malingerers. ( 29782515 )
2018
34
Reading Derived Words by Italian Children With and Without Dyslexia: The Effect of Root Length. ( 29867633 )
2018
35
Developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment: distinct syntactic profiles? ( 29775094 )
2018
36
Inhibition and Updating, but Not Switching, Predict Developmental Dyslexia and Individual Variation in Reading Ability. ( 29892245 )
2018
37
A Selective Deficit in Phonetic Recalibration by Text in Developmental Dyslexia. ( 29867675 )
2018
38
Short-term adaptation to sound statistics is unimpaired in developmental dyslexia. ( 29879142 )
2018
39
Movement Issues Identified in Movement ABC2 Checklist Parent Ratings for Students with Persisting Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, and OWL LD and Typical Literacy Learners. ( 29606845 )
2018
40
Learned helplessness in doctors with dyslexia: Time for a change in discourse? ( 29429848 )
2018
41
Neural Noise Hypothesis of Developmental Dyslexia: (Trends in Cognitive Sciences 21, 434-448, 2017). ( 28869186 )
2017
42
Who Will Help My Son?: A Family's Journey with Dyslexia. ( 28771284 )
2017
43
Towards identifying dyslexia in Standard Indonesian: the development of a reading assessment battery. ( 28932019 )
2017
44
Identification of NCAN as a candidate gene for developmental dyslexia. ( 28839234 )
2017
45
What role for prism adaptation in the rehabilitation of pure neglect dyslexia? ( 28774229 )
2017
46
Neural Entrainment and Sensorimotor Synchronization to the Beat in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: An EEG Study. ( 28747870 )
2017
47
RADAR: A novel fast-screening method for reading difficulties with special focus on dyslexia. ( 28800632 )
2017
48
Can you spell dyslexia without SLI? Comparing the cognitive profiles of dyslexia and specific language impairment and their roles in learning. ( 28486125 )
2017
49
Unstable Binocular Fixation Affects Reaction Times But Not Implicit Motor Learning in Dyslexia. ( 29288270 )
2017
50
Evaluating the impact of dyslexia laws on the identification of specific learning disability and dyslexia. ( 29134483 )
2017

Variations for Dyslexia

Copy number variations for Dyslexia from CNVD:

7
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 18124 1 144106777 144451305 Deletion Dyslexia
2 169290 3 139732796 140171095 Duplication Dyslexia
3 181529 4 123017758 123458923 Duplication Dyslexia
4 214702 6 65179840 66364033 Deletion Dyslexia
5 218276 7 110381300 110851860 Deletion Dyslexia
6 224996 7 40606348 40819984 Deletion Dyslexia
7 227462 7 68820751 68904999 Deletion Dyslexia
8 227539 7 69876932 70546042 Duplication Dyslexia
9 232264 8 11373083 11434911 Deletion Dyslexia
10 254314 9 6348644 6740836 Deletion Dyslexia

Expression for Dyslexia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Dyslexia.

Pathways for Dyslexia

GO Terms for Dyslexia

Biological processes related to Dyslexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neuron migration GO:0001764 8.8 DCDC2 DNAAF4 KIAA0319

Sources for Dyslexia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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