MCID: EPD015
MIFTS: 46

Epidemic Typhus

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Epidemic Typhus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Epidemic Typhus:

Name: Epidemic Typhus 12 52 58 3 15
Typhus 12 74 52 54 15 17 71
Murine Typhus 12 52 58 3
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus Fever Due to Rickettsia Prowazekii 12 32
Endemic Flea-Borne Typhus 12 71
Brill-Zinsser Disease 52 71
Flea-Borne Typhus 12 58
Endemic Typhus 52 58
Typhus Fever 12 32
Jail Fever 12 52
Typhus Group Rickettsial Disease 71
Louse-Borne [epidemic] Typhus 12
Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne 71
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus 12
Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne 43
Exanthematic Typhus Fever 12
Louse-Borne Rickettsiosis 12
Flea-Borne Rickettsiosis 12
Murine [endemic] Typhus 12
Typhus Exanthematique 12
Endemic Typhus Fever 12
Exanthematous Typhus 12
Louse-Borne Typhus 12
Epidemic Typhus 12
Classical Typhus 12
Sylvatic Typhus 12
European Typhus 12
Petechial Fever 12
Rat Flea Typhus 12
Relapsing Fever 71
Hospital Fever 12
Mexican Typhus 12
Moscow Typhus 12
Urban Typhus 12
Famine Fever 12
Prison Fever 12
Shop Typhus 12
Flea Typhus 12
Ship Fever 12

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
epidemic typhus
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: any age;
murine typhus
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: normal life expectancy;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050480 DOID:11256
ICD9CM 34 080 081.0 081.9
MESH via Orphanet 44 D014438
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 A75.0 A75.2
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0041473
UMLS 71 C0006181 C0035021 C0041471 more

Summaries for Epidemic Typhus

CDC : 3 Epidemic typhus, also called louse-borne typhus, is an uncommon disease caused by a bacteria called Rickettsia prowazekii. Epidemic typhus is spread to people through contact with infected body lice. Though epidemic typhus was responsible for millions of deaths in previous centuries, it is now considered a rare disease. Occasionally, cases continue to occur, in areas where extreme overcrowding is common and body lice can travel from one person to another. In the United States, rare cases of epidemic typhus, called sylvatic typhus, can occur. These cases occur when people are exposed to flying squirrels and their nests

MalaCards based summary : Epidemic Typhus, also known as typhus, is related to israeli tick typhus and indian tick typhus, and has symptoms including recurrent fevers An important gene associated with Epidemic Typhus is AFF2 (AF4/FMR2 Family Member 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Primary immunodeficiency. The drugs Doxycycline and Antibiotics, Antitubercular have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, t cells and endothelial.

Disease Ontology : 12 A primary bacterial infectious disease that refers to a group of diseases, located in endothelial cells of the small venous, arterial, and capillary vessels, has material basis in Rickettsia bacteria, which are transmitted by lice, transmitted by fleas, and transmitted by mites.

Wikipedia : 74 Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus,... more...

Related Diseases for Epidemic Typhus

Diseases related to Epidemic Typhus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 511)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 israeli tick typhus 34.4 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4
2 indian tick typhus 34.2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 CD40LG AFF2
3 brill-zinsser disease 33.6 WARS1 SPTBN2 PLEKHG4 CD40LG AFF2
4 flinders island spotted fever 33.2 CS AFF2
5 pediculus humanus corporis infestation 32.9 WARS1 PPP1R14A MT-CYB CS CD40LG AFF2
6 variola major 31.7 CD8A CD4
7 plague 30.9 WARS1 CD8A CD4
8 japanese spotted fever 30.9 PPP1R14A HSPD1 CD40LG AFF2
9 typhoid fever 30.9 HTRA1 GALE CD40LG
10 meningoencephalitis 30.8 CD8A CD40LG CD4
11 hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome 30.8 CD8A CD40LG CD4
12 scrub typhus 30.8 TCN2 CD40LG AFF2
13 louse-borne relapsing fever 30.8 WARS1 C21orf91
14 neuroretinitis 30.7 CS CD40LG CD4
15 queensland tick typhus 30.7 PLEKHG4 CS
16 orchitis 30.7 CD8A CD40LG CD4
17 bronchopneumonia 30.6 CD8A CD40LG CD4
18 spotted fever 30.6 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 CS CD40LG
19 optic papillitis 30.5 CD40LG CD4
20 pharyngitis 30.5 CD8A CD40LG CD4
21 thrombocytopenia due to platelet alloimmunization 30.5 CD8A CD40LG CD4
22 trench fever 30.5 WARS1 MT-CYB HSPD1 CS COX18 C21orf91
23 exanthem 30.5 CD8A CD40LG CD4
24 chickenpox 30.5 CD8A CD40LG CD4
25 herpes zoster 30.5 CD8A CD40LG CD4
26 boutonneuse fever 30.4 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 CS CD40LG AFF2
27 bacterial infectious disease 30.4 HSPD1 CD8A CD40LG CD4
28 chlamydia pneumonia 30.4 HSPD1 CD40LG CD4
29 nocardiosis 30.4 HSPD1 CD4
30 kawasaki disease 30.4 HSPD1 CD40LG CD4
31 mononeuritis multiplex 30.4 CD40LG CD4
32 pancytopenia 30.3 TCN2 CD8A CD40LG CD4
33 granulomatous hepatitis 30.3 CD8A CD40LG CD4
34 chorioretinitis 30.3 CD8A CD40LG CD4
35 facial paralysis 30.3 CD8A CD40LG CD4
36 poliomyelitis 30.3 CD8A CD40LG CD4
37 tularemia 30.3 HSPD1 CD8A CD40LG CD4
38 optic nerve disease 30.3 MT-CYB CD40LG CD4
39 rocky mountain spotted fever 30.2 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 PATL2 HSPD1 CS
40 ehrlichiosis 30.2 HSPD1 CD8A CD40LG CD4
41 pfeiffer syndrome 30.2 CD8A CD40LG CD4
42 esophageal candidiasis 30.1 CD8A CD4
43 bone inflammation disease 30.1 CD8A CD40LG CD4
44 malaria 29.8 TCN2 MT-CYB HSPD1 CD8A CD40LG CD4
45 endemic typhus 29.3 WARS1 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 HSPD1
46 siberian tick typhus 12.6
47 relapsing epidemic typhus 12.5
48 typhus-group rickettsiosis 12.5
49 obsolete: kenya tick typhus 12.1
50 obsolete: indian tick typhus 12.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Epidemic Typhus:



Diseases related to Epidemic Typhus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Epidemic Typhus

UMLS symptoms related to Epidemic Typhus:


recurrent fevers

Drugs & Therapeutics for Epidemic Typhus

Drugs for Epidemic Typhus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 26)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
2 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4
3 Antitubercular Agents Phase 4
4
Telithromycin Approved Phase 3 191114-48-4 5462516 70789201
5
Azithromycin Approved Phase 3 83905-01-5 55185 447043
6
Sulfamethoxazole Approved Phase 3 723-46-6 5329
7
Trimethoprim Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 738-70-5 5578
8 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3
9 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3
10 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3
11 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3
12 Antimalarials Phase 3
13 Renal Agents Phase 3
14 Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary Phase 3
15 Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Phase 3
16
Rifampicin Approved 13292-46-1 5458213 5381226
17
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
18
carbamide peroxide Approved 124-43-6
19 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
20 Immunologic Factors
21 Vaccines
22 Immunoglobulins
23 Antibodies
24 Immunoglobulin G
25 Immunoglobulin M
26 Immunoglobulin A

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 18)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Scrub Typhus Antibiotic Resistance Trial (START) Comparing Doxycycline and Azithromycin Treatment Modalities in Areas of Reported Antimicrobial Resistance for Scrub Typhus Recruiting NCT03083197 Phase 4 Doxycycline 7 days;Doxycycline 3 days;Azithromycin 3 days
2 Phase 3 Study of Controlled Trial: 5-day Course of Telithromycin Versus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Scrub Typhus Completed NCT00351182 Phase 3 Telithromycin;Doxycycline
3 Post Exposure Treatment With Doxycycline for the Prevention of Relapsing Fever Completed NCT00237016 Phase 2, Phase 3 doxycycline treatment
4 Parallel Group, Double Blinded, 1:1, Randomized Controlled Phase III Trial of Co-trimoxazole Versus Azithromycin for the Treatment of Undifferentiated Fever In Nepal Active, not recruiting NCT02773407 Phase 3 Azithromycin;Co-trimoxazole
5 Laboratory Diagnosis of of Rickettsial and Rickettsia-like Diseases Unknown status NCT01137175
6 Controlled Trial: 5-day Course of Rifampin Versus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Scrub Typhus Completed NCT00568711 doxycycline;rifampin
7 The Natural Immune Response In Pediatric Scrub Typhus In Chiangrai Completed NCT02398162
8 Rickettsial Disease in Febrile Hospitalised Patients in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Bangladesh Completed NCT02339259
9 Indian Intensive Care Case Mix and Practice Patterns Study Completed NCT01384929
10 Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) in Association With Clinical and Laboratory Predictors for the Diagnosis of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) in Patients Presenting With Persistent Fever (≥1 Week) in Cambodia, Nepal, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan Completed NCT01766830
11 Evaluation of Diagnosis of Fever and Biologic Inflammatory Syndrome of Unknown Origin Completed NCT02786693
12 The Impact of C-reactive Protein Testing on Antibiotic Prescription in Febrile Patients Attending Primary Care in Low-resource Settings Completed NCT02758821
13 Prediction and Early Diagnosis for Cardiovascular Disease Complicated by Scrub Typhus Infection Recruiting NCT03274869
14 Eschar Investigations to Improve Diagnostics, Understand Early Immune Responses and Characterize Strains for Vaccines in Scrub Typhus Recruiting NCT02915861
15 The Clinical Epidemiology of Scrub Typhus in Humans, Chiggers and Rodents Active, not recruiting NCT02876367
16 A Multicentre Observational Study to Describe the Prevalence of Scrub Typhus Defined as a Positive Rapid Diagnostic Test Among Selected Patients Presenting With Fever to Clinics in Myanmar Active, not recruiting NCT03269266
17 Background Seroprevalence of Rickettsial Infections in Myanmar Not yet recruiting NCT03847870
18 Lyme Test Indication Combinations (LyTIC) Study Terminated NCT03201042

Search NIH Clinical Center for Epidemic Typhus

Cochrane evidence based reviews: typhus, endemic flea-borne

Genetic Tests for Epidemic Typhus

Anatomical Context for Epidemic Typhus

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Epidemic Typhus:

40
Testes, T Cells, Endothelial, Kidney, Lung, Liver, Heart

Publications for Epidemic Typhus

Articles related to Epidemic Typhus:

(show top 50) (show all 4863)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Elevation of serum transcobalamin II in patients with scrub typhus. 54 61
15906652 2005
2
Persistently elevated serum transcobalamin II in a patient with cerebral malaria and typhus infections. 54 61
7622977 1995
3
Antinuclear antibodies in infectious diseases. 61
31718355 2020
4
The epidemiology, characteristics and outbreaks of human leptospirosis and the association with animals in Taiwan, 2007-2014: A nationwide database study. 61
31916706 2020
5
"Coinfection of H1N1 Influenza and Scrub Typhus: A Review". 61
32031635 2020
6
Emergence of murine typhus in La Réunion, France, 2012-2017. 61
31387814 2020
7
Epidemiological characteristics and spatiotemporal patterns of typhus group rickettsiosis at the county level in China, 2005-2017. 61
31760046 2020
8
Quantitative Proteomics of the Endothelial Secretome Identifies RC0497 as Diagnostic of Acute Rickettsial Spotted Fever Infections. 61
31955791 2020
9
Historical sedimentary deposition and flux of PAHs, PCBs and DDTs in sediment cores from the western Adriatic Sea. 61
31604196 2020
10
Massive splenomegaly in scrub typhus: A rare presentation. 61
31908944 2020
11
Role of Bone Marrow Examination in the Evaluation of Infections: Clinico-Hematological Analysis in a Tertiary Care Centre. 61
31522489 2020
12
Trends in clinical diagnoses of typhus group rickettsioses among a large U.S. insurance claims database. 61
31984654 2020
13
Climate factors driven typhus group rickettsiosis incidence dynamics in Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture of Yunnan province in China, 2005-2017. 61
31915005 2020
14
Scrub Typhus Eschar. 61
31937716 2020
15
Scrub typhus with meningoencephalitis - four cases. 61
31979815 2020
16
Pancytopenia- A rare manifestation of scrub typhus. 61
31979876 2020
17
Study of Scrub Typhus in Rural Bangalore. 61
31979888 2020
18
Outcome Predictors in Scrub Typhus Requiring Ventilator and Vasopressor Support. 61
32001853 2020
19
Extracellular vesicle-associated antigens as a new vaccine platform against scrub typhus. 61
31941602 2020
20
A cutaneous clue to a tropical cause of acute pancreatitis: Scrub Typhus. 61
31927109 2020
21
Invasive plants facilitated by socioeconomic change harbor vectors of scrub typhus and spotted fever. 61
31961870 2020
22
Clinical and Biochemical Profi le of Scrub Typhus: A Re-Emerging Infection in Western Odisha. 61
31979814 2020
23
Complex Cytokine Responses in Imported Scrub Typhus Cases, Germany, 2010-2018. 61
31769398 2020
24
Metagenomic next-generation sequencing helped diagnose scrub typhus without eschar: A case report. 61
31648003 2020
25
Spatiotemporal and demographic characteristics of scrub typhus in Southwest China, 2006-2017: An analysis of population-based surveillance data. 61
31975551 2020
26
A study on clinical features and treatment outcome of scrub typhus a re-emerging disease in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. 61
31979881 2020
27
The Trick of the Hedgehog: Case Report and Short Review About Archaeopsylla erinacei (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in Human Health. 61
31595296 2020
28
Obligate intracellular bacteria diversity in unfed Leptotrombidium scutellare larvae highlights novel bacterial endosymbionts of mites. 61
31549736 2020
29
Temporal analysis of mRNA expression profiles in Orientia infected C3HeB/FeJ mouse. 61
31906849 2020
30
High index of suspicion for brucellosis in a highly cosmopolitan city in southern China. 61
31914937 2020
31
Identification of trombiculid mites (Acari: Trombiculidae) on rodents from Chiloé Island and molecular evidence of infection with Orientia species. 61
31971956 2020
32
Searching and finding the hidden treasure: Rickettsial disease among Dutch international travelers - a retrospective analysis. 61
31998942 2020
33
Drug-resistant scrub typhus. 61
31837263 2019
34
Drug-resistant scrub typhus. 61
31837262 2019
35
Coinfection of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome and Scrub Typhus in Patients with Tick-Borne Illness. 61
31549609 2019
36
[Feasibility of difference between hematocrit and albumin for identifying severity of scrub typhus disease]. 61
32029042 2019
37
New-onset atrial fibrillation predicting for complicating cardiac adverse outcome in scrub typhus infection. 61
31580531 2019
38
Mapping Environmental Suitability of Scrub Typhus in Nepal Using MaxEnt and Random Forest Models. 61
31810239 2019
39
Spatio-temporal patterns of scrub typhus in mainland China, 2006-2017. 61
31790406 2019
40
Scrub typhus in patients with acute febrile illness: a five-year study from India. 61
31790119 2019
41
Splenic infarct with scrub typhus: a rare presentation. 61
31789114 2019
42
Antibody response following scrub typhus infection: clinical cohort study. 61
31660667 2019
43
Annual Fluctuation in Chigger Mite Populations and Orientia Tsutsugamushi Infections in Scrub Typhus Endemic Regions of South Korea. 61
31897364 2019
44
Challenges in diagnosing scrub typhus among hospitalized patients with undifferentiated fever at a national tertiary hospital in northern Vietnam. 61
31805053 2019
45
Scrub typhus with multi-organ dysfunction syndrome and immune thrombocytopenia: a case report and review of the literature. 61
31810465 2019
46
Hospital based serological evidence of rickettsial diseases and assessment diagnostic tests of pyrexia of unknown origin. 61
31805833 2019
47
The Eschar Size and Early Inoculation Lesion of Tsutsugamushi Disease on Jeju Island, Korea. 61
31782274 2019
48
New Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia Isolate, Identified by Sequence Analysis of Conserved Genomic Regions. 61
31861899 2019
49
Biosafety and biosecurity requirements for Orientia spp. diagnosis and research: recommendations for risk-based biocontainment, work practices and the case for reclassification to risk group 2. 61
31822267 2019
50
The health of Italian troops and prisoners during World War I. 61
31847002 2019

Variations for Epidemic Typhus

Expression for Epidemic Typhus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Epidemic Typhus.

Pathways for Epidemic Typhus

Pathways related to Epidemic Typhus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.38 CD8A CD40LG CD4

GO Terms for Epidemic Typhus

Biological processes related to Epidemic Typhus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 T cell activation GO:0042110 8.8 HSPD1 CD8A CD4

Sources for Epidemic Typhus

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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