MCID: EPD015
MIFTS: 48

Epidemic Typhus

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Epidemic Typhus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Epidemic Typhus:

Name: Epidemic Typhus 12 53 59 3 15
Typhus 12 76 53 55 15 73
Endemic Flea-Borne Typhus 12 73
Brill-Zinsser Disease 53 73
Murine Typhus 12 53
Jail Fever 12 53
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus Fever Due to Rickettsia Prowazekii 12
Typhus Group Rickettsial Disease 73
Louse-Borne [epidemic] Typhus 12
Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne 73
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus 12
Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne 44
Exanthematic Typhus Fever 12
Louse-Borne Rickettsiosis 12
Flea-Borne Rickettsiosis 12
Murine [endemic] Typhus 12
Typhus Exanthematique 12
Endemic Typhus Fever 12
Exanthematous Typhus 12
Louse-Borne Typhus 12
Epidemic Typhus 12
Flea-Borne Typhus 12
Classical Typhus 12
Sylvatic Typhus 12
European Typhus 12
Petechial Fever 12
Rat Flea Typhus 12
Relapsing Fever 73
Endemic Typhus 53
Hospital Fever 12
Mexican Typhus 12
Moscow Typhus 12
Urban Typhus 12
Famine Fever 12
Prison Fever 12
Typhus Fever 12
Shop Typhus 12
Flea Typhus 12
Ship Fever 12

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

59
epidemic typhus
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: any age;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 59  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050480 DOID:11256
ICD9CM 35 080 081.0 081.9
Orphanet 59 ORPHA83314
MESH via Orphanet 45 D014438
UMLS via Orphanet 74 C0041473
ICD10 via Orphanet 34 A75.0

Summaries for Epidemic Typhus

CDC : 3 Typhus fevers are a group of diseases caused by bacteria that are spread to humans by fleas, lice, and chiggers. Typhus fevers include scrub typhus, murine typhus, and epidemic typhus. Chiggers spread scrub typhus, fleas spread murine typhus, and body lice spread epidemic typhus. The most common symptoms are fever, headaches, and sometimes rash.

MalaCards based summary : Epidemic Typhus, also known as typhus, is related to scrub typhus and spotted fever, and has symptoms including recurrent fevers An important gene associated with Epidemic Typhus is AFF2 (AF4/FMR2 Family Member 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Selenium Metabolism and Selenoproteins. The drugs Doxycycline and Azithromycin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include endothelial, testes and liver.

Disease Ontology : 12 A primary bacterial infectious disease that refers to a group of diseases, located in endothelial cells of the small venous, arterial, and capillary vessels, has material basis in Rickettsia bacteria, which are transmitted by lice, transmitted by fleas, and transmitted by mites.

Wikipedia : 76 Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus,... more...

Related Diseases for Epidemic Typhus

Diseases related to Epidemic Typhus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 143)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 scrub typhus 32.0 F3 GPT TCN2
2 spotted fever 30.3 AFF2 CCL5
3 rocky mountain spotted fever 30.0 AFF2 F3 MRRF
4 hemorrhagic fever 29.6 F3 GPT
5 endemic typhus 12.5
6 siberian tick typhus 12.5
7 relapsing epidemic typhus 12.3
8 indian tick typhus 12.2
9 israeli tick typhus 12.2
10 brill-zinsser disease 11.6
11 flinders island spotted fever 11.3
12 pediculus humanus corporis infestation 11.3
13 bolivian hemorrhagic fever 11.0
14 acute respiratory distress syndrome 10.4
15 malaria 10.2
16 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 10.2
17 trench fever 10.2
18 leptospirosis 10.2
19 pancreatitis 10.1
20 hepatitis 10.1
21 typhoid fever 10.1
22 myocarditis 10.1
23 relapsing fever 10.0
24 plague 10.0
25 pasteurellosis 10.0
26 infantile liver failure syndrome 1 10.0
27 acute liver failure 10.0
28 japanese spotted fever 10.0
29 disseminated intravascular coagulation 10.0
30 neuritis 10.0
31 myelitis 10.0
32 transverse myelitis 10.0
33 ehrlichiosis 10.0
34 optic neuritis 10.0
35 orchitis 10.0
36 acute pancreatitis 10.0
37 vasculitis 10.0
38 epididymo-orchitis 10.0
39 bacterial meningitis 10.0
40 tuberculous meningitis 10.0
41 acute transverse myelitis 10.0
42 dengue virus 10.0
43 dengue disease 10.0
44 thrombocytopenia 10.0
45 endocarditis 10.0
46 meningoencephalitis 10.0
47 boutonneuse fever 10.0
48 status epilepticus 10.0
49 cholecystitis 10.0
50 vitamin b12 deficiency 9.9 GPT TCN2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Epidemic Typhus:



Diseases related to Epidemic Typhus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Epidemic Typhus

UMLS symptoms related to Epidemic Typhus:


recurrent fevers

Drugs & Therapeutics for Epidemic Typhus

Drugs for Epidemic Typhus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 20)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 564-25-0 54671203
2
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4 83905-01-5 55185 447043
3 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4,Not Applicable
4 Antimalarials Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
5 Antitubercular Agents Phase 4,Not Applicable
6 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
7 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
8 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
9 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
10
Telithromycin Approved Phase 3 191114-48-4 0 5462516
11
Rifampicin Approved Not Applicable 13292-46-1 5458213 5381226
12
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
13 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors Not Applicable
14 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers Not Applicable
15 Vaccines
16 Immunoglobulins
17 Immunoglobulin A
18 Antibodies
19 Immunoglobulin G
20 Immunoglobulin M

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 12)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Scrub Typhus Antibiotic Resistance Trial Recruiting NCT03083197 Phase 4 Doxycycline 7 days;Doxycycline 3 days;Azithromycin 3 days
2 Controlled Trial: 5-Day Course of Telithromycin Versus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Scrub Typhus Unknown status NCT00351182 Phase 3 Telithromycin;Doxycycline
3 Controlled Trial: 5-Day Course of Rifampin Versus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Scrub Typhus Unknown status NCT00568711 Not Applicable doxycycline;rifampin
4 Laboratory Diagnosis of of Rickettsial and Rickettsia-like Diseases Unknown status NCT01137175
5 Scrub Typhus Pediatric Immunology Study Completed NCT02398162
6 Causes of Fever in Bangladeshi Patients Completed NCT02339259
7 The Impact of C-reactive Protein Testing Completed NCT02758821 Not Applicable
8 Scrub Typhus Infection Induced Cardiovascular Disease Recruiting NCT03274869
9 Eschar Investigations in Scrub Typhus Recruiting NCT02915861
10 Scrub Typhus RDT Study Active, not recruiting NCT03269266
11 The Clinical Epidemiology of Scrub Typhus in Humans, Chiggers and Rodents Active, not recruiting NCT02876367
12 Lyme Test Indication Combinations (LyTIC) Study Terminated NCT03201042

Search NIH Clinical Center for Epidemic Typhus

Cochrane evidence based reviews: typhus, endemic flea-borne

Genetic Tests for Epidemic Typhus

Anatomical Context for Epidemic Typhus

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Epidemic Typhus:

41
Endothelial, Testes, Liver, Lung, Bone, Thyroid, Kidney

Publications for Epidemic Typhus

Articles related to Epidemic Typhus:

(show top 50) (show all 389)
# Title Authors Year
1
The epidemic typhus and trench fever are risk for public health due to increased migration in southeast of Turkey. ( 29126839 )
2018
2
Acute transverse myelitis following scrub typhus: A case report and review of the literature. ( 29350608 )
2018
3
Community-based prevalence of typhoid fever, typhus, brucellosis and malaria among symptomatic individuals in Afar Region, Ethiopia. ( 30286076 )
2018
4
Scrub typhus and depression: a nationwide cohort analysis. ( 30509305 )
2018
5
Occurrence of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the Etiological Agent of Scrub Typhus in Animal Hosts and Mite Vectors in Areas Reporting Human Cases of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in the Gorakhpur Region of Uttar Pradesh, India. ( 30016222 )
2018
6
Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late diffusion restriction in scrub typhus encephalitis. ( 30039462 )
2018
7
Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion complicated with scrub typhus. ( 30054749 )
2018
8
Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated with Scrub Typhus: Systematic Review and Comparison between Pediatric and Adult Cases. ( 30274417 )
2018
9
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with neurological manifestations in an infant with scrub typhus: a rare fatal occurrence. ( 30360694 )
2018
10
Distinguishing Japanese Spotted Fever and Scrub Typhus, Central Japan, 2004- 2015. ( 30124190 )
2018
11
Case Report: Concurrent Sympatric Scrub Typhus and Japanese Spotted Fever in Japan. ( 30298801 )
2018
12
Murine Typhus Mimicking Kawasaki Disease in a Preadolescent Girl. ( 29742650 )
2018
13
Surveillance for Scrub Typhus, Rickettsial Diseases, and Leptospirosis in US and Multinational Military Training Exercise Cobra Gold Sites in Thailand. ( 30165719 )
2018
14
A case report of scrub typhus complicated with myocarditis and rhabdomyolysis. ( 30404620 )
2018
15
Anti-aquaporin-4 Antibody Positive Optic Neuritis Following Scrub Typhus in an Elderly Female. ( 30379739 )
2018
16
Differentiation of Severe Fever With Thrombocytopenia Syndrome From Scrub Typhus. ( 29293899 )
2018
17
Effects of Rifampin and Doxycycline Treatments in Patients With Uncomplicated Scrub Typhus: An Open-Label, Randomized, Controlled Trial. ( 29462266 )
2018
18
Autofluorescence microscopy for paired-matched morphological and molecular identification of individual chigger mites (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vectors of scrub typhus. ( 29494599 )
2018
19
Characterization of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) scrub typhus model: Susceptibility to intradermal challenge with the human pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp. ( 29522521 )
2018
20
Scrub Typhus - A Major Cause of Pediatric Intensive Care Admission and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome: A Single-Center Experience from India. ( 29531452 )
2018
21
Mathematical Modeling for Scrub Typhus and Its Implications for Disease Control. ( 29542303 )
2018
22
Central nervous system lesions in scrub typhus rediscovered: An autopsy report. ( 29547167 )
2018
23
Prevalence of scrub typhus in pyrexia of unknown origin and assessment of interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma levels in scrub typhus-positive patients. ( 29567888 )
2018
24
Scrub typhus point-of-care testing: A systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 29579046 )
2018
25
Clinical profile and outcome of children with scrub typhus from Chennai, South India. ( 29637374 )
2018
26
Scrub typhus: Atypical presentation in subhimalayan region. ( 29692489 )
2018
27
Dysfunction of Circulating Natural Killer T Cells in Patients With Scrub Typhus. ( 29982731 )
2018
28
Scrub typhus in Jiangsu Province, China: epidemiologic features and spatial risk analysis. ( 30081828 )
2018
29
Laboratory-acquired scrub typhus and murine typhus infections: The argument for risk-based approach to biosafety requirements for Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi laboratory activities. ( 30107504 )
2018
30
Imported scrub typhus: first case in South America and review of the literature. ( 30140442 )
2018
31
Time spent in an endemic area is a crucial clue to diagnose scrub typhus without eschar. ( 30144135 )
2018
32
Risk Factors for Acquiring Scrub Typhus among the Adults. ( 30166814 )
2018
33
Antibiotics for treating scrub typhus. ( 30246875 )
2018
34
Prolonged coma in a scrub typhus patient. ( 30248463 )
2018
35
Ocular Flutter in Scrub Typhus. ( 30266504 )
2018
36
A Review of Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi and Related Organisms): Then, Now, and Tomorrow. ( 30274407 )
2018
37
Scrub Typhus: No Longer Restricted to the Tsutsugamushi Triangle. ( 30274409 )
2018
38
Diagnostic Accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect™ ELISA for the Detection of IgM Antibodies in Chittagong, Bangladesh. ( 30274491 )
2018
39
Diagnostic validation of IgM and IgG ELISA and real-time PCR in detecting scrub typhus infection in endemic regions. ( 30280716 )
2018
40
Targeting metabolic pathways proteins of Orientia tsutsugamushi using combined hierarchical approach to combat scrub typhus. ( 30343521 )
2018
41
Critical Illness Scoring Systems: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, and Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment to Predict the Clinical Outcomes in Scrub Typhus Patients with Organ Dysfunctions. ( 30405280 )
2018
42
Use of eschar for the molecular diagnosis and genotypic characterisation of Orientia tsutsugamushi causing scrub typhus. ( 30429398 )
2018
43
Bayesian zero-inflated spatio-temporal modelling of scrub typhus data in Korea, 2010-2014. ( 30451461 )
2018
44
Risk Factors for Acquiring Scrub Typhus among Children in Deoria and Gorakhpur Districts, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2017. ( 30457537 )
2018
45
Factors for Severe Outcome in Scrub Typhus: A Hospital Based Study in Sub Himalayan Region. ( 30477051 )
2018
46
Socio-demographic and Clinico-Epidemiological Study of Scrub Typhus in Two Tertiary Care Hospitals of Kolkata. ( 30477057 )
2018
47
Ultrastructural visualization of Orientia tsutsugamushi in biopsied eschars and monocytes from scrub typhus patients in South Korea. ( 30478364 )
2018
48
Geometric morphometrics of the scutum for differentiation of trombiculid mites within the genus Walchia (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Trombiculidae), a probable vector of scrub typhus. ( 30501981 )
2018
49
Bacterial microbiome of the chigger mite Leptotrombidium imphalum varies by life stage and infection with the scrub typhus pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi. ( 30521561 )
2018
50
Evaluation of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Recombinant 56-kDa Type-Specific Antigens Derived from Multiple Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains for Detection of Scrub Typhus Infection. ( 30526730 )
2018

Variations for Epidemic Typhus

Expression for Epidemic Typhus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Epidemic Typhus.

Pathways for Epidemic Typhus

Pathways related to Epidemic Typhus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.29 SARS SARS2

GO Terms for Epidemic Typhus

Biological processes related to Epidemic Typhus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 brain development GO:0007420 9.46 AFF2 ARRB2 NKX2-1 POU3F3
2 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation GO:0006418 9.32 SARS SARS2
3 positive regulation of calcium ion transport GO:0051928 9.26 ARRB2 CCL5
4 selenocysteinyl-tRNA(Sec) biosynthetic process GO:0097056 8.96 SARS SARS2
5 seryl-tRNA aminoacylation GO:0006434 8.62 SARS SARS2

Molecular functions related to Epidemic Typhus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity GO:0004812 8.96 SARS SARS2
2 serine-tRNA ligase activity GO:0004828 8.62 SARS SARS2

Sources for Epidemic Typhus

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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