MCID: EPD015
MIFTS: 47

Epidemic Typhus

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Epidemic Typhus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Epidemic Typhus:

Name: Epidemic Typhus 12 53 59 3 15
Typhus 12 75 53 55 15 17 72
Murine Typhus 12 53 59 3
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus Fever Due to Rickettsia Prowazekii 12 33
Endemic Flea-Borne Typhus 12 72
Brill-Zinsser Disease 53 72
Flea-Borne Typhus 12 59
Endemic Typhus 53 59
Typhus Fever 12 33
Jail Fever 12 53
Typhus Group Rickettsial Disease 72
Louse-Borne [epidemic] Typhus 12
Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne 72
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus 12
Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne 44
Exanthematic Typhus Fever 12
Louse-Borne Rickettsiosis 12
Flea-Borne Rickettsiosis 12
Murine [endemic] Typhus 12
Typhus Exanthematique 12
Endemic Typhus Fever 12
Exanthematous Typhus 12
Louse-Borne Typhus 12
Epidemic Typhus 12
Classical Typhus 12
Sylvatic Typhus 12
European Typhus 12
Petechial Fever 12
Rat Flea Typhus 12
Relapsing Fever 72
Hospital Fever 12
Mexican Typhus 12
Moscow Typhus 12
Urban Typhus 12
Famine Fever 12
Prison Fever 12
Shop Typhus 12
Flea Typhus 12
Ship Fever 12

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

59
epidemic typhus
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: any age;
murine typhus
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: normal life expectancy;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 59  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050480 DOID:11256
ICD9CM 35 080 081.0 081.9
MESH via Orphanet 45 D014438
ICD10 via Orphanet 34 A75.0 A75.2
UMLS via Orphanet 73 C0041473
UMLS 72 C0006181 C0035021 C0041471 more

Summaries for Epidemic Typhus

CDC : 3 Epidemic typhus, also called louse-borne typhus, is an uncommon disease caused by a bacteria called Rickettsia prowazekii. Epidemic typhus is spread to people through contact with infected body lice. Though epidemic typhus was responsible for millions of deaths in previous centuries, it is now considered a rare disease. Occasionally, cases continue to occur, in areas where extreme overcrowding is common and body lice can travel from one person to another. In the United States, rare cases of epidemic typhus, called sylvatic typhus, can occur. These cases occur when people are exposed to flying squirrels and their nests

MalaCards based summary : Epidemic Typhus, also known as typhus, is related to indian tick typhus and flinders island spotted fever, and has symptoms including recurrent fevers An important gene associated with Epidemic Typhus is AFF2 (AF4/FMR2 Family Member 2). The drugs Doxycycline and Azithromycin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, endothelial and t cells.

Disease Ontology : 12 A primary bacterial infectious disease that refers to a group of diseases, located in endothelial cells of the small venous, arterial, and capillary vessels, has material basis in Rickettsia bacteria, which are transmitted by lice, transmitted by fleas, and transmitted by mites.

Wikipedia : 75 Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus,... more...

Related Diseases for Epidemic Typhus

Diseases related to Epidemic Typhus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 344)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 indian tick typhus 34.0 PLEKHG4 AFF2
2 flinders island spotted fever 32.7 PLEKHG4 AFF2
3 rocky mountain spotted fever 31.0 MRRF AFF2
4 japanese spotted fever 30.6 PLEKHG4 AFF2
5 meningoencephalitis 30.4 CD40LG CCL5
6 endemic typhus 30.4 PLEKHG4 AFF2
7 dengue disease 30.4 CD40LG CCL5
8 african tick-bite fever 30.3 CD40LG CCL5
9 spotted fever 29.9 PLEKHG4 HTRA1 CCL5 AFF2
10 vulvovaginitis 29.6 HSPD1 CCL5
11 lyme disease 29.1 HSPD1 CD40LG
12 siberian tick typhus 12.6
13 relapsing epidemic typhus 12.5
14 typhus-group rickettsiosis 12.5
15 israeli tick typhus 12.3
16 obsolete: kenya tick typhus 12.1
17 obsolete: indian tick typhus 12.1
18 brill-zinsser disease 12.0
19 pediculus humanus corporis infestation 11.8
20 rickettsial disease 11.4
21 bolivian hemorrhagic fever 11.2
22 smallpox 10.7
23 variola major 10.7
24 yellow fever 10.7
25 48,xyyy 10.4
26 leptospirosis 10.3
27 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 10.3
28 thrombocytopenia 10.3
29 trench fever 10.3
30 idiopathic neutropenia 10.2 CD40LG CCL5
31 pancreatitis 10.2
32 aseptic meningitis 10.2
33 plague 10.2
34 guillain-barre syndrome 10.2
35 acute pancreatitis 10.2
36 myelitis 10.2
37 transverse myelitis 10.2
38 tuberculous meningitis 10.2
39 q fever 10.2
40 tetanus 10.1
41 pasteurellosis 10.1
42 cholecystitis 10.1
43 korean hemorrhagic fever 10.1
44 hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome 10.1
45 polyneuropathy 10.1
46 viral hepatitis 10.1
47 constipation 10.1
48 hepatitis 10.1
49 kidney disease 10.1
50 appendicitis 10.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Epidemic Typhus:



Diseases related to Epidemic Typhus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Epidemic Typhus

UMLS symptoms related to Epidemic Typhus:


recurrent fevers

Drugs & Therapeutics for Epidemic Typhus

Drugs for Epidemic Typhus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 27)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
2
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4 83905-01-5 447043 55185
3 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
4 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
5 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4
6 Antitubercular Agents Phase 4
7 Antimalarials Phase 4
8 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4
9 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 4
10
Telithromycin Approved Phase 3 191114-48-4 5462516 70789201
11
Trimethoprim Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 738-70-5 5578
12
Sulfamethoxazole Approved Phase 3 723-46-6 5329
13 Renal Agents Phase 3
14 Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Phase 3
15 Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary Phase 3
16
Rifampicin Approved 13292-46-1 5381226 5458213
17
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
18
carbamide peroxide Approved 124-43-6
19 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
20 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inducers
21 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
22 Vaccines
23 Antibodies
24 Immunoglobulins
25 Immunoglobulin G
26 Immunoglobulin M
27 Immunoglobulin A

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 18)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Scrub Typhus Antibiotic Resistance Trial (START) Comparing Doxycycline and Azithromycin Treatment Modalities in Areas of Reported Antimicrobial Resistance for Scrub Typhus Recruiting NCT03083197 Phase 4 Doxycycline 7 days;Doxycycline 3 days;Azithromycin 3 days
2 Phase 3 Study of Controlled Trial: 5-day Course of Telithromycin Versus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Scrub Typhus Completed NCT00351182 Phase 3 Telithromycin;Doxycycline
3 Post Exposure Treatment With Doxycycline for the Prevention of Relapsing Fever Completed NCT00237016 Phase 2, Phase 3 doxycycline treatment
4 Parallel Group, Double Blinded, 1:1, Randomized Controlled Phase III Trial of Co-trimoxazole Versus Azithromycin for the Treatment of Undifferentiated Fever In Nepal Recruiting NCT02773407 Phase 3 Azithromycin;Co-trimoxazole
5 Laboratory Diagnosis of of Rickettsial and Rickettsia-like Diseases Unknown status NCT01137175
6 Controlled Trial: 5-day Course of Rifampin Versus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Scrub Typhus Completed NCT00568711 doxycycline;rifampin
7 The Natural Immune Response In Pediatric Scrub Typhus In Chiangrai Completed NCT02398162
8 Rickettsial Disease in Febrile Hospitalised Patients in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Bangladesh Completed NCT02339259
9 Indian Intensive Care Case Mix and Practice Patterns Study Completed NCT01384929
10 Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) in Association With Clinical and Laboratory Predictors for the Diagnosis of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) in Patients Presenting With Persistent Fever (≥1 Week) in Cambodia, Nepal, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan Completed NCT01766830
11 Evaluation of Diagnosis of Fever and Biologic Inflammatory Syndrome of Unknown Origin Completed NCT02786693
12 The Impact of C-reactive Protein Testing on Antibiotic Prescription in Febrile Patients Attending Primary Care in Low-resource Settings Completed NCT02758821
13 Prediction and Early Diagnosis for Cardiovascular Disease Complicated by Scrub Typhus Infection Recruiting NCT03274869
14 Eschar Investigations to Improve Diagnostics, Understand Early Immune Responses and Characterize Strains for Vaccines in Scrub Typhus Recruiting NCT02915861
15 The Clinical Epidemiology of Scrub Typhus in Humans, Chiggers and Rodents Active, not recruiting NCT02876367
16 A Multicentre Observational Study to Describe the Prevalence of Scrub Typhus Defined as a Positive Rapid Diagnostic Test Among Selected Patients Presenting With Fever to Clinics in Myanmar Active, not recruiting NCT03269266
17 Background Seroprevalence of Rickettsial Infections in Myanmar Not yet recruiting NCT03847870
18 Lyme Test Indication Combinations (LyTIC) Study Terminated NCT03201042

Search NIH Clinical Center for Epidemic Typhus

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :


Doxycycline
Minocycline
Tetracycline

Cochrane evidence based reviews: typhus, endemic flea-borne

Genetic Tests for Epidemic Typhus

Anatomical Context for Epidemic Typhus

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Epidemic Typhus:

41
Testes, Endothelial, T Cells, Liver, Skin, Kidney, Lung

Publications for Epidemic Typhus

Articles related to Epidemic Typhus:

(show top 50) (show all 4780)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Elevation of serum transcobalamin II in patients with scrub typhus. 9 38
15906652 2005
2
Persistently elevated serum transcobalamin II in a patient with cerebral malaria and typhus infections. 9 38
7622977 1995
3
Case Report: Early Doxycycline Therapy for Potential Rickettsiosis in Critically Ill Patients in Flea-Borne Typhus-Endemic Areas. 38
31436155 2019
4
Case Report: Coinfection with Rickettsia monacensis and Orientia tsutsugamushi. 38
31219004 2019
5
Serologic Evidence for Orientia Exposure in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe. 38
31407963 2019
6
Differentiation of Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia felis-Like Organisms via Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis. 38
31021302 2019
7
High Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae among Scrub Typhus Patients in South Korea. 38
31436153 2019
8
Emergence of murine typhus in La Réunion, France, 2012-2017. 38
31387814 2019
9
Quantitative Serodiagnosis of Scrub Typhus Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering-Based Lateral Flow Assay Platforms. 38
31356055 2019
10
Scrub typhus caused by Shimokoshi type Orientia tsutsugamushi showing variant 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene sequence in Tohoku region, Japan. 38
31087695 2019
11
Risk factors for acquisition of scrub typhus in children admitted to a tertiary centre and its surrounding districts in South India: a case control study. 38
31349809 2019
12
Diversity of infectious aetiologies of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses in south and Southeast Asia: a systematic review. 38
31272417 2019
13
Development of multiplex PCR for neglected infectious diseases. 38
31283768 2019
14
The epidemiology and clinical features of rickettsial diseases in North Queensland, Australia: Implications for patient identification and management. 38
31318873 2019
15
Assessment of a Sensitive qPCR Assay Targeting a Multiple-Copy Gene to Detect Orientia tsutsugamushi DNA. 38
31370347 2019
16
Genetic diversity of Orientia tsutsugamushi strains from patients in north India. 38
31096051 2019
17
Liver transplantation for Acute Liver Failure due to Dengue fever: first successful reported case worldwide. 38
31330052 2019
18
Dengue, chikungunya, and scrub typhus are important etiologies of non-malarial febrile illness in Rourkela, Odisha, India. 38
31269906 2019
19
Seroprevalence of typhus group and spotted fever group Rickettsia exposures on Reunion island. 38
31288833 2019
20
Association of Scrub Typhus With the Risk of Autoimmune Diseases: A Population-Based Cohort Study. 38
31140560 2019
21
Dengue virus is an under-recognised causative agent of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES): Results from a four year AES surveillance study of Japanese encephalitis in selected states of India. 38
30641206 2019
22
Part II - Ectoparasites: Pediculosis and Tungiasis. 38
31306729 2019
23
Evaluation of Th1 and Th2 immune response in clinical and sub-clinical scrub typhus infection. 38
30904436 2019
24
Guillain-Barre syndrome: a rare complication of leptospirosis and scrub typhus co-infection. 38
30895887 2019
25
Public health, urban space and social exclusion in postwar Spain: the exanthematic typhus epidemic in the city of Valencia, 1941-1943. 38
31241669 2019
26
History of Tsutsugamushi Disease in Korea. 38
31271001 2019
27
Synthesis and biological function of Nickel and Copper nanoparticles. 38
31198877 2019
28
Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Rickettsia and Leptospira Infection in Four Ecologically Distinct Regions of Peru. 38
30938281 2019
29
A biosafety level-2 dose-dependent lethal mouse model of spotted fever rickettsiosis: Rickettsia parkeri Atlantic Rainforest strain. 38
31216274 2019
30
Clinical Profile and Predictors of Outcome of Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a PICU: A Prospective Observational Study. 38
31166289 2019
31
Distinguishing scrub typhus-related deltoid paralysis from cervical spondylosis in an elderly patient: a case report. 38
31154558 2019
32
Murine typhus presenting with status epilepticus. 38
31002931 2019
33
Scrub Typhus in Continental Chile, 2016-20181. 38
30835200 2019
34
Evaluation of scrub typhus diagnosis in China: analysis of nationwide surveillance data from 2006 to 2016. 38
31253202 2019
35
First description of a clinical case of murine typhus in Campeche, Mexico. 38
31188917 2019
36
Marked elevation of serum lipase in scrub typhus without pancreatitis: a report of three cases. 38
31208290 2019
37
Clinical and Laboratory Predictors associated with Complicated Scrub Typhus. 38
31270995 2019
38
Determination of Optimal Diagnostic Cut-Offs for the Naval Medical Research Center Scrub Typhus IgM ELISA in Chiang Rai, Thailand. 38
30860022 2019
39
High Seroprevalence Against Typhus Group and Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Rural Indigenous Populations of Peninsular Malaysia. 38
30540546 2019
40
Re-emergence of scrub typhus in Zhejiang Province, southern China: A 45-year population-based surveillance study. 38
31125615 2019
41
Case Report: Scrub Typhus and Q Fever Coinfection. 38
30915946 2019
42
Scrub typhus risk in travelers to southern Chile. 38
30639781 2019
43
Scrub Typhus Complicated by ARDS, Myocarditis, and Encephalitis Imported to Oman from Nepal. 38
31110635 2019
44
Origins, Importance and Genetic Stability of the Prototype Strains Gilliam, Karp and Kato of Orientia tsutsugamushi. 38
31052283 2019
45
Survey of Rickettsia spp. and Orientia tsutsugamushi Pathogens Found in Animal Vectors (Ticks, Fleas, Chiggers) in Bangkaew District, Phatthalung Province, Thailand. 38
31104409 2019
46
Identification of B- and T-cell epitopes on HtrA protein of Orientia tsutsugamushi. 38
30320912 2019
47
Predictors of Severity in Scrub Typhus. 38
31299836 2019
48
Clinical Manifestations and Molecular Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus, Vietnam, 2015-2017. 38
30882318 2019
49
Time spent in an endemic area is a crucial clue to diagnose scrub typhus without eschar. 38
30144135 2019
50
Laboratory-acquired Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus Infections: The Argument for a Risk-based Approach to Biosafety Requirements for Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi Laboratory Activities. 38
30107504 2019

Variations for Epidemic Typhus

Expression for Epidemic Typhus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Epidemic Typhus.

Pathways for Epidemic Typhus

GO Terms for Epidemic Typhus

Cellular components related to Epidemic Typhus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 mitochondrial matrix GO:0005759 8.92 SARS2 MRRF HSPD1 CS

Biological processes related to Epidemic Typhus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 B cell proliferation GO:0042100 9.26 HSPD1 CD40LG
2 leukocyte cell-cell adhesion GO:0007159 9.16 CD40LG CCL5
3 positive regulation of interleukin-12 production GO:0032735 8.96 HSPD1 CD40LG
4 positive regulation of interleukin-10 production GO:0032733 8.62 HSPD1 CD40LG

Sources for Epidemic Typhus

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 TGDB
71 Tocris
72 UMLS
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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