MCID: EPD015
MIFTS: 44

Epidemic Typhus

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Epidemic Typhus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Epidemic Typhus:

Name: Epidemic Typhus 12 20 58 3 15
Typhus 12 74 20 54 15 17 71
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus Fever Due to Rickettsia Prowazekii 12 32
Endemic Flea-Borne Typhus 12 71
Brill-Zinsser Disease 20 71
Murine Typhus 12 20
Typhus Fever 12 32
Jail Fever 12 20
Typhus Group Rickettsial Disease 71
Louse-Borne [epidemic] Typhus 12
Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne 71
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus 12
Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne 44
Exanthematic Typhus Fever 12
Louse-Borne Rickettsiosis 12
Flea-Borne Rickettsiosis 12
Murine [endemic] Typhus 12
Typhus Exanthematique 12
Endemic Typhus Fever 12
Exanthematous Typhus 12
Louse-Borne Typhus 12
Epidemic Typhus 12
Flea-Borne Typhus 12
Classical Typhus 12
Sylvatic Typhus 12
European Typhus 12
Petechial Fever 12
Rat Flea Typhus 12
Relapsing Fever 71
Endemic Typhus 20
Hospital Fever 12
Mexican Typhus 12
Moscow Typhus 12
Urban Typhus 12
Famine Fever 12
Prison Fever 12
Shop Typhus 12
Flea Typhus 12
Ship Fever 12

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
epidemic typhus
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: any age;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050480 DOID:11256
ICD9CM 34 080 081.0 081.9
MESH via Orphanet 45 D014438
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 A75.0
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0041473
Orphanet 58 ORPHA83314
UMLS 71 C0006181 C0035021 C0041471 more

Summaries for Epidemic Typhus

CDC : 3 Epidemic typhus, also called louse-borne typhus, is an uncommon disease caused by a bacteria called Rickettsia prowazekii. Epidemic typhus is spread to people through contact with infected body lice. Though epidemic typhus was responsible for millions of deaths in previous centuries, it is now considered a rare disease. Occasionally, cases continue to occur, in areas where extreme overcrowding is common and body lice can travel from one person to another. In the United States, rare cases of epidemic typhus, called sylvatic typhus, can occur. These cases occur when people are exposed to flying squirrels and their nests

MalaCards based summary : Epidemic Typhus, also known as typhus, is related to brill-zinsser disease and israeli tick typhus, and has symptoms including recurrent fevers An important gene associated with Epidemic Typhus is AFF2 (AF4/FMR2 Family Member 2). The drugs Doxycycline and Azithromycin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include endothelial, kidney and skin.

Disease Ontology : 12 A primary bacterial infectious disease that refers to a group of diseases, located in endothelial cells of the small venous, arterial, and capillary vessels, has material basis in Rickettsia bacteria, which are transmitted by lice, transmitted by fleas, and transmitted by mites.

Wikipedia : 74 Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus,... more...

Related Diseases for Epidemic Typhus

Diseases related to Epidemic Typhus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 528)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 brill-zinsser disease 32.6 SPTBN2 PLEKHG4 GLRX5 AFF2
2 israeli tick typhus 32.2 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4
3 pediculus humanus corporis infestation 32.2 PPP1R14A MT-CYB CS AFF2
4 flinders island spotted fever 32.1 PLEKHG4 AFF2
5 indian tick typhus 32.0 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 COX18 AFF2
6 variola major 31.4 CD8A CD4
7 endemic typhus 31.4 ST20-MTHFS SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 HSPD1
8 trench fever 30.8 MT-CYB HSPD1 COX18
9 spotted fever 30.6 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 CS AFF2
10 meningoencephalitis 30.6 CRP CD8A CD4
11 hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome 30.5 CRP CD8A CD4
12 endocarditis 30.5 HTRA1 HSPD1 CRP
13 queensland tick typhus 30.5 PLEKHG4 CS
14 neuroretinitis 30.4 CS CRP CD4
15 japanese spotted fever 30.3 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 CRP AFF2
16 ornithosis 30.3 HTRA1 CRP
17 tularemia 30.3 HSPD1 CD8A CD4
18 disease by infectious agent 30.3 HSPD1 CRP CD8A CD4
19 optic papillitis 30.2 CRP CD4
20 exanthem 30.2 CRP CD8A CD4
21 ehrlichiosis 30.2 HSPD1 CD8A CD4 ANKRD46
22 orchitis 30.2 CRP CD8A CD4
23 bronchopneumonia 30.2 CRP CD8A CD4
24 pharyngitis 30.2 CRP CD8A CD4
25 boutonneuse fever 30.2 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 PATL2 CS AFF2
26 kawasaki disease 30.1 HSPD1 CRP CD4
27 lymphadenitis 30.1 CRP CD8A CD4
28 chlamydia 30.1 HTRA1 HSPE1 HSPD1 CRP
29 inclusion body myopathy with early-onset paget disease of bone with or without frontotemporal dementia 2 30.1 MT-CYB HSPD1 CS CD4
30 chickenpox 30.1 CRP CD8A CD4
31 esophageal candidiasis 29.9 CD8A CD4
32 rocky mountain spotted fever 29.9 SPTBN2 SLC36A2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 PATL2 HTRA1
33 pancytopenia 29.9 TCN2 CRP CD8A CD4
34 mononeuritis multiplex 29.9 CRP CD4
35 nocardiosis 29.9 HSPD1 CRP CD4
36 granulomatous hepatitis 29.9 CRP CD8A CD4
37 chorioretinitis 29.8 CRP CD8A CD4
38 facial paralysis 29.8 CRP CD8A CD4
39 chlamydia pneumonia 29.7 HSPD1 CRP CD8A CD4
40 malaria 29.5 TCN2 MT-CYB HSPD1 CRP CD8A CD4
41 bone inflammation disease 29.4 CRP CD8A CD4
42 cat-scratch disease 29.3 PPP1R14A HTRA1 HSPD1 CS CRP CD4
43 siberian tick typhus 11.5
44 relapsing epidemic typhus 11.2
45 typhus-group rickettsiosis 11.2
46 rickettsial disease 11.2
47 bolivian hemorrhagic fever 10.9
48 smallpox 10.6
49 yellow fever 10.6
50 spinocerebellar ataxia 18 10.5 SPTBN2 PLEKHG4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Epidemic Typhus:



Diseases related to Epidemic Typhus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Epidemic Typhus

UMLS symptoms related to Epidemic Typhus:


recurrent fevers

Drugs & Therapeutics for Epidemic Typhus

Drugs for Epidemic Typhus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 22)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
2
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4 83905-01-5 55185 447043
3 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4
4 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
5 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 4
6 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
7 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4
8 Antimalarials Phase 4
9
Telithromycin Approved Phase 3 191114-48-4 5462516 70789201
10 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 2, Phase 3
11
Rifampicin Approved 13292-46-1 5458213 5381226
12
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
13
carbamide peroxide Approved 124-43-6
14 Antitubercular Agents
15 Immunologic Factors
16 Vaccines
17 Immunoglobulins
18 Antibodies
19 Immunoglobulin G
20 Immunoglobulin M
21 Immunoglobulin A
22 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 14)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Scrub Typhus Antibiotic Resistance Trial (START) Comparing Doxycycline and Azithromycin Treatment Modalities in Areas of Reported Antimicrobial Resistance for Scrub Typhus Recruiting NCT03083197 Phase 4 Doxycycline 7 days;Doxycycline 3 days;Azithromycin 3 days
2 Evaluation of Low-energy Laser Therapy for Prevention and Reduction of Severity of Oral Mucositis in Children "Mucositis Laser 1" Unknown status NCT01007617 Phase 2, Phase 3
3 Phase 3 Study of Controlled Trial: 5-day Course of Telithromycin Versus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Scrub Typhus Completed NCT00351182 Phase 3 Telithromycin;Doxycycline
4 Post Exposure Treatment With Doxycycline for the Prevention of Relapsing Fever Completed NCT00237016 Phase 2, Phase 3 doxycycline treatment
5 The Clinical Epidemiology of Scrub Typhus in Humans, Chiggers and Rodents Unknown status NCT02876367
6 Controlled Trial: 5-day Course of Rifampin Versus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Scrub Typhus Completed NCT00568711 doxycycline;rifampin
7 The Natural Immune Response In Pediatric Scrub Typhus In Chiangrai Completed NCT02398162
8 A Multicentre Observational Study to Describe the Prevalence of Scrub Typhus Defined as a Positive Rapid Diagnostic Test Among Selected Patients Presenting With Fever to Clinics in Myanmar Completed NCT03269266
9 Background Seroprevalence of Rickettsial Infections in Myanmar Completed NCT03847870
10 Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) in Association With Clinical and Laboratory Predictors for the Diagnosis of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) in Patients Presenting With Persistent Fever (≥1 Week) in Cambodia, Nepal, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan Completed NCT01766830
11 The Epidemiology Of Scrub Typhus And Rickettsial Infections In A Highly Endemic Rural Setting In South India: Population-Based Cohort Study Recruiting NCT04506944
12 Prediction and Early Diagnosis for Cardiovascular Disease Complicated by Scrub Typhus Infection Recruiting NCT03274869
13 Eschar Investigations to Improve Diagnostics, Understand Early Immune Responses and Characterize Strains for Vaccines in Scrub Typhus Recruiting NCT02915861
14 Lyme Test Indication Combinations (LyTIC) Study Terminated NCT03201042

Search NIH Clinical Center for Epidemic Typhus

Cochrane evidence based reviews: typhus, endemic flea-borne

Genetic Tests for Epidemic Typhus

Anatomical Context for Epidemic Typhus

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Epidemic Typhus:

40
Endothelial, Kidney, Skin, T Cells, Spleen, Brain, Eye

Publications for Epidemic Typhus

Articles related to Epidemic Typhus:

(show top 50) (show all 5213)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Elevation of serum transcobalamin II in patients with scrub typhus. 61 54
15906652 2005
2
Persistently elevated serum transcobalamin II in a patient with cerebral malaria and typhus infections. 54 61
7622977 1995
3
Orientia tsutsugamushi DNA load and genotypes in blood as a marker of severity. 61
33309595 2021
4
Murine Typhus in Canary Islands, Spain, 1999-2015. 61
33496241 2021
5
Scrub Typhus-Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: Not a Rare Entity in Pediatric Age Group. 61
33547467 2021
6
Protection against severe infectious disease in the past. 61
33573529 2021
7
Hyperferritinemia in children hospitalized with scrub typhus. 61
33597024 2021
8
Urinary Exosomal microRNA-21 as a Marker for Scrub Typhus-Associated Acute Kidney Injury. 61
33596145 2021
9
An outbreak investigation of scrub typhus in Nepal: confirmation of local transmission. 61
33602136 2021
10
Describing fine spatiotemporal dynamics of rat fleas in an insular ecosystem enlightens abiotic drivers of murine typhus incidence in humans. 61
33600454 2021
11
Urban foci of murine typhus involving cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis) collected from opossums in Mexico City. 61
33280264 2021
12
Rodent bites in a quadriplegic. 61
33541246 2021
13
Serological evidence indicates widespread distribution of rickettsioses in Myanmar. 61
33310022 2021
14
Comparative Efficacy of Doxycycline vs. Azithromycin in Pediatric Scrub Typhus. 61
32797390 2021
15
Glossopharyngeal and Vagus Nerve Palsy in a Child With Scrub Typhus Meningitis. 61
33452783 2021
16
The Need for Geographic Location Specific Optical Density Cut-offs for IgM ELISA Serology to Diagnose Scrub Typhus in Children. 61
33452796 2021
17
Drug therapy in Pediatric Scrub Typhus - Is 'not Giving Azithromycin' a Risk Factor for PICU Admission? 61
33510538 2021
18
A Cutaneous Clue to a Tropical Cause of Acute Pancreatitis: Scrub Typhus. 61
31927109 2021
19
Murine Typhus in 5 Children Hospitalized for Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children. 61
33431429 2021
20
Is cerebrospinal fluid lactate useful in differentiating scrub typhus meningitis from aseptic, bacterial and tuberculous meningitis? 61
33259753 2021
21
The Need for Geographic Location Specific Optical Density Cut-offs for IgM ELISA Serology to Diagnose Scrub Typhus in Children: Authors' Reply. 61
33452797 2021
22
A Space-Time Permutation Scan Statistic for Evaluating County-Level Tickborne Disease Clusters in Indiana, 2009-2016. 61
33156708 2021
23
Follow-up investigation of antibody titers and diagnostic antibody cutoff values in patients with scrub typhus in South Korea. 61
33441087 2021
24
Scrub typhus mimicking the clinical course of infectious mononucleosis: a case report. 61
33442438 2021
25
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in Pediatric Scrub Typhus. 61
33452781 2021
26
Murine typhus presenting as pseudotumor cerebri. 61
33529597 2021
27
Prolonged coma in scrub typhus: consider non-convulsive status epilepticus. 61
33515451 2021
28
Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a PICU of a Developing Economy: Clinical Profile, Intensive Care Needs, Outcome, and Predictors of Mortality. 61
33031348 2021
29
Urban ecology of hosts and vectors of Rickettsia in a rickettsiosis-endemic city of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. 61
33465349 2021
30
Climatic requirements of the eastern paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus, with a consideration of its possible geographic range up to 2090. 61
33513402 2021
31
Orientia tsutsugamushi: The dangerous yet neglected foe from the East. 61
33338890 2021
32
The epidemiology and clinical spectrum of infections of the central nervous system in adults in north India. 61
33019910 2021
33
Small Mammals as Reservoir for Zoonotic Agents in Afghanistan. 61
33462624 2021
34
Prompt defervescence after initiation of treatment for rickettsial infections - time to dispense with the dogma? 61
33075531 2021
35
Manifestations and Management of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses. 61
33574726 2021
36
Murine Typhus Presenting With Mucosal Involvement. 61
33269795 2020
37
Case Report: A Fatal Case of Scrub Typhus Complicated by Heatstroke. 61
32975175 2020
38
Transmission Electron Microscopy Confirmation of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Human Bile. 61
33219812 2020
39
Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions and Military Hygiene at the United States Military Academy between 1890 and 1910. 61
32870979 2020
40
Splenic infarction and infectious diseases in Korea. 61
33267828 2020
41
Diagnostic accuracy of an in-house Scrub Typhus enzyme linked immunoassay for the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies in Laos. 61
33284807 2020
42
The Characteristics and Clinical Course of Patients with Scrub Typhus and Queensland Tick Typhus Infection Requiring Intensive Care Unit Admission: A 23-year Case Series from Queensland, Tropical Australia. 61
32959771 2020
43
Murine Typhus Outbreak Presenting as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children During SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic. 61
33060516 2020
44
History, Rats, Fleas, and Opossums. II. The Decline and Resurgence of Flea-Borne Typhus in the United States, 1945-2019. 61
33379251 2020
45
Risk mapping of scrub typhus infections in Qingdao city, China. 61
33264282 2020
46
Crystal structure of a guanine nucleotide exchange factor encoded by the scrub typhus pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi. 61
33184172 2020
47
Detection of Immunoglobulin M and Immunoglobulin G Antibodies Against Orientia tsutsugamushi for Scrub Typhus Diagnosis and Serosurvey in Endemic Regions. 61
32893834 2020
48
Diffusion tensor imaging analysis in scrub typhus meningoencephalitis to determine the alteration of microstructural subcortical white-matter integrity. 61
33325800 2020
49
Tickbite-associated chronic pruritic lesions in an Afro-descendant population in the Cauca Department, Colombia. I. Clinical features and impact on health. 61
32975315 2020
50
Clinical Features of Rickettsial Infection in Children in Tropical Australia-A Report of 15 Cases. 61
32252063 2020

Variations for Epidemic Typhus

Expression for Epidemic Typhus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Epidemic Typhus.

Pathways for Epidemic Typhus

GO Terms for Epidemic Typhus

Biological processes related to Epidemic Typhus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 T cell activation GO:0042110 8.8 HSPD1 CD8A CD4

Sources for Epidemic Typhus

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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