MCID: EPD015
MIFTS: 45

Epidemic Typhus

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Epidemic Typhus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Epidemic Typhus:

Name: Epidemic Typhus 12 52 58 3 15
Typhus 12 74 52 54 15 17 71
Murine Typhus 12 52 58 3
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus Fever Due to Rickettsia Prowazekii 12 32
Endemic Flea-Borne Typhus 12 71
Brill-Zinsser Disease 52 71
Flea-Borne Typhus 12 58
Endemic Typhus 52 58
Typhus Fever 12 32
Jail Fever 12 52
Typhus Group Rickettsial Disease 71
Louse-Borne [epidemic] Typhus 12
Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne 71
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus 12
Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne 43
Exanthematic Typhus Fever 12
Louse-Borne Rickettsiosis 12
Flea-Borne Rickettsiosis 12
Murine [endemic] Typhus 12
Typhus Exanthematique 12
Endemic Typhus Fever 12
Exanthematous Typhus 12
Louse-Borne Typhus 12
Epidemic Typhus 12
Classical Typhus 12
Sylvatic Typhus 12
European Typhus 12
Petechial Fever 12
Rat Flea Typhus 12
Relapsing Fever 71
Hospital Fever 12
Mexican Typhus 12
Moscow Typhus 12
Urban Typhus 12
Famine Fever 12
Prison Fever 12
Shop Typhus 12
Flea Typhus 12
Ship Fever 12

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
epidemic typhus
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: any age;
murine typhus
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: normal life expectancy;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050480 DOID:11256
ICD9CM 34 080 081.0 081.9
SNOMED-CT 67 25668000 39111003
MESH via Orphanet 44 D014438
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 A75.0 A75.2
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0041473
UMLS 71 C0006181 C0035021 C0041471 more

Summaries for Epidemic Typhus

CDC : 3 Epidemic typhus, also called louse-borne typhus, is an uncommon disease caused by a bacteria called Rickettsia prowazekii. Epidemic typhus is spread to people through contact with infected body lice. Though epidemic typhus was responsible for millions of deaths in previous centuries, it is now considered a rare disease. Occasionally, cases continue to occur, in areas where extreme overcrowding is common and body lice can travel from one person to another. In the United States, rare cases of epidemic typhus, called sylvatic typhus, can occur. These cases occur when people are exposed to flying squirrels and their nests

MalaCards based summary : Epidemic Typhus, also known as typhus, is related to israeli tick typhus and indian tick typhus, and has symptoms including recurrent fevers An important gene associated with Epidemic Typhus is AFF2 (AF4/FMR2 Family Member 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Primary immunodeficiency. The drugs Doxycycline and Antibiotics, Antitubercular have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, endothelial and t cells.

Disease Ontology : 12 A primary bacterial infectious disease that refers to a group of diseases, located in endothelial cells of the small venous, arterial, and capillary vessels, has material basis in Rickettsia bacteria, which are transmitted by lice, transmitted by fleas, and transmitted by mites.

Wikipedia : 74 Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus,... more...

Related Diseases for Epidemic Typhus

Diseases related to Epidemic Typhus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 529)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 israeli tick typhus 34.3 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4
2 indian tick typhus 33.9 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 COX18 CD40LG AFF2
3 brill-zinsser disease 33.6 WARS1 SPTBN2 PLEKHG4 CD40LG AFF2
4 pediculus humanus corporis infestation 33.1 WARS1 TXNDC15 MT-CYB AFF2
5 variola major 31.7 CD8A CD4
6 hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome 30.9 CD8A CD40LG CD4
7 typhoid fever 30.9 TCN2 HTRA1 CD40LG
8 meningoencephalitis 30.8 CD8A CD40LG CD4
9 scrub typhus 30.8 TCN2 CD40LG AFF2
10 neuroretinitis 30.7 CS CD40LG CD4
11 chlamydia 30.7 HTRA1 HSPD1 CD40LG
12 louse-borne relapsing fever 30.7 WARS1 C21orf91
13 queensland tick typhus 30.7 PLEKHG4 CS
14 orchitis 30.6 CD8A CD40LG CD4
15 bronchopneumonia 30.6 CD8A CD40LG CD4
16 plague 30.6 WARS1 TXNDC15 CD8A CD4
17 ehrlichiosis 30.6 HSPD1 CD40LG CD4 ANKRD46
18 exanthem 30.6 CD8A CD40LG CD4
19 spotted fever 30.6 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 CS CD40LG
20 pharyngitis 30.5 CD8A CD40LG CD4
21 japanese spotted fever 30.5 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 CS CD40LG AFF2
22 optic papillitis 30.5 CD40LG CD4
23 thrombocytopenia due to platelet alloimmunization 30.5 CD8A CD40LG CD4
24 trench fever 30.5 WARS1 MT-CYB HSPD1 CS COX18 C21orf91
25 chickenpox 30.5 CD8A CD40LG CD4
26 coronavirus infectious disease 30.5 CD8A CD40LG CD4
27 herpes zoster 30.5 CD8A CD40LG CD4
28 boutonneuse fever 30.4 SPTBN2 PLEKHG4 PATL2 CS CD40LG AFF2
29 bacterial infectious disease 30.4 HSPD1 CD8A CD40LG CD4
30 chlamydia pneumonia 30.4 HSPD1 CD40LG CD4
31 inclusion body myopathy with early-onset paget disease of bone with or without frontotemporal dementia 2 30.4 MT-CYB HSPD1 CS CD4
32 kawasaki disease 30.4 HSPD1 CD40LG CD4
33 nocardiosis 30.4 HSPD1 CD4
34 babesiosis 30.3 MT-CYB CD40LG CD4
35 pancytopenia 30.3 TCN2 CD8A CD40LG CD4
36 granulomatous hepatitis 30.3 CD8A CD40LG CD4
37 mononeuritis multiplex 30.3 CD40LG CD4
38 optic nerve disease 30.3 MT-CYB CD8A CD40LG CD4
39 chorioretinitis 30.3 CD8A CD40LG CD4
40 facial paralysis 30.3 CD8A CD40LG CD4
41 tularemia 30.3 HSPD1 CD8A CD40LG CD4
42 poliomyelitis 30.3 CD8A CD40LG CD4
43 rocky mountain spotted fever 30.2 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 PATL2 HSPD1 CS
44 pfeiffer syndrome 30.1 CD8A CD40LG CD4
45 esophageal candidiasis 30.1 CD8A CD4
46 malaria 29.6 TCN2 MT-CYB HSPD1 CD8A CD40LG CD4
47 endemic typhus 29.4 WARS1 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 HSPD1
48 siberian tick typhus 12.6
49 typhus-group rickettsiosis 12.5
50 relapsing epidemic typhus 12.5

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Epidemic Typhus:



Diseases related to Epidemic Typhus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Epidemic Typhus

UMLS symptoms related to Epidemic Typhus:


recurrent fevers

Drugs & Therapeutics for Epidemic Typhus

Drugs for Epidemic Typhus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 24)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
2 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4
3
Telithromycin Approved Phase 3 191114-48-4 70789201 5462516
4
Azithromycin Approved Phase 3 83905-01-5 447043 55185
5
Sulfamethoxazole Approved Phase 3 723-46-6 5329
6
Trimethoprim Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 738-70-5 5578
7 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3
8 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3
9 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3
10 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3
11 Antimalarials Phase 3
12 Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Phase 3
13
Rifampicin Approved 13292-46-1 5381226 5458213
14
carbamide peroxide Approved 124-43-6
15
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
16 Antitubercular Agents
17 Immunologic Factors
18 Vaccines
19 Immunoglobulins
20 Antibodies
21 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
22 Immunoglobulin A
23 Immunoglobulin G
24 Immunoglobulin M

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 18)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Scrub Typhus Antibiotic Resistance Trial (START) Comparing Doxycycline and Azithromycin Treatment Modalities in Areas of Reported Antimicrobial Resistance for Scrub Typhus Recruiting NCT03083197 Phase 4 Doxycycline 7 days;Doxycycline 3 days;Azithromycin 3 days
2 Phase 3 Study of Controlled Trial: 5-day Course of Telithromycin Versus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Scrub Typhus Completed NCT00351182 Phase 3 Telithromycin;Doxycycline
3 Post Exposure Treatment With Doxycycline for the Prevention of Relapsing Fever Completed NCT00237016 Phase 2, Phase 3 doxycycline treatment
4 Parallel Group, Double Blinded, 1:1, Randomized Controlled Phase III Trial of Co-trimoxazole Versus Azithromycin for the Treatment of Undifferentiated Fever In Nepal Active, not recruiting NCT02773407 Phase 3 Azithromycin;Co-trimoxazole
5 Laboratory Diagnosis of of Rickettsial and Rickettsia-like Diseases Unknown status NCT01137175
6 Controlled Trial: 5-day Course of Rifampin Versus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Scrub Typhus Completed NCT00568711 doxycycline;rifampin
7 The Natural Immune Response In Pediatric Scrub Typhus In Chiangrai Completed NCT02398162
8 Rickettsial Disease in Febrile Hospitalised Patients in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Bangladesh Completed NCT02339259
9 A Multicentre Observational Study to Describe the Prevalence of Scrub Typhus Defined as a Positive Rapid Diagnostic Test Among Selected Patients Presenting With Fever to Clinics in Myanmar Completed NCT03269266
10 Background Seroprevalence of Rickettsial Infections in Myanmar Completed NCT03847870
11 Indian Intensive Care Case Mix and Practice Patterns Study Completed NCT01384929
12 Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) in Association With Clinical and Laboratory Predictors for the Diagnosis of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) in Patients Presenting With Persistent Fever (≥1 Week) in Cambodia, Nepal, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan Completed NCT01766830
13 Evaluation of Diagnosis of Fever and Biologic Inflammatory Syndrome of Unknown Origin Completed NCT02786693
14 The Impact of C-reactive Protein Testing on Antibiotic Prescription in Febrile Patients Attending Primary Care in Low-resource Settings Completed NCT02758821
15 Prediction and Early Diagnosis for Cardiovascular Disease Complicated by Scrub Typhus Infection Recruiting NCT03274869
16 Eschar Investigations to Improve Diagnostics, Understand Early Immune Responses and Characterize Strains for Vaccines in Scrub Typhus Recruiting NCT02915861
17 The Clinical Epidemiology of Scrub Typhus in Humans, Chiggers and Rodents Active, not recruiting NCT02876367
18 Lyme Test Indication Combinations (LyTIC) Study Terminated NCT03201042

Search NIH Clinical Center for Epidemic Typhus

Cochrane evidence based reviews: typhus, endemic flea-borne

Genetic Tests for Epidemic Typhus

Anatomical Context for Epidemic Typhus

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Epidemic Typhus:

40
Testes, Endothelial, T Cells, Kidney, Skin, Liver, Lung

Publications for Epidemic Typhus

Articles related to Epidemic Typhus:

(show top 50) (show all 4926)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Elevation of serum transcobalamin II in patients with scrub typhus. 54 61
15906652 2005
2
Persistently elevated serum transcobalamin II in a patient with cerebral malaria and typhus infections. 54 61
7622977 1995
3
Rickettsioses as Major Etiologies of Unrecognized Acute Febrile Illness, Sabah, East Malaysia. 61
32568664 2020
4
Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in Children: Clinical Profile and Outcome. 61
32218098 2020
5
Circulation of Rickettsia species and rickettsial endosymbionts among small mammals and their ectoparasites in Eastern Slovakia. 61
32382991 2020
6
Contagious Diseases and its Consequences in the Late Qajar Period Mashhad (1892-1921). 61
32536181 2020
7
Design, expression, and evaluation of novel multiepitope chimeric antigen of Wuchereria bancrofti for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis - A structure-based strategy. 61
32222640 2020
8
A chromosome-level assembly of the cat flea genome uncovers rampant gene duplication and genome size plasticity. 61
32560686 2020
9
Risk1, a Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Effector, Promotes Rickettsia typhi Intracellular Survival. 61
32546622 2020
10
Scrub Typhus with Respiratory Symptoms. 61
32536641 2020
11
Infection-Associated Opsoclonus: A Retrospective Case Record Analysis and Review of Literature. 61
32216501 2020
12
Optimization and evaluation of a multiplex quantitative PCR assay for detection of nucleic acids in human blood from patients with spotted fever rickettsiosis, typhus rickettsiosis, scrub typhus, monocytic ehrlichiosis, and granulocytic anaplasmosis. 61
32493778 2020
13
Clinical Profile of Scrub Typhus in Newborns. 61
32562407 2020
14
Stye Can Lie! - A Rare Presentation of Scrub Typhus Eschar. 61
32495216 2020
15
Epidemiologic Changes of Scrub Typhus in China, 1952-2016. 61
32441637 2020
16
The temporal dynamics of humoral immunity to Rickettsia typhi infection in murine typhus patients. 61
31678231 2020
17
Scrub typhus in patients with acute febrile illness: a 5-year study from India. 61
31790119 2020
18
Molecular detection of Candidatus Rickettsia asembonensis in fleas collected from pets and domestic animals in Puducherry, India. 61
32432803 2020
19
Establishment of Recombinase Polymerase Amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Southeast Asia. 61
32492397 2020
20
Scrub typhus as a rare cause of acute pyelonephritis: case report. 61
32375669 2020
21
Risk Factors for Scrub Typhus, Murine Typhus, and Spotted Fever Seropositivity in Urban Areas, Rural Plains, and Peri-Forest Hill Villages in South India: A Cross-Sectional Study. 61
32458785 2020
22
[THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON MENTAL HEALTH - LITERATURE REVIEW]. 61
32431119 2020
23
Trends in clinical diagnoses of typhus group rickettsioses among a large U.S. insurance claims database. 61
31984654 2020
24
Hepatic and Renal Profile of Scrub Typhus Patients at a Tertiary Care Center in India. 61
32494535 2020
25
Scrub Typhus and the Misconception of Doxycycline Resistance. 61
31570937 2020
26
Rise in Murine Typhus in Galveston County, Texas, USA, 2018. 61
32310080 2020
27
Cerebellitis as a rare manifestation of scrub typhus fever. 61
32414774 2020
28
Serum C-reactive protein and procalcitonin values in acute Q fever, scrub typhus, and murine typhus. 61
32398008 2020
29
A deubiquitylase with an unusually high-affinity ubiquitin-binding domain from the scrub typhus pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi. 61
32393759 2020
30
Seroprevalence & seroincidence of Orientia tsutsugamushi infection in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India: A community-based serosurvey during lean (April-May) & epidemic (October-November) periods for acute encephalitis syndrome. 61
32461399 2020
31
Clinical Features of Rickettsial Infection in Children in Tropical Australia-A Report of 15 Cases. 61
32252063 2020
32
Evaluation of recombinant type-specific antigens of Orientia tsutsugamushi which were expressed by baculovirus-insect cell system as antigens for indirect immunofluorescent assay in the serological diagnosis of scrub typhus. 61
32350215 2020
33
Hospital based serological evidence of rickettsial diseases and assessment diagnostic tests of pyrexia of unknown origin. 61
31805833 2020
34
Plagues, pandemics and epidemics in Irish history prior to COVID-19 (coronavirus): what can we learn? 61
32404230 2020
35
Clinical profile and outcome of patients with Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever: a hospital based observational study from Rajasthan, India. 61
32286662 2020
36
Rickettsial Diseases: Not Uncommon Causes of Acute Febrile Illness in India. 61
32326477 2020
37
Serum procalcitonin as a biomarker of bloodstream infection & focal bacterial infection in febrile patients. 61
32461398 2020
38
John Donne, Spanish Doctors and the epidemic typhus: fleas or lice? 61
32043841 2020
39
Diagnosis of severe scrub typhus infection by next-generation sequencing:a case report. 61
32264829 2020
40
A case of Henoch-Schönlein purpura associated with scrub typhus. 61
32303196 2020
41
Clinicoepidemiological and Genotyping Correlation of Pediatric Scrub Typhus from Chandigarh, India. 61
32284475 2020
42
Relative Abundance of a Vector of Scrub Typhus, Leptotrombidium sialkotense, in Southern Yunnan Province, China. 61
32418384 2020
43
Scrub Typhus: Historic Perspective and Current Status of the Worldwide Presence of Orientia Species. 61
32244598 2020
44
Selection of Diagnostic Cutoffs for Murine Typhus IgM and IgG Immunofluorescence Assay: A Systematic Review. 61
32274984 2020
45
Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Children Hospitalized With Scrub Typhus in an Area of Endemicity. 61
30864670 2020
46
Scrub typhus and leptospirosis in rural and urban settings of central India: a preliminary evaluation. 61
31779530 2020
47
The estimated burden of scrub typhus in Thailand from national surveillance data (2003-2018). 61
32287307 2020
48
Murine typhus. How does it affect us in the 21st century? The epidemiology of inpatients in Spain (1997-2015). 61
32353550 2020
49
Innovative Distance Learning Tool for Morphological Identification of Chigger Mites (Actinotrichida) as Vectors of Scrub Typhus: A Pilot Study. 61
32260591 2020
50
History and Epidemiology of Bacillary Dysentery in Korea: from Korean War to 2017. 61
32239814 2020

Variations for Epidemic Typhus

Expression for Epidemic Typhus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Epidemic Typhus.

Pathways for Epidemic Typhus

Pathways related to Epidemic Typhus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.38 CD8A CD40LG CD4

GO Terms for Epidemic Typhus

Biological processes related to Epidemic Typhus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 T cell activation GO:0042110 8.8 HSPD1 CD8A CD4

Sources for Epidemic Typhus

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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