MCID: EPD015
MIFTS: 44

Epidemic Typhus

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Epidemic Typhus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Epidemic Typhus:

Name: Epidemic Typhus 12 20 58 3 15
Typhus 12 73 20 54 15 17 70
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus Fever Due to Rickettsia Prowazekii 12 32
Endemic Flea-Borne Typhus 12 70
Brill-Zinsser Disease 20 70
Murine Typhus 12 20
Typhus Fever 12 32
Jail Fever 12 20
Typhus Group Rickettsial Disease 70
Louse-Borne [epidemic] Typhus 12
Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne 70
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus 12
Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne 44
Exanthematic Typhus Fever 12
Louse-Borne Rickettsiosis 12
Flea-Borne Rickettsiosis 12
Murine [endemic] Typhus 12
Typhus Exanthematique 12
Endemic Typhus Fever 12
Exanthematous Typhus 12
Louse-Borne Typhus 12
Epidemic Typhus 12
Flea-Borne Typhus 12
Classical Typhus 12
Sylvatic Typhus 12
European Typhus 12
Petechial Fever 12
Rat Flea Typhus 12
Relapsing Fever 70
Endemic Typhus 20
Hospital Fever 12
Mexican Typhus 12
Moscow Typhus 12
Urban Typhus 12
Famine Fever 12
Prison Fever 12
Shop Typhus 12
Flea Typhus 12
Ship Fever 12

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
epidemic typhus
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: any age;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050480 DOID:11256
ICD9CM 34 080 081.0 081.9
MESH via Orphanet 45 D014438
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 A75.0
UMLS via Orphanet 71 C0041473
Orphanet 58 ORPHA83314
UMLS 70 C0006181 C0035021 C0041471 more

Summaries for Epidemic Typhus

CDC : 3 Epidemic typhus, also called louse-borne typhus, is an uncommon disease caused by a bacteria called Rickettsia prowazekii. Epidemic typhus is spread to people through contact with infected body lice. Though epidemic typhus was responsible for millions of deaths in previous centuries, it is now considered a rare disease. Occasionally, cases continue to occur, in areas where extreme overcrowding is common and body lice can travel from one person to another. In the United States, rare cases of epidemic typhus, called sylvatic typhus, can occur. These cases occur when people are exposed to flying squirrels and their nests

MalaCards based summary : Epidemic Typhus, also known as typhus, is related to brill-zinsser disease and israeli tick typhus, and has symptoms including recurrent fevers An important gene associated with Epidemic Typhus is AFF2 (AF4/FMR2 Family Member 2). The drugs Doxycycline and Azithromycin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include endothelial, kidney and bone.

Disease Ontology : 12 A primary bacterial infectious disease that refers to a group of diseases, located in endothelial cells of the small venous, arterial, and capillary vessels, has material basis in Rickettsia bacteria, which are transmitted by lice, transmitted by fleas, and transmitted by mites.

Wikipedia : 73 Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus,... more...

Related Diseases for Epidemic Typhus

Diseases related to Epidemic Typhus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 532)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 brill-zinsser disease 32.6 SPTBN2 PLEKHG4 GLRX5 AFF2
2 israeli tick typhus 32.2 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4
3 pediculus humanus corporis infestation 32.2 PPP1R14A MT-CYB CS AFF2
4 flinders island spotted fever 32.1 PLEKHG4 AFF2
5 indian tick typhus 32.0 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 COX18 AFF2
6 endemic typhus 31.4 ST20-MTHFS SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 HSPD1
7 variola major 31.4 CD8A CD4
8 trench fever 30.8 MT-CYB HSPD1 COX18
9 spotted fever 30.6 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 CS AFF2
10 meningoencephalitis 30.6 CRP CD8A CD4
11 hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome 30.5 CRP CD8A CD4
12 endocarditis 30.5 HTRA1 HSPD1 CRP
13 queensland tick typhus 30.5 PLEKHG4 CS
14 neuroretinitis 30.4 CS CRP CD4
15 kawasaki disease 30.3 HSPD1 CRP CD4
16 ornithosis 30.3 HTRA1 CRP
17 tularemia 30.3 HSPD1 CD8A CD4
18 disease by infectious agent 30.3 HSPD1 CRP CD8A CD4
19 optic papillitis 30.2 CRP CD4
20 exanthem 30.2 CRP CD8A CD4
21 ehrlichiosis 30.2 HSPD1 CD8A CD4 ANKRD46
22 orchitis 30.2 CRP CD8A CD4
23 japanese spotted fever 30.2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 CS CRP AFF2
24 bronchopneumonia 30.2 CRP CD8A CD4
25 pharyngitis 30.2 CRP CD8A CD4
26 boutonneuse fever 30.2 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 PATL2 CS AFF2
27 chlamydia 30.1 HTRA1 HSPE1 HSPD1 CRP
28 chickenpox 30.1 CRP CD8A CD4
29 inclusion body myopathy with early-onset paget disease of bone with or without frontotemporal dementia 2 30.1 MT-CYB HSPD1 CS CD4
30 rocky mountain spotted fever 29.9 SPTBN2 SLC36A2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 PATL2 HTRA1
31 esophageal candidiasis 29.9 CD8A CD4
32 pancytopenia 29.9 TCN2 CRP CD8A CD4
33 nocardiosis 29.9 HSPD1 CRP CD4
34 mononeuritis multiplex 29.9 CRP CD4
35 granulomatous hepatitis 29.9 CRP CD8A CD4
36 chorioretinitis 29.8 CRP CD8A CD4
37 facial paralysis 29.8 CRP CD8A CD4
38 deficiency anemia 29.8 TCN2 MT-CYB CRP CD8A CD4
39 chlamydia pneumonia 29.7 HSPD1 CRP CD8A CD4
40 malaria 29.4 TCN2 MT-CYB HSPD1 CRP CD8A CD4
41 cat-scratch disease 29.3 PPP1R14A HTRA1 HSPD1 CS CRP CD4
42 siberian tick typhus 11.5
43 relapsing epidemic typhus 11.2
44 typhus-group rickettsiosis 11.2
45 rickettsial disease 11.2
46 bolivian hemorrhagic fever 10.9
47 smallpox 10.6
48 yellow fever 10.6
49 spinocerebellar ataxia 18 10.5 SPTBN2 PLEKHG4
50 inclusion conjunctivitis 10.4 HTRA1 HSPD1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Epidemic Typhus:



Diseases related to Epidemic Typhus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Epidemic Typhus

UMLS symptoms related to Epidemic Typhus:


recurrent fevers

Drugs & Therapeutics for Epidemic Typhus

Drugs for Epidemic Typhus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 22)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
2
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4 83905-01-5 55185 447043
3 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4
4 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
5 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4
6 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
7 Antimalarials Phase 4
8 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 4
9
Telithromycin Approved Phase 3 191114-48-4 5462516 70789201
10 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 2, Phase 3
11
Rifampicin Approved 13292-46-1 5458213 5381226
12
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
13
carbamide peroxide Approved 124-43-6
14 Antitubercular Agents
15 Immunologic Factors
16 Vaccines
17 Immunoglobulins
18 Antibodies
19 Immunoglobulin A
20 Immunoglobulin M
21 Immunoglobulin G
22 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 14)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Scrub Typhus Antibiotic Resistance Trial (START) Comparing Doxycycline and Azithromycin Treatment Modalities in Areas of Reported Antimicrobial Resistance for Scrub Typhus Recruiting NCT03083197 Phase 4 Doxycycline 7 days;Doxycycline 3 days;Azithromycin 3 days
2 Evaluation of Low-energy Laser Therapy for Prevention and Reduction of Severity of Oral Mucositis in Children "Mucositis Laser 1" Unknown status NCT01007617 Phase 2, Phase 3
3 Phase 3 Study of Controlled Trial: 5-day Course of Telithromycin Versus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Scrub Typhus Completed NCT00351182 Phase 3 Telithromycin;Doxycycline
4 Post Exposure Treatment With Doxycycline for the Prevention of Relapsing Fever Completed NCT00237016 Phase 2, Phase 3 doxycycline treatment
5 The Clinical Epidemiology of Scrub Typhus in Humans, Chiggers and Rodents Unknown status NCT02876367
6 Controlled Trial: 5-day Course of Rifampin Versus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Scrub Typhus Completed NCT00568711 doxycycline;rifampin
7 The Natural Immune Response In Pediatric Scrub Typhus In Chiangrai Completed NCT02398162
8 A Multicentre Observational Study to Describe the Prevalence of Scrub Typhus Defined as a Positive Rapid Diagnostic Test Among Selected Patients Presenting With Fever to Clinics in Myanmar Completed NCT03269266
9 Background Seroprevalence of Rickettsial Infections in Myanmar Completed NCT03847870
10 Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) in Association With Clinical and Laboratory Predictors for the Diagnosis of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) in Patients Presenting With Persistent Fever (≥1 Week) in Cambodia, Nepal, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan Completed NCT01766830
11 The Epidemiology Of Scrub Typhus And Rickettsial Infections In A Highly Endemic Rural Setting In South India: Population-Based Cohort Study Recruiting NCT04506944
12 Eschar Investigations to Improve Diagnostics, Understand Early Immune Responses and Characterize Strains for Vaccines in Scrub Typhus Recruiting NCT02915861
13 Prediction and Early Diagnosis for Cardiovascular Disease Complicated by Scrub Typhus Infection Recruiting NCT03274869
14 Lyme Test Indication Combinations (LyTIC) Study Terminated NCT03201042

Search NIH Clinical Center for Epidemic Typhus

Cochrane evidence based reviews: typhus, endemic flea-borne

Genetic Tests for Epidemic Typhus

Anatomical Context for Epidemic Typhus

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Epidemic Typhus:

40
Endothelial, Kidney, Bone, Heart, Liver, Skin, Lung

Publications for Epidemic Typhus

Articles related to Epidemic Typhus:

(show top 50) (show all 5253)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Elevation of serum transcobalamin II in patients with scrub typhus. 61 54
15906652 2005
2
Persistently elevated serum transcobalamin II in a patient with cerebral malaria and typhus infections. 61 54
7622977 1995
3
Infestation and seasonal fluctuation of chigger mites on the Southeast Asian house rat (Rattus brunneusculus) in southern Yunnan Province, China. 61
33665081 2021
4
Murine Typhus in 5 Children Hospitalized for Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children. 61
33431429 2021
5
Stye Can Lie! - A Rare Presentation of Scrub Typhus Eschar. 61
32495216 2021
6
Urban ecology of hosts and vectors of Rickettsia in a rickettsiosis-endemic city of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. 61
33465349 2021
7
Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Eight Novel Loci for Susceptibility of Scrub Typhus and Highlights Immune-Related Signaling Pathways in Its Pathogenesis. 61
33807835 2021
8
High initial IgG antibody levels against Orientia tsutsugamushi are associated with an increased risk of severe scrub typhus infection. 61
33735183 2021
9
Sunbathing, a possible risk factor of murine typhus infection in Greece. 61
33711035 2021
10
A rare case of scrub typhus vasculitis presenting as acute coronary syndrome diagnosed by skin manifestations. 61
33666032 2021
11
Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus, Murine Typhus and Spotted Fever Group in North Korean Refugees. 61
33676004 2021
12
Acute cerebellar ataxia and peripheral neuropathy due to an atypical infection. 61
33731395 2021
13
Seroprevalence and Factors Associated with Scrub Typhus Infection among Forestry Workers in National Park Offices in South Korea. 61
33803616 2021
14
Misdiagnosis of scrub typhus as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and potential co-infection of both diseases in patients in Shandong Province, China, 2013-2014. 61
33784301 2021
15
Climatic requirements of the eastern paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus, with a consideration of its possible geographic range up to 2090. 61
33513402 2021
16
Targeted capture and sequencing of Orientia tsutsugamushi genomes from chiggers and humans. 61
33771726 2021
17
Re-expansion Pulmonary Edema-A Rare Entity: A Thin Line between Pulmonary and Cardiac Decompensation. 61
33790520 2021
18
Infestation and distribution of chigger mites on Brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. 61
33797533 2021
19
Chigger Mites (Acariformes: Trombiculidae) of Chiloé Island, Chile, With Descriptions of Two New Species and New Data on the Genus Herpetacarus. 61
33300548 2021
20
Orientia tsutsugamushi DNA load and genotypes in blood as a marker of severity. 61
33309595 2021
21
Current tools for the diagnosis and detection of spotted fever group Rickettsia. 61
33713627 2021
22
Descriptive epidemiology of rickettsial infections in Japan: Scrub typhus and Japanese spotted fever, 2007-2016. 61
33610785 2021
23
Protection against severe infectious disease in the past. 61
33573529 2021
24
Urinary Exosomal microRNA-21 as a Marker for Scrub Typhus-Associated Acute Kidney Injury. 61
33596145 2021
25
Urban foci of murine typhus involving cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis) collected from opossums in Mexico City. 61
33280264 2021
26
The contributions of James Carmichael Smyth, Archibald Menzies and Robert Jackson to the treatment of typhus in royal naval vessels in the late 18th century. 61
33641510 2021
27
Scrub typhus-related hepatotoxicity: The Indian scenario. 61
33612084 2021
28
Hyperferritinemia in children hospitalized with scrub typhus. 61
33597024 2021
29
Murine Typhus in Canary Islands, Spain, 1999-2015. 61
33496241 2021
30
An outbreak investigation of scrub typhus in Nepal: confirmation of local transmission. 61
33602136 2021
31
Non-linear effect of different humidity types on scrub typhus occurrence in endemic provinces, Thailand. 61
33665401 2021
32
Describing fine spatiotemporal dynamics of rat fleas in an insular ecosystem enlightens abiotic drivers of murine typhus incidence in humans. 61
33600454 2021
33
Murine Typhus Infection in Pregnancy: Case Series and Literature Review. 61
33670581 2021
34
Research Advances of Leptotrombidium scutellare in China. 61
33684981 2021
35
Serological evidence indicates widespread distribution of rickettsioses in Myanmar. 61
33310022 2021
36
Amplicon-Based Next Generation Sequencing for Rapid Identification of Rickettsia and Ectoparasite Species from Entomological Surveillance in Thailand. 61
33669463 2021
37
Rodent bites in a quadriplegic. 61
33541246 2021
38
A Cutaneous Clue to a Tropical Cause of Acute Pancreatitis: Scrub Typhus. 61
31927109 2021
39
Antibiotic Response to Pediatric Scrub Typhus in South India: Is Clinical Failure to Azithromycin to be Worried? 61
33684931 2021
40
Is cerebrospinal fluid lactate useful in differentiating scrub typhus meningitis from aseptic, bacterial and tuberculous meningitis? 61
33259753 2021
41
Glossopharyngeal and Vagus Nerve Palsy in a Child With Scrub Typhus Meningitis. 61
33452783 2021
42
The Need for Geographic Location Specific Optical Density Cut-offs for IgM ELISA Serology to Diagnose Scrub Typhus in Children. 61
33452796 2021
43
Drug therapy in Pediatric Scrub Typhus - Is 'not Giving Azithromycin' a Risk Factor for PICU Admission? 61
33510538 2021
44
Clinical significance of hypoalbuminemia in patients with scrub typhus complicated by acute kidney injury. 61
33630937 2021
45
Scrub typhus in Chile. 61
33651874 2021
46
The Need for Geographic Location Specific Optical Density Cut-offs for IgM ELISA Serology to Diagnose Scrub Typhus in Children: Authors' Reply. 61
33452797 2021
47
Comparative Efficacy of Doxycycline vs. Azithromycin in Pediatric Scrub Typhus. 61
32797390 2021
48
A Space-Time Permutation Scan Statistic for Evaluating County-Level Tickborne Disease Clusters in Indiana, 2009-2016. 61
33156708 2021
49
Scrub typhus with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a 3-month-old child from a tertiary care hospital of Odisha. 61
33753698 2021
50
Follow-up investigation of antibody titers and diagnostic antibody cutoff values in patients with scrub typhus in South Korea. 61
33441087 2021

Variations for Epidemic Typhus

Expression for Epidemic Typhus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Epidemic Typhus.

Pathways for Epidemic Typhus

GO Terms for Epidemic Typhus

Biological processes related to Epidemic Typhus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 T cell activation GO:0042110 8.8 HSPD1 CD8A CD4

Sources for Epidemic Typhus

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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