MCID: EPD015
MIFTS: 49

Epidemic Typhus

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Epidemic Typhus

MalaCards integrated aliases for Epidemic Typhus:

Name: Epidemic Typhus 11 19 58 2 14 75 33
Typhus 11 19 75 53 14 16 71
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus Fever Due to Rickettsia Prowazekii 11 31 33
Murine Typhus 11 19 33
Typhus Fever 11 31 33
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus 11 33
Endemic Flea-Borne Typhus 11 71
Brill-Zinsser Disease 19 71
Endemic Typhus Fever 11 33
Louse-Borne Typhus 11 33
Flea-Borne Typhus 11 33
Classical Typhus 11 33
Endemic Typhus 19 33
Mexican Typhus 11 33
Urban Typhus 11 33
Famine Fever 11 33
Shop Typhus 11 33
Jail Fever 11 19
Epidemic Typhus Fever Due to Rickettsia Prowazekii 33
Mite-Borne Typhus Due to Rickettsia Tsutsugamushi 33
Rickettsia Tsutsugamushi Rickettsiosis 33
Typhus Group Rickettsial Disease 71
Typhus Due to Rickettsia Typhi 33
Rickettsia Typhi Rickettsiosis 33
Louse-Borne [epidemic] Typhus 11
Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne 71
Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne 43
Murine Endemic Flea Typhus 33
Exanthematic Typhus Fever 11
Louse-Borne Rickettsiosis 11
Flea-Borne Rickettsiosis 11
Louse-Borne Typhus Fever 33
Murine Flea-Borne Typhus 33
Murine [endemic] Typhus 11
Scrub Mite-Borne Typhus 33
Flea-Borne Typhus Fever 33
Classical Typhus Fever 33
Louse-Borne Tabardillo 33
Typhus Exanthematique 11
Tsutsugamushi Disease 33
Epidemic Typhus Fever 33
Endemic Murine Typhus 33
Flea-Borne Tabardillo 33
Exanthematous Typhus 11
Japanese River Fever 33
Sumatran Mite Typhus 33
Tsutsugamushi Fever 33
Sumatran Mite Fever 33
Epidemic Typhus 11
Mite-Borne Typhus 33
Typhus Fever Nos 33
Sylvatic Typhus 11
European Typhus 11
Petechial Fever 11
Rat Flea Typhus 11
Relapsing Fever 71
Tropical Typhus 33
Japanese Typhus 33
Hospital Fever 11
Moscow Typhus 11
Tsutsugamushi 33
Mexican Fever 33
Mooser Bodies 33
Kedani Typhus 33
Prison Fever 11
Scrub Typhus 33
Kedani Fever 33
Flea Typhus 11
Ship Fever 11
Typhus Nos 33
Rat Typhus 33

Characteristics:


Age Of Onset:

All ages 58

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:0050480 DOID:11256
ICD9CM 34 080 081.0 081.9
MESH via Orphanet 44 D014438
ICD10 via Orphanet 32 A75.0
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0041473
Orphanet 58 ORPHA83314
UMLS 71 C0006181 C0035021 C0041471 more

Summaries for Epidemic Typhus

CDC: 2 Epidemic typhus, also called louse-borne typhus, is an uncommon disease caused by a bacteria called Rickettsia prowazekii. Epidemic typhus is spread to people through contact with infected body lice. Though epidemic typhus was responsible for millions of deaths in previous centuries, it is now considered a rare disease. Occasionally, cases continue to occur, in areas where extreme overcrowding is common and body lice can travel from one person to another. In the United States, rare cases of epidemic typhus, called sylvatic typhus, can occur. These cases occur when people are exposed to flying squirrels and their nests

MalaCards based summary: Epidemic Typhus, also known as typhus, is related to indian tick typhus and pediculus humanus corporis infestation, and has symptoms including cough, chills and delirium. An important gene associated with Epidemic Typhus is AFF2 (ALF Transcription Elongation Factor 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Network map of SARS-CoV-2 signaling pathway. The drugs Azithromycin and Doxycycline have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include endothelial, t cells and kidney.

Disease Ontology 11 Epidemic typhus: A typhus that has material basis in Rickettsia prowazekii, which is transmitted by human body louse (Pediculus humanus corporis). The infection has symptom high fever, has symptom cough, has symptom rash, has symptom severe muscle pain, has symptom chills, has symptom falling blood pressure, has symptom stupor, has symptom sensitivity to light, and has symptom delirium.

Typhus: A primary bacterial infectious disease that refers to a group of diseases, located in endothelial cells of the small venous, arterial, and capillary vessels, has material basis in Rickettsia bacteria, which are transmitted by lice, transmitted by fleas, and transmitted by mites.

Orphanet: 58 A Rickettsial disease characterized by malaise and vague symptoms before the onset of high fever, headache, severe myalgias and less commonly petechial rash on the trunk and limbs, nausea, vomiting, coughing and pneumonia. Most patients also have some central nervous system disturbances, such as meningeal irritation, confusion, drowsiness, seizures, coma, and hearing loss.

GARD: 19 group of acute, arthropod borne infections caused by rickettsiae; includes epidemic (classic or louse-borne) typhus, its recrudescent form, and murine (endemic or flea-borne) typhus; all are characterized by severe headache, chills, high fever, stupor, and rash.

Wikipedia 75 Epidemic typhus: Epidemic typhus, also known as louse-borne typhus, is a form of typhus so named because the disease... more...

Typhus: Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus,... more...

Related Diseases for Epidemic Typhus

Diseases related to Epidemic Typhus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 735)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 indian tick typhus 32.5 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 CS AFF2
2 pediculus humanus corporis infestation 32.0 PPP1R14A MT-CYB MT-CO1 CS AFF2
3 israeli tick typhus 32.0 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 CS
4 brill-zinsser disease 31.8 XRCC6 SPTBN2 SLC36A2 PLEKHG4 GLRX5 FMN1
5 endemic typhus 31.0 XRCC6 SPTBN2 SLC36A2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 MT-CYB
6 dengue disease 30.7 GPT CD8A CD4
7 trench fever 30.7 MT-CYB MT-CO1 HSPD1 CS
8 plague 30.6 MT-CYB CD8A CD4
9 aseptic meningitis 30.6 CRP CD8A CD4
10 relapsing fever 30.5 MT-CYB HSPD1 CRP
11 meningoencephalitis 30.5 CRP CD8A CD4
12 transverse myelitis 30.5 CRP CD8A CD4
13 scrub typhus 30.5 TCN2 GPT CRP
14 exanthem 30.5 GPT CRP CD8A CD4
15 typhoid fever 30.5 TCN2 GPT CRP
16 endocarditis 30.4 HTRA1 HSPD1 CRP
17 kawasaki disease 30.4 HSPD1 GPT CRP
18 urinary tract infection 30.3 GPT CRP CD4
19 ornithosis 30.3 HTRA1 HSPD1 CRP
20 chlamydia 30.3 HTRA1 HSPD1 CRP
21 bacterial sepsis 30.3 CRP CD8A CD4
22 interstitial nephritis 30.3 CRP CD8A CD4
23 neuroretinitis 30.2 CRP CD4
24 optic papillitis 30.2 CRP CD4
25 boutonneuse fever 30.2 SPTBN2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 HSPD1 CS
26 acute cholangitis 30.2 GPT CRP
27 human granulocytic anaplasmosis 30.2 HSPD1 GPT CS
28 visceral leishmaniasis 30.2 MT-CYB CD8A CD4
29 orchitis 30.1 CRP CD8A CD4
30 pericardial effusion 30.1 GPT CRP CD4
31 tularemia 30.1 HSPD1 CD8A CD4
32 acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 30.1 HSPD1 CRP CD8A CD4
33 acalculous cholecystitis 30.1 GPT CRP CD4
34 cardiac arrest 30.1 MT-CYB CS CRP
35 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 30.1 GPT CRP CD8A CD4
36 bilirubin metabolic disorder 30.1 GPT CRP CD8A CD4
37 queensland tick typhus 30.1 SPTBN2 SLC36A2 PLEKHG4 CS AFF2
38 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis 30.0 HSPD1 CRP CD4
39 dengue hemorrhagic fever 30.0 GPT CD8A CD4
40 chickenpox 30.0 GPT CRP CD8A CD4
41 myoglobinuria 30.0 MT-CYB MT-CO1 GPT
42 alcohol use disorder 30.0 GPT CRP CD4
43 japanese spotted fever 30.0 SLC36A2 PPP1R14A PLEKHG4 HTRA1 CS CRP
44 middle east respiratory syndrome 30.0 CRP CD8A CD4
45 common cold 30.0 CRP CD8A CD4
46 bronchopneumonia 29.9 GPT CRP CD8A CD4
47 pharyngitis 29.9 GPT CRP CD8A CD4
48 pyomyositis 29.9 CRP CD4
49 ehrlichiosis 29.9 HSPD1 GPT CS CD4 ANKRD46
50 deficiency anemia 29.9 TCN2 GPT CRP CD8A CD4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Epidemic Typhus:



Diseases related to Epidemic Typhus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Epidemic Typhus

Symptoms:

11
  • cough
  • chills
  • delirium
  • rash
  • high fever
  • severe muscle pain
  • falling blood pressure
  • stupor
  • sensitivity to light

UMLS symptoms related to Epidemic Typhus:


recurrent fevers

Drugs & Therapeutics for Epidemic Typhus

Drugs for Epidemic Typhus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 19)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4 83905-01-5 447043
2
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
3 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4
4 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
5 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 4
6 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
7 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4
8 Antimalarials Phase 4
9
Telithromycin Approved Phase 3 191114-48-4 70789201 3002190 5462516
10
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
11
Rifampicin Approved 13292-46-1 135512673 5381226 135900090
12 Antitubercular Agents
13 Vaccines
14 Immunologic Factors
15 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
16 Immunoglobulins
17 Immunoglobulin M
18 Immunoglobulin G
19 Antibodies

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 11)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Scrub Typhus Antibiotic Resistance Trial (START) Comparing Doxycycline and Azithromycin Treatment Modalities in Areas of Reported Antimicrobial Resistance for Scrub Typhus Recruiting NCT03083197 Phase 4 Doxycycline 7 days;Doxycycline 3 days;Azithromycin 3 days
2 Phase 3 Study of Controlled Trial: 5-day Course of Telithromycin Versus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Scrub Typhus Completed NCT00351182 Phase 3 Telithromycin;Doxycycline
3 Post Exposure Treatment With Doxycycline for the Prevention of Relapsing Fever Completed NCT00237016 Phase 2, Phase 3 doxycycline treatment
4 A Multicentre Observational Study to Describe the Prevalence of Scrub Typhus Defined as a Positive Rapid Diagnostic Test Among Selected Patients Presenting With Fever to Clinics in Myanmar Completed NCT03269266
5 The Natural Immune Response In Pediatric Scrub Typhus In Chiangrai Completed NCT02398162
6 Controlled Trial: 5-day Course of Rifampin Versus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Scrub Typhus Completed NCT00568711 doxycycline;rifampin
7 Eschar Investigations to Improve Diagnostics, Understand Early Immune Responses and Characterize Strains for Vaccines in Scrub Typhus Completed NCT02915861
8 The Clinical Epidemiology of Scrub Typhus in Humans, Chiggers and Rodents Completed NCT02876367
9 Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) in Association With Clinical and Laboratory Predictors for the Diagnosis of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) in Patients Presenting With Persistent Fever (≥1 Week) in Cambodia, Nepal, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan Completed NCT01766830
10 Prediction and Early Diagnosis for Cardiovascular Disease Complicated by Scrub Typhus Infection Recruiting NCT03274869
11 The Epidemiology Of Scrub Typhus And Rickettsial Infections In A Highly Endemic Rural Setting In South India: Population-Based Cohort Study Active, not recruiting NCT04506944

Search NIH Clinical Center for Epidemic Typhus

Cochrane evidence based reviews: typhus, endemic flea-borne

Genetic Tests for Epidemic Typhus

Anatomical Context for Epidemic Typhus

Organs/tissues related to Epidemic Typhus:

MalaCards : Endothelial, T Cells, Kidney, Liver, Bone Marrow, Skin, Small Intestine

Publications for Epidemic Typhus

Articles related to Epidemic Typhus:

(show top 50) (show all 6317)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Elevation of serum transcobalamin II in patients with scrub typhus. 53 62
15906652 2005
2
Persistently elevated serum transcobalamin II in a patient with cerebral malaria and typhus infections. 53 62
7622977 1995
3
Lice and lice-borne diseases in humans in Africa: A narrative review. 62
36198330 2023
4
Co-effects of global climatic dynamics and local climatic factors on scrub typhus in mainland China based on a nine-year time-frequency analysis. 62
36277104 2022
5
A Menace without Specific Feature - Scrub Typhus a Reemerging Disease. 62
35057595 2022
6
Is Hyperuricemia a Marker of Severity of Disease in Scrub Typhus? 62
35057592 2022
7
Geography and prevalence of rickettsial infections in Northern Tamil Nadu, India: a cross-sectional study. 62
36460687 2022
8
Azithromycin may be a safe and effective choice for neonatal tsutsugamushi disease. 62
36469889 2022
9
Orientia tsutsugamushi OtDUB Is Expressed and Interacts with Adaptor Protein Complexes during Infection. 62
36374099 2022
10
Occupational health surveillance and detection of emerging occupational diseases among Taiwan farmers, through analysis of national-based farmers' and medico-administrative databases. 62
36398405 2022
11
Biology, Systematics, Microbiome, Pathogen Transmission and Control of Chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae, Leeuwenhoekiidae) with Emphasis on the United States. 62
36429867 2022
12
Host transcriptomic profiling of CD-1 outbred mice with severe clinical outcomes following infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi. 62
36417363 2022
13
Clinical profile and outcomes of Scrub typhus in pregnant women presenting to a tertiary care hospital of North India. 62
36428288 2022
14
Neurological manifestations of scrub typhus infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical features and case fatality. 62
36441812 2022
15
Successful diagnosis and treatment of scrub typhus associated with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: A case report and literature review. 62
36411909 2022
16
Varicella-Zoster Virus Reactivation During the Incubation Period for Scrub Typhus: A Case Report. 62
36409660 2022
17
Revisiting scrub typhus: A neglected tropical disease. 62
36252451 2022
18
Direct diagnosis of scrub typhus by full-length 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis using Oxford Nanopore sequencing. 62
36332903 2022
19
Concurrent Scrub Typhus and Dengue Fever Mimicking Acute Appendicitis. 62
36370019 2022
20
Serological Surveillance of Zoonotic Pathogens in Rats in Markets in Bogor, Indonesia. 62
36322894 2022
21
Scrub Typhus Associated with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). 62
35881216 2022
22
Risk of Major Mental Disorder after Severe Bacterial Infections in Children and Adolescents: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study. 62
36404700 2022
23
Climate drives the spatiotemporal dynamics of scrub typhus in China. 62
36056457 2022
24
Real-time PCR validation to estimate the number of rickettsias in the biological material under study. 62
36398777 2022
25
A rare case of acute abdomen in a child with scrub typhus. 62
35786108 2022
26
Murine typhus complicated by sHLH mimicking adult-onset Still's disease. 62
35697578 2022
27
Renewed Risk for Epidemic Typhus Related to War and Massive Population Displacement, Ukraine. 62
36007931 2022
28
Epidemiological Study of the Occurrence of Typhus Group Rickettsia Natural Infection in Domiciliated Dogs from a Rural Community in South-Eastern Mexico. 62
36290270 2022
29
Murine Typhus-Induced Myocarditis. 62
35576998 2022
30
Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Following Scrub Typhus Infection: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature. 62
36382204 2022
31
Recent Threat of Scrub Typhus in India: A Narrative Review. 62
36381766 2022
32
Rapid Recovery of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Scrub Typhus, With Pulse Methylprednisolone and Therapeutic Plasma Exchange. 62
36407237 2022
33
Epidemiological, clinical and genetic characterization of scrub typhus in patients presenting with acute febrile illness in New Delhi. 62
35953350 2022
34
Clinical outcomes of doxycycline, azithromycin and chloramphenicol for the treatment of patients with severe scrub typhus. 62
35934229 2022
35
Evaluation of an in-house PCR for diagnosing scrub typhus along with a preliminary study of genotypic characterization of Orientia tsutshugamushi circulating in Chhattisgarh: A prospective clinico-microbiological study. 62
36050139 2022
36
Plasmodium falciparum, Vivax and Scrub Typhus in a Young Adult Male: Surviving a Triple Strike. 62
36397913 2022
37
Purpura fulminans in probable scrub typhus group of rickettsioses from hilly region in Nepal - A case report. 62
36268303 2022
38
Orientia tsutsugamushi in Chiggers and Small Mammals in Laos. 62
36255415 2022
39
[A case of tsutsugamushi disease complicated by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation]. 62
36473571 2022
40
Ship fever, confinement, and the racialization of disease. 62
35998409 2022
41
Corallopyronin A: antimicrobial discovery to preclinical development. 62
35730490 2022
42
Investigation of chigger mites on small mammals in Ruili, Yunnan Province, China. 62
36214444 2022
43
Not Only Leptotrombidium spp. an Annotated Checklist of Chigger Mites (Actinotrichida: Trombiculidae) Associated with Bacterial Pathogens. 62
36297141 2022
44
Incidence of tick-borne spotted fever group Rickettsia species in rodents in two regions in Kazakhstan. 62
36050456 2022
45
Is vertical transmission the only pathway for Rickettsia felis? 62
35702810 2022
46
Habitat and Season Drive Chigger Mite Diversity and Abundance on Small Mammals in Peninsular Malaysia. 62
36297144 2022
47
Gene expression and involvement of signaling pathways during host-pathogen interplay in Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. 62
35860421 2022
48
Meningoencephalitis: A Rare Presentation of Scrub Typhus. 62
36176481 2022
49
Epidemiological characteristics and spatiotemporal patterns of scrub typhus in Fujian province during 2012-2020. 62
36174105 2022
50
The efficacy and tolerability of antibiotics in scrub typhus: an updated network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 62
35724826 2022

Variations for Epidemic Typhus

Expression for Epidemic Typhus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Epidemic Typhus.

Pathways for Epidemic Typhus

Pathways related to Epidemic Typhus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
10.69 CRP CD8A CD4

GO Terms for Epidemic Typhus

Biological processes related to Epidemic Typhus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 T cell activation GO:0042110 9.1 HSPD1 CD8A CD4

Sources for Epidemic Typhus

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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