MCID: EPL164
MIFTS: 71

Epilepsy

Categories: Genetic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Epilepsy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Epilepsy:

Name: Epilepsy 12 74 53 29 54 6 42 3 43 15 62 39 17 71 32
Epilepsy Syndrome 12 58
Epileptic Syndrome 12
Epilepsies 15

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare neurological diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:1826
ICD9CM 34 345.9
MeSH 43 D004827
NCIt 49 C3020
SNOMED-CT 67 84757009
Orphanet 58 ORPHA166463
UMLS 71 C0014544

Summaries for Epilepsy

NINDS : 53 The epilepsies are a spectrum of brain disorders ranging from severe, life-threatening and disabling, to ones that are much more benign. In epilepsy, the normal pattern of neuronal activity becomes disturbed, causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness. The epilepsies have many possible causes and there are several types of seizures. Anything that disturbs the normal pattern of neuron activity—from illness to brain damage to abnormal brain development—can lead to seizures. Epilepsy may develop because of an abnormality in brain wiring, an imbalance of nerve signaling chemicals called neurotransmitters, changes in important features of brain cells called channels, or some combination of these and other factors. Having a single seizure as the result of a high fever (called febrile seizure) or head injury does not necessarily mean that a person has epilepsy. Only when a person has had two or more seizures is he or she considered to have epilepsy. A measurement of electrical activity in the brain and brain scans such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography are common diagnostic tests for epilepsy.

MalaCards based summary : Epilepsy, also known as epilepsy syndrome, is related to epilepsy, myoclonic juvenile and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, and has symptoms including seizures, tremor and back pain. An important gene associated with Epilepsy is SCN1A (Sodium Voltage-Gated Channel Alpha Subunit 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Cardiac conduction and L1CAM interactions. The drugs Ethosuximide and Felbamate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include temporal lobe, brain and testes, and related phenotypes are Resistant to vaccinia virus (VACV-A4L) infection and behavior/neurological

Disease Ontology : 12 A brain disease that is characterized by the occurrance of at least two unprovoked seizures resulting from a persistent epileptogenic abnormality of the brain that is able to spontaneously generate paroxysmal activity and typically manifested by sudden brief episodes of altered or diminished consciousness, involuntary movements, or convulsions.

MedlinePlus : 42 Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. The seizures happen when clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain send out the wrong signals. People may have strange sensations and emotions or behave strangely. They may have violent muscle spasms or lose consciousness. Epilepsy has many possible causes, including illness, brain injury, and abnormal brain development. In many cases, the cause is unknown. Doctors use brain scans and other tests to diagnose epilepsy. It is important to start treatment right away. There is no cure for epilepsy, but medicines can control seizures for most people. When medicines are not working well, surgery or implanted devices such as vagus nerve stimulators may help. Special diets can help some children with epilepsy. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

CDC : 3 Epilepsy is a broad term used for a brain disorder that causes seizures. There are many different types of epilepsy. There are also many different kinds of seizures.

PubMed Health : 62 About epilepsy: In epilepsy, certain areas of the brain or all areas of the brain are overactive, sending too many signals. This results in seizures, sometimes also referred to as epileptic fits. Epileptic seizures can take different forms. They may cause only a few muscles to twitch, for instance, or they may cause your whole body to convulse (shake uncontrollably) and lead to loss of consciousness. Epilepsy can arise at any age. Some people have their first seizure in childhood, and others have their first seizure in older age. There are usually no physical symptoms in between seizures. But the constant fear of having another seizure may affect your work and private life. Medication can help to prevent seizures and maintain a good quality of life. Unfortunately, medication doesn't always help, though: About 3 out of 10 people still have regular seizures. This makes it particularly difficult for them to live with the condition.

Wikipedia : 74 Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures. Epileptic... more...

Related Diseases for Epilepsy

Diseases in the Epilepsy family:

Benign Familial Infantile Epilepsy Depdc5-Related Epilepsy
Kcnt1-Related Epilepsy Infectious Disease with Epilepsy
Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disease with Epilepsy Infantile Epilepsy Syndrome
Rare Epilepsy

Diseases related to Epilepsy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 2527)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 epilepsy, myoclonic juvenile 36.4 SLC2A1 SCN1B SCN1A NHLRC1 LGI1 GABRG2
2 benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes 36.2 SLC2A1 SCN1B SCN1A RELN LGI1 GABRG2
3 childhood absence epilepsy 36.1 SLC2A1 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A LGI1 GABRG2
4 epilepsy, idiopathic generalized 35.9 SLC2A1 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A LGI1 GABRG2
5 generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus 35.8 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A LGI1 GABRG2 GABRA1
6 autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy 35.8 SCN1B SCN1A LGI1 GABRG2 GABRA1 EFHC1
7 focal epilepsy 35.7 SLC2A1 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A RELN LGI1
8 epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 6 35.6 SLC2A1 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A LGI1 GABRG2
9 benign familial infantile epilepsy 35.6 SLC2A1 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A LGI1 GABRG2
10 photosensitive epilepsy 35.5 SCN1B SCN1A NHLRC1 GABRG2 GABRA1 EFHC1
11 early myoclonic encephalopathy 35.4 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A NHLRC1 GABRG2 GABRA1
12 benign familial neonatal epilepsy 35.4 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2 GABRA1
13 juvenile absence epilepsy 35.3 SCN1A GABRG2 GABRA1 EFHC1 CHRNA4
14 myoclonic epilepsy of lafora 35.3 NHLRC1 EPM2A CSTB
15 visual epilepsy 35.3 SLC2A1 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A NHLRC1 GABRG2
16 epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, 1 35.3 SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2 CHRNA4
17 temporal lobe epilepsy 35.3 SCN1B SCN1A RELN LGI1
18 unverricht-lundborg syndrome 35.1 SCN1B NHLRC1 EPM2A EFHC1 CSTB CHRNA4
19 generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 2 35.1 SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2
20 epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 1 35.1 RELN LGI1 EFHC1
21 generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 1 35.1 SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2
22 generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 7 35.1 SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2
23 reflex epilepsy 35.1 SCN1A LGI1 GABRG2 CHRNA4
24 epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures 35.0 SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2 GABRA1 EFHC1 CSTB
25 epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 5 35.0 SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2
26 progressive myoclonus epilepsy 35.0 NHLRC1 EPM2A CSTB
27 progressive myoclonus epilepsy, lafora type 34.9 NHLRC1 EPM2A
28 early onset absence epilepsy 34.9 SLC2A1 SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2 GABRA1 EFHC1
29 benign neonatal seizures 34.9 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2 GABRA1 EFHC1
30 epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 7 34.8 RELN LGI1
31 myoclonic epilepsy of infancy 34.8 SCN8A SCN1A GABRG2
32 progressive myoclonus epilepsy 6 34.8 EPM2A CSTB
33 epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 3 34.8 LGI1 DEPDC5
34 autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features 34.7 RELN LGI1 DEPDC5
35 partial motor epilepsy 34.7 SCN1A LGI1 DEPDC5
36 myoclonus epilepsy 34.6 NHLRC1 EPM2A CSTB
37 progressive myoclonus epilepsy 10 34.6 NHLRC1 EPM2A CSTB
38 febrile seizures, familial, 8 34.5 SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2
39 progressive myoclonus epilepsy 4 34.5 EPM2A CSTB
40 lennox-gastaut syndrome 34.5 SLC2A1 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2 GABRA1
41 early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 34.3 SLC2A1 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A LGI1 GABRG2
42 west syndrome 34.3 SLC2A1 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2 GABRA1
43 progressive myoclonus epilepsy 1a 34.1 EPM2A CSTB
44 epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 13 34.1 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A
45 mental retardation, x-linked, syndromic, hedera type 34.0 LGI1 GABRA1
46 electroclinical syndrome 34.0 SLC2A1 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A NHLRC1 GABRG2
47 febrile seizures 33.9 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2
48 myoclonus 33.8 SLC2A1 SCN8A NHLRC1 EPM2A CSTB
49 febrile seizures, familial, 11 33.6 SCN1A GABRG2
50 landau-kleffner syndrome 33.6 SCN1A GABRG2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Epilepsy:



Diseases related to Epilepsy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Epilepsy

UMLS symptoms related to Epilepsy:


seizures, tremor, back pain, headache, syncope, pain, chronic pain, sciatica, vertigo/dizziness, sleeplessness, non-epileptic convulsion

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Epilepsy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Resistant to vaccinia virus (VACV-A4L) infection GR00351-A-1 9.23 CACNB4 CSTB EFHC1 GABRA1 NHLRC1 RELN

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Epilepsy:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.36 ATP1A3 CACNB4 CHRNA4 CLN8 CSTB DEPDC5
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.27 ATP1A3 CACNB4 CSTB DEPDC5 EPM2A GABRA1
3 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.25 ATP1A3 CACNB4 CHRNA4 CLN8 DEPDC5 EPM2A
4 nervous system MP:0003631 10.13 ATP1A3 CACNB4 CHRNA4 CLN8 CSTB DEPDC5
5 muscle MP:0005369 9.91 ATP1A3 CACNB4 CSTB EFHC1 EPM2A GABRA1
6 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.5 CHRNA4 CSTB GABRA1 NHLRC1 SCN1B SLC2A1
7 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.23 CACNB4 CLN8 CSTB LGI1 RELN SCN1B

Drugs & Therapeutics for Epilepsy

PubMed Health treatment related to Epilepsy: 62

The most suitable kind of treatment for a specific person will depend on the type of epilepsy they have and the course of their disease so far. Epilepsy is usually treated with medication known as anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). These include various medications from different groups of drugs. If a certain medication doesn’t work when a low dose is used, the dose can be increased. If it still doesn’t work, a medication from a different group of drugs can be tried out or several medications can be used together. Seizures are often one-off events so no treatment is needed at first. People usually only start treatment if they have a second seizure . But certain people, for instance those with a brain disease, are more likely to have further seizures. In those cases it might be a good idea to start treatment after the first seizure. This will greatly depend on the person’s individual situation. It is important to discuss all the options with your doctor. People who decide to take medication usually take it for many years. Some people can try to stop taking medication after a while if they have not had any seizures for several years. Others have to take medication for the rest of their lives. If seizures can’t be prevented with medication, a surgical procedure may be considered. The options include: Brain surgery : If someone has partial seizures and it is clear which part of the brain is triggering them, that part of the brain can be surgically removed. But this is not always possible. Vagus nerve stimulation: In this procedure, a pacemaker -like device is implanted under the skin of your chest , where it produces electrical signals. It is connected to the vagus nerve in your neck and is meant to prevent the nerve cells from being too active. The treatment is overseen by a neurologist . Children and teenagers with epilepsy will see a pediatric neurologist. Some of the diagnostic tests and treatments are often carried out in a hospital. There are outpatient facilities and clinics that specialize in treatments for people with epilepsy (e.g. epilepsy centers, specialized hospital departments or doctors’ practices). These are particularly suitable if you have a specific problem, if the diagnosis is not clear, or if you keep on having seizures despite treatment. When people with epilepsy have seizures they do not usually need treatment . The most important thing that helpers can do is stay calm and prevent injury . If the seizure lasts longer than five minutes or if several seizures occur within a short space of time, the emergency services should be informed (e.g. by calling 112 in Germany and most European countries, or 911 in the U.S.). Severe epileptic seizures may require a hospital stay.

Drugs for Epilepsy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 514)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ethosuximide Approved Phase 4 77-67-8 3291
2
Felbamate Approved Phase 4 25451-15-4 3331
3
Acetazolamide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-66-5 1986
4
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 12035
5
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
6
Levomilnacipran Approved, Investigational Phase 4 96847-54-0
7
Milnacipran Approved, Investigational Phase 4 92623-85-3 65833
8
Levetiracetam Approved Phase 4 102767-28-2 441341
9
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
10
Phenytoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-41-0 1775
11
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 4 15687-27-1 3672
12
Magnesium Sulfate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 7487-88-9 24083
13
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2, 54-28-4 14986
14
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3
15
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
16
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
17
Bupropion Approved Phase 4 34911-55-2, 34841-39-9 444
18
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
19
Hydralazine Approved Phase 4 86-54-4 3637
20
Clevidipine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 167221-71-8
21
Labetalol Approved Phase 4 36894-69-6 3869
22
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 6740-88-1 3821
23
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-27-2 5288826
24
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 10024-97-2 948
25
Risedronate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 105462-24-6 5245
26
Nicotine Approved Phase 4 54-11-5 942 89594
27
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 28523-86-6 5206
28
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
29
Clonidine Approved Phase 4 4205-90-7 2803
30
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
31
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
32
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-45-6 774
33
gamma-Aminobutyric acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56-12-2 119
34
Etonogestrel Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54048-10-1 40976 6917715
35
Remifentanil Approved Phase 4 132875-61-7 60815
36
Tapentadol Approved Phase 4 175591-23-8 9838022
37
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 5311068 68602
38
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
39
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
40
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
41
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
42
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
43
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
44 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
45
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19982-08-2 4054
46
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-78-2 2244
47
Rotigotine Approved Phase 4 99755-59-6, 92206-54-7 57537
48
Amitriptyline Approved Phase 4 50-48-6 2160
49
Sumatriptan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 103628-46-2 5358
50
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 525-66-6 4946

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 1842)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Prospective Open Label Evaluation of Clobazam Adjunctive Treatment of Adults With Refractory Focal Epilepsy: A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02726919 Phase 4 Clobazam
2 Immunotherapy in Intractable Cryptogenic Epilepsy Patients With Autoimmune Antibody Unknown status NCT02695797 Phase 4 Prednisolone
3 Electroclinical Effect of Diazepam and Steroid in Patients With Benign Childhood Epilepsy With Centrotemporal Spikes Unknown status NCT03490487 Phase 4 conventional antiepileptic drugs;oral steroid;Diazepam
4 Comparing Ketogenic Diet With the Most Appropriate Antiepileptic Drug- a Randomized Study of Children With Mental Retardation and Drug Resistant Epilepsy Unknown status NCT00552526 Phase 4 Antiepileptic drug (AED)
5 The Impact of Reducing Overtreatment on Quality of Life in Children With Refractory Epilepsy Unknown status NCT00647322 Phase 4
6 Hormone Profiles in Adults Treated With Valproate vs. Lamotrigine Monotherapy for Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy: A Prospective Randomised Study Unknown status NCT00137709 Phase 4 Sodium valproate;Lamotrigine
7 Study to Improve the Treatment of Epilepsy (SITE). A Randomized Study Comparing Adjustment of Treatment to Reduce Side Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs With Continuing Treatment Unchanged Unknown status NCT00133081 Phase 4 All registered antiepileptic drugs
8 Evaluation of Onfi Conversion Therapy Replacing Clonazepam in Patients With Medically Refractory Epilepsy: Efficacy, Tolerability, Dosing Equivalence, and Retention Rate Unknown status NCT01932502 Phase 4 clobazam (Onfi);Initial conversion and titration;Conversion schedule - Week 1;Conversion schedule - Week 2;Conversion schedule - Week 3
9 Conversion From Multiple-Daily Dose Enteric-Coated Depakote to Once-Daily Depakote ER in Elderly Outpatients With Epilepsy or Behavioral Disturbances: Unknown status NCT00312676 Phase 4
10 A Randomised Controlled Trial of the Ketogenic Diet in the Treatment of Epilepsy in Children Under the Age of Two Years Unknown status NCT02205931 Phase 4 Antiepileptic drug therapy
11 Relationship Between Topiramate Use and Ocular Angle Status: A Prospective Pilot Study Unknown status NCT00153699 Phase 4 Topiramate
12 Levetiracetam Treatment of Children With Subclinical Sleep-Activated Epileptiform Activity (SSEA) - a Placebo Controlled Double-blind Cross-over-study Unknown status NCT00393614 Phase 4 levetiracetam
13 Effects on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Magnetic Imaging Angiographies of the Supra-Aortic Vessels by Three Different Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agents in Patients With Headache and Dizziness or Epilepsy and Clinical Indication for an Angiography by Magnetic Imaging Unknown status NCT00132223 Phase 4 Contrast agent
14 Effects of Perampanel on Cognition and Electroencephalography in Patients With Epilepsy Unknown status NCT02900755 Phase 4 Perampanel
15 Open Label Study of Milnacipran in the Preventive Treatment of Episodic Migraine With and Without Aura and Chronic Migraine. Unknown status NCT01319825 Phase 4 milnacipran
16 Comparison of Oral 30 % Dextrose and iv Midazolam Sedation During MRI in Neonates Unknown status NCT02645279 Phase 4 IV midazolam
17 The Effect of Central Insulin on Insulin Sensitivity and Energy Metabolism Unknown status NCT01479075 Phase 4 intransal insulin;Placebo
18 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Generic Substitution of Antiepileptic Drugs Unknown status NCT02429596 Phase 4 Experimental
19 Treatment With Acetyl-Choline Esterase Inhibitors in Children With Autism Unknown status NCT01098383 Phase 4 Acetyl-Choline Esterase Inhibitors and Choline supplements;Indistinguishable placebo tablets, matching both donepezil and choline
20 Effect of Bispectral Index (BIS) Monitoring on Faster Recovery Time and Analgesic Consumption in Abdominal Surgery Patients Unknown status NCT01470898 Phase 4
21 Evaluation Whether Higher Retention Rate is in Those of Combined Methadone With N-Acetyl-Cysteine Compared to Those With Methadone Alone During a Six-month Study Unknown status NCT01047956 Phase 4 Methadone; NAC;Methadone
22 Antispastic Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients With Cerebral and Spinal Spasticity Unknown status NCT01786005 Phase 4
23 9-11 Week Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel Study to Determine Effects of Adjunctive Levetiracetam on Sleep Architecture of Adults With Partial Onset Epilepsy Receiving a First Generation Anti-epileptic Drug. Completed NCT00245713 Phase 4 levetiracetam
24 A 24-Week Prospective, Open-Label, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Effect on Seizure Frequency, Safety and Tolerability of Oxcarbazepine Monotherapy in Adult Patients With Partial Seizures Completed NCT00275925 Phase 4 Oxcarbazepine
25 A Multicenter Comparative Trial of Zonisamide and Topiramate as Initial Monotherapy in Untreated Epilepsies Completed NCT00154076 Phase 4 Zonisamide;Topiramate
26 A Phase IV, Open-label, Multi-center, Community-based Trial Studying the Safety and Efficacy of Keppra™ as Adjunctive Therapy in Adult Subjects With Uncontrolled Partial Epilepsy. Completed NCT00160654 Phase 4 Levetiracetam
27 A Phase IV, Open-label, Multi-center Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Keppra® After Conversion to Mono-therapy in Adult Subjects With Partial Epilepsy Completed NCT00630357 Phase 4 Levetiracetam (Keppra)
28 An Open Label, Randomized, Multicenter Clinical Trial to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of Lamotrigine / Valproate Coadministration and Carbamazepine as Initial Pharmacotherapy in Epilepsies (Phase Ⅳ) Completed NCT00807989 Phase 4 Carbamazepine;Lamotrigine/Valproate
29 A Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group Multi-center Comparative Flexible-dose Trial Of Pregabalin Versus Gabapentin As Adjunctive Therapy In Subjects With Partial Seizures. Completed NCT00537940 Phase 4 Pregabalin;Gabapentin
30 Pharmacovigilance Study of Keppra. SPAIN - SKATE : Safety of Keppra as Adjunctive Therapy in Epilepsy Completed NCT00643500 Phase 4 Levetiracetam
31 An Open, Randomized, Multicenter Comparative Clinical Trial of Lamotrigine or Carbamazepine for Cognitive Function as Initial Monotherapy in Adult Untreated Epilepsies Completed NCT00896987 Phase 4 lamotrigine (Lamictal);Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
32 A 24-week Prospective Open-label Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Effect on Seizure Frequency, Safety and Tolerability of Oxcarbazepine Monotherapy in Children With Partial Seizures Completed NCT00275912 Phase 4 Oxcarbazepine
33 A Randomized, Single-dose, Parallel-group Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Two Formulation of Pregabalin in Healthy Volunteers Under Fasting Conditions Completed NCT03712475 Phase 4 Pregabalin
34 Liceo Study: A Prospective, Observational Study On The Effectiveness Of New Antiepileptic Drugs As First Bitherapy In The Daily Clinical Practice Completed NCT00855738 Phase 4 Gabapentin, Lamotrigine, Levetiracetam, Pregabalin, Oxcarbacepine, Tiagabine, Topiramate, Zonisamide
35 A Multicenter, Open Label Study to Evaluate the Tolerability, Safety and Efficacy of Lacosamide (200mg - 400mg/Day) as add-on Therapy for Patients With Partial Onset Epilepsy Using a Flexible Dose-escalation Schedule and Individualized Maintenance Doses Completed NCT01235403 Phase 4 Lacosamide
36 A Korean Open-label, Multi-center, Community-based Trial Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Zonisamide as Adjunctive Therapy in Patients With Uncontrolled Partial Epilepsy Completed NCT01140867 Phase 4 zonisamide
37 An Open-Label, Multicenter, Multinational Study of Lacosamide as First Add-On Anti-epileptic Drug (AED) Treatment in Subjects With Partial-Onset Seizures Completed NCT00955357 Phase 4 Lacosamide
38 A Multi-Center, Open-label, Randomized Study to Evaluate the Long Term Effectiveness of Levetiracetam as Monotherapy in Comparison With Oxcarbazepine in Subjects With Newly or Recently Diagnosed Partial Epilepsy Completed NCT01498822 Phase 4 Levetiracetam;Oxcarbazepine
39 TOPAMAX� (Topiramate) Initiated as Monotherapy in Epilepsy (TIME): A Multicenter, Outpatient, Open-Label, Study to Evaluate the Dosing, Effectiveness and Safety of TOPAMAX� as Monotherapy in the Treatment of Epilepsy in Clinical Practice Completed NCT00266604 Phase 4 Topiramate
40 The Effects on Cognitive Function of Levetiracetam (Keppra®) Compared to Carbamazepine (Tegretol®, Carmazepine®) as Monotherapy for Children With Partial Seizure; A Multicentric Randomized Controlled Study Completed NCT02208492 Phase 4 Levetiracetam;Carabamazepine
41 Efficacy and Safety of Rapid Titration Protocols of Lacosamide: An Exploratory Study Completed NCT03607851 Phase 4 Lacosamide - conventional titration;Lacosamide - rapid titration 1;Lacosamide - rapid titration 2
42 Effect of Melatonin on Seizure Outcome, Neuronal Damage and Quality of Life in Patients With Generalized Seizure: A Randomized, add-on Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Completed NCT03590197 Phase 4 Melatonin 3 mg
43 A Multicentre, Double-blind, Randomized, Phase IV Clinical Trial Comparing the Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of Levetiracetam Versus Lamotrigine and Carbamazepine in the Oral Antiepileptic Therapy of Newly Diagnosed Elderly Patients With Focal Epilepsy. Completed NCT00438451 Phase 4 Levetiracetam;Carbamazepine;Lamotrigine
44 Searching for "Sleep Friendly" Therapies for a Sleepy Population: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial to Assess the Effects of Lacosamide on Sleep and Wake in Adults With Focal Epilepsy Completed NCT01190098 Phase 4 Lacosamide;Placebo
45 RCT of the Efficacy of the Ketogenic Diet in the Treatment of Epilepsy Completed NCT00564915 Phase 4
46 A Multicenter, Open-Label Conversion of Valproate Monotherapy to Lamotrigine Monotherapy in Patients With Epilepsy Completed NCT00043914 Phase 4 lamotrigine
47 A Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Evaluation of Lamotrigine Adjunctive Therapy in Subjects Wtih Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures Completed NCT00043901 Phase 4 lamotrigine
48 Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Treatment of Childhood Pharmacoresistant Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, A Pilot Study Completed NCT02731300 Phase 4
49 Efficacy of Levetiracetam for Language Dysfunction Associated With Benign Epilepsy With Centrotemporal Spikes Completed NCT00181116 Phase 4 Levetiracetam
50 A Multi-center Comparative Trial of Low and High Dose Zonisamide in Children as Monotherapy Completed NCT01127165 Phase 4 zonisamide low dose group;zonisamide high dose group

Search NIH Clinical Center for Epilepsy

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Anti-epileptic Agent [EPC]
Divalproex Sodium
Ethosuximide
Ethotoin
felbamate
fosphenytoin
Fosphenytoin sodium
gabapentin
gabapentin enacarbil
lacosamide
lamotrigine
Levetiracetam
Mephenytoin
methsuximide
oxcarbazepine
Phenytoin
Phenytoin sodium
PHENYTOIN SODIUM,EXTENDED
PHENYTOIN SODIUM,PROMPT
Primidone
Sodium Valproate
tiagabine
Tiagabine hydrochloride
topiramate
Trimethadione
Valproic Acid
Vigabatrin
zonisamide

Cochrane evidence based reviews: epilepsy

Genetic Tests for Epilepsy

Genetic tests related to Epilepsy:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Epilepsy 29

Anatomical Context for Epilepsy

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Epilepsy:

40
Temporal Lobe, Brain, Testes, Cortex, Bone, Heart, Amygdala

Publications for Epilepsy

Articles related to Epilepsy:

(show top 50) (show all 31410)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Keeping people with epilepsy safe during the COVID-19 pandemic. 42 61
32327490 2020
2
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Dynamic up-regulation of prodynorphin transcription in temporal lobe epilepsy. 61 54
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The mechanisms of medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. 61 54
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Dravet syndrome or genetic (generalized) epilepsy with febrile seizures plus? 54 61
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Gene-wide tagging study of association between ABCB1 polymorphisms and multidrug resistance in epilepsy in Han Chinese. 54 61
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PET and SPECT in epilepsy: a critical review. 54 61
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Exogenous reelin prevents granule cell dispersion in experimental epilepsy. 61 54
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Nestin in the temporal neocortex of the intractable epilepsy patients. 61 54
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Mouse models of human KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 mutations for benign familial neonatal convulsions show seizures and neuronal plasticity without synaptic reorganization. 61 54
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GLUT1 deficiency without epilepsy: yet another case. 54 61
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The three stages of epilepsy in patients with CDKL5 mutations. 61 54
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P-glycoprotein--a clinical target in drug-refractory epilepsy? 54 61
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Gene therapy in epilepsy: the focus on NPY. 61 54
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