Categories: Genetic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Epilepsy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Epilepsy:

Name: Epilepsy 12 75 54 29 55 6 43 3 44 15 63 40 17 72 33
Epilepsy Syndrome 12 59
Epileptic Syndrome 12
Epilepsies 15


Orphanet: 59  
Rare neurological diseases

External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:1826
ICD9CM 35 345.9
MeSH 44 D004827
NCIt 50 C3020
SNOMED-CT 68 84757009
Orphanet 59 ORPHA166463
UMLS 72 C0014544

Summaries for Epilepsy

NINDS : 54 The epilepsies are a spectrum of brain disorders ranging from severe, life-threatening and disabling, to ones that are much more benign. In epilepsy, the normal pattern of neuronal activity becomes disturbed, causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness. The epilepsies have many possible causes and there are several types of seizures. Anything that disturbs the normal pattern of neuron activity—from illness to brain damage to abnormal brain development—can lead to seizures. Epilepsy may develop because of an abnormality in brain wiring, an imbalance of nerve signaling chemicals called neurotransmitters, changes in important features of brain cells called channels, or some combination of these and other factors. Having a single seizure as the result of a high fever (called febrile seizure) or head injury does not necessarily mean that a person has epilepsy. Only when a person has had two or more seizures is he or she considered to have epilepsy. A measurement of electrical activity in the brain and brain scans such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography are common diagnostic tests for epilepsy.

MalaCards based summary : Epilepsy, also known as epilepsy syndrome, is related to epilepsy, idiopathic generalized and epilepsy, idiopathic generalized 10, and has symptoms including seizures, tremor and back pain. An important gene associated with Epilepsy is SCN1A (Sodium Voltage-Gated Channel Alpha Subunit 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Cardiac conduction and Aldosterone synthesis and secretion. The drugs Ethosuximide and Felbamate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include temporal lobe, brain and testes, and related phenotypes are no effect and Resistant to vaccinia virus (VACV-A4L) infection

Disease Ontology : 12 A brain disease that is characterized by the occurrance of at least two unprovoked seizures resulting from a persistent epileptogenic abnormality of the brain that is able to spontaneously generate paroxysmal activity and typically manifested by sudden brief episodes of altered or diminished consciousness, involuntary movements, or convulsions.

MedlinePlus : 43 Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. The seizures happen when clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain send out the wrong signals. People may have strange sensations and emotions or behave strangely. They may have violent muscle spasms or lose consciousness. Epilepsy has many possible causes, including illness, brain injury, and abnormal brain development. In many cases, the cause is unknown. Doctors use brain scans and other tests to diagnose epilepsy. It is important to start treatment right away. There is no cure for epilepsy, but medicines can control seizures for most people. When medicines are not working well, surgery or implanted devices such as vagus nerve stimulators may help. Special diets can help some children with epilepsy. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

CDC : 3 Epilepsy is a broad term used for a brain disorder that causes seizures. There are many different types of epilepsy. There are also many different kinds of seizures.

PubMed Health : 63 About epilepsy: In epilepsy, certain areas of the brain or all areas of the brain are overactive, sending too many signals. This results in seizures, sometimes also referred to as epileptic fits. Epileptic seizures can take different forms. They may cause only a few muscles to twitch, for instance, or they may cause your whole body to convulse (shake uncontrollably) and lead to loss of consciousness. Epilepsy can arise at any age. Some people have their first seizure in childhood, and others have their first seizure in older age. There are usually no physical symptoms in between seizures. But the constant fear of having another seizure may affect your work and private life. Medication can help to prevent seizures and maintain a good quality of life. Unfortunately, medication doesn't always help, though: About 3 out of 10 people still have regular seizures. This makes it particularly difficult for them to live with the condition.

Wikipedia : 75 Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures. Epileptic... more...

Related Diseases for Epilepsy

Diseases in the Epilepsy family:

Benign Familial Infantile Epilepsy Infectious Disease with Epilepsy
Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disease with Epilepsy Infantile Epilepsy Syndrome
Rare Epilepsy

Diseases related to Epilepsy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 2483)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 epilepsy, idiopathic generalized 35.7 SLC2A1 SCN1B SCN1A LGI1 GABRG2 GABRA1
2 epilepsy, idiopathic generalized 10 35.7 SCN1A LGI1 GABRG2 GABRA1 EFHC1 CSTB
3 childhood absence epilepsy 35.7 SLC2A1 SCN1B GABRG2 GABRA1 EFHC1 CHRNA4
4 benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes 35.6 SLC2A1 SCN1B RELN GABRG2 EPM2A CSTB
5 epilepsy, myoclonic juvenile 35.6 EFHC1 CACNB4
6 myoclonic epilepsy of lafora 35.5 NHLRC1 EPM2A CSTB
7 focal epilepsy 35.5 SLC2A1 SCN8A SCN1A LGI1 GABRG2 CHRNA4
8 epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, 1 35.5 SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2 CHRNA4
9 generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus 35.4 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2
10 temporal lobe epilepsy 35.3 SCN1B RELN LGI1
11 epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 6 35.2 SCN8A SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2 GABRA1
12 generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 1 35.1 SCN1B SCN1A
13 unverricht-lundborg syndrome 35.1 NHLRC1 EPM2A EFHC1 CSTB
14 progressive myoclonus epilepsy 35.1 NHLRC1 EPM2A CSTB
15 early myoclonic encephalopathy 35.1 SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2 EPM2A CSTB
16 juvenile absence epilepsy 35.0 GABRA1 EFHC1
17 myoclonic epilepsy of infancy 35.0 SCN8A SCN1A GABRG2
18 epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures 34.9 SCN1A EFHC1 CSTB
19 myoclonic epilepsy of unverricht and lundborg 34.9 EPM2A CSTB
20 epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 1 34.9 RELN LGI1
21 autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features 34.8 RELN LGI1
22 myoclonus epilepsy 34.8 NHLRC1 EPM2A CSTB
23 seizures, benign familial infantile, 3 34.8 SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2 CHRNA4
24 visual epilepsy 34.5 SLC2A1 SCN1A CLN8 ATP1A3
25 early onset absence epilepsy 34.4 SLC2A1 SCN1B
26 lennox-gastaut syndrome 34.4 SLC2A1 SCN1A GABRG2 GABRA1
27 mental retardation, x-linked, syndromic, hedera type 34.1 LGI1 GABRA1
28 febrile seizures 34.1 SCN1B SCN1A GABRG2 CHRNA4
29 myoclonus 33.8 SLC2A1 NHLRC1 EPM2A CSTB
30 alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation syndrome 32.1 SLC2A1 SCN1A OTUD6B
31 hemiplegia 31.9 SLC2A1 SCN1A ATP1A3
32 oculogyric crisis 31.8 SLC2A1 ATP1A3
33 hemiplegic migraine 31.3 SLC2A1 SCN1A ATP1A3
34 epilepsy, pyridoxine-dependent 12.6
35 epilepsy, focal, with speech disorder and with or without mental retardation 12.6
36 ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 8, northern epilepsy variant 12.6
37 epilepsy, familial focal, with variable foci 1 12.5
38 epilepsy, idiopathic generalized 13 12.5
39 centralopathic epilepsy 12.5
40 myoclonic epilepsy, familial infantile 12.5
41 epilepsy, idiopathic generalized 11 12.5
42 autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy 12.5
43 epilepsy, juvenile absence 1 12.5
44 epilepsy, progressive myoclonic, 3, with or without intracellular inclusions 12.5
45 epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 7 12.5
46 photosensitive epilepsy 12.5
47 epilepsy, progressive myoclonic, 6 12.5
48 myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers 12.5
49 epilepsy, idiopathic generalized 9 12.5
50 benign familial neonatal epilepsy 12.5

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Epilepsy:

Diseases related to Epilepsy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Epilepsy

UMLS symptoms related to Epilepsy:

seizures, tremor, back pain, pain, headache, syncope, chronic pain, sciatica, vertigo/dizziness, sleeplessness, non-epileptic convulsion

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Epilepsy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no effect GR00402-S-1 10.26 ATP1A3 CACNB4 CHRNA4 CLN8 CSTB EFHC1
2 Resistant to vaccinia virus (VACV-A4L) infection GR00351-A-1 9.23 CACNB4 CSTB EFHC1 GABRA1 NHLRC1 RELN

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Epilepsy:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.39 ATP1A3 CACNB4 CHRNA4 CLN8 CSTB EFHC1
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.31 ATP1A3 CACNB4 CSTB EPM2A GABRA1 GABRG2
3 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.27 ATP1A3 CACNB4 CHRNA4 CLN8 EPM2A GABRA1
4 nervous system MP:0003631 10.21 ATP1A3 CACNB4 CHRNA4 CLN8 CSTB EFHC1
5 cellular MP:0005384 10.13 CSTB EFHC1 EPM2A KMT2E NHLRC1 RELN
6 muscle MP:0005369 9.97 ATP1A3 CACNB4 CSTB EFHC1 EPM2A GABRA1
7 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.76 CHRNA4 CSTB GABRA1 KMT2E NHLRC1 SCN1B
8 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.61 CACNB4 CLN8 GABRA1 GABRG2 KMT2E RELN
9 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.28 CACNB4 CLN8 CSTB KMT2E LGI1 RELN

Drugs & Therapeutics for Epilepsy

PubMed Health treatment related to Epilepsy: 63

The most suitable kind of treatment for a specific person will depend on the type of epilepsy they have and the course of their disease so far. Epilepsy is usually treated with medication known as anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). These include various medications from different groups of drugs. If a certain medication doesn’t work when a low dose is used, the dose can be increased. If it still doesn’t work, a medication from a different group of drugs can be tried out or several medications can be used together. Seizures are often one-off events so no treatment is needed at first. People usually only start treatment if they have a second seizure. But certain people, for instance those with a brain disease, are more likely to have further seizures. In those cases it might be a good idea to start treatment after the first seizure. This will greatly depend on the person’s individual situation. It is important to discuss all the options with your doctor. People who decide to take medication usually take it for many years. Some people can try to stop taking medication after a while if they have not had any seizures for several years. Others have to take medication for the rest of their lives. If seizures can’t be prevented with medication, a surgical procedure may be considered. The options include: Brain surgery: If someone has partial seizures and it is clear which part of the brain is triggering them, that part of the brain can be surgically removed. But this is not always possible.Vagus nerve stimulation: In this procedure, a pacemaker-like device is implanted under the skin of your chest, where it produces electrical signals. It is connected to the vagus nerve in your neck and is meant to prevent the nerve cells from being too active. The treatment is overseen by a neurologist. Children and teenagers with epilepsy will see a pediatric neurologist. Some of the diagnostic tests and treatments are often carried out in a hospital. There are outpatient facilities and clinics that specialize in treatments for people with epilepsy (e.g. epilepsy centers, specialized hospital departments or doctors’ practices). These are particularly suitable if you have a specific problem, if the diagnosis is not clear, or if you keep on having seizures despite treatment. When people with epilepsy have seizures they do not usually need treatment. The most important thing that helpers can do is stay calm and prevent injury. If the seizure lasts longer than five minutes or if several seizures occur within a short space of time, the emergency services should be informed (e.g. by calling 112 in Germany and most European countries, or 911 in the U.S.). Severe epileptic seizures may require a hospital stay.

Drugs for Epilepsy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 539)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Ethosuximide Approved Phase 4 77-67-8 3291
Felbamate Approved Phase 4 25451-15-4 3331
Acetazolamide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-66-5 1986
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 12035
Milnacipran Approved, Investigational Phase 4 92623-85-3 65833
Levomilnacipran Approved, Investigational Phase 4 96847-54-0
Levetiracetam Approved, Investigational Phase 4 102767-28-2 441341
Phenytoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-41-0 1775
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2, 54-28-4 14986
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
Bupropion Approved Phase 4 34841-39-9, 34911-55-2 444
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
Clevidipine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 167221-71-8
Hydralazine Approved Phase 4 86-54-4 3637
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-27-2 5288826
Risedronate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 105462-24-6 5245
Nicotine Approved Phase 4 54-11-5 942 89594
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
Clonidine Approved Phase 4 4205-90-7 2803
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Desogestrel Approved Phase 4 54024-22-5 40973
Etonogestrel Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54048-10-1 6917715 40976
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
Tapentadol Approved Phase 4 175591-23-8 9838022
Ivermectin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 70288-86-7 6474909
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19982-08-2 4054
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-78-2 2244
Amitriptyline Approved Phase 4 50-48-6 2160
Clopidogrel Approved Phase 4 113665-84-2, 120202-66-6 60606
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 525-66-6 4946
Sumatriptan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 103628-46-2 5358
Rotigotine Approved Phase 4 99755-59-6, 92206-54-7 57537
Rivastigmine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 123441-03-2 77991
Rizatriptan Approved Phase 4 144034-80-0, 145202-66-0 5078
Donepezil Approved Phase 4 120014-06-4 3152
Zolmitriptan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 139264-17-8 441240 60857
Pramipexole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 104632-26-0 59868 119570
Oxcarbazepine Approved Phase 4 28721-07-5 34312
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
Testosterone enanthate Approved Phase 4 315-37-7 9416

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 1666)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Prospective Open Label Evaluation of Clobazam Adjunctive Treatment of Adults With Refractory Focal Epilepsy: A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02726919 Phase 4 Clobazam
2 Immunotherapy in Intractable Cryptogenic Epilepsy Patients With Autoimmune Antibody Unknown status NCT02695797 Phase 4 Prednisolone
3 Comparing Ketogenic Diet With the Most Appropriate Antiepileptic Drug- a Randomized Study of Children With Mental Retardation and Drug Resistant Epilepsy Unknown status NCT00552526 Phase 4 Antiepileptic drug (AED)
4 The Impact of Reducing Overtreatment on Quality of Life in Children With Refractory Epilepsy Unknown status NCT00647322 Phase 4
5 Hormone Profiles in Adults Treated With Valproate vs. Lamotrigine Monotherapy for Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy: A Prospective Randomised Study Unknown status NCT00137709 Phase 4 Sodium valproate;Lamotrigine
6 Study to Improve the Treatment of Epilepsy (SITE). A Randomized Study Comparing Adjustment of Treatment to Reduce Side Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs With Continuing Treatment Unchanged Unknown status NCT00133081 Phase 4 All registered antiepileptic drugs
7 Evaluation of Onfi Conversion Therapy Replacing Clonazepam in Patients With Medically Refractory Epilepsy: Efficacy, Tolerability, Dosing Equivalence, and Retention Rate Unknown status NCT01932502 Phase 4 clobazam (Onfi);Initial conversion and titration;Conversion schedule - Week 1;Conversion schedule - Week 2;Conversion schedule - Week 3
8 Conversion From Multiple-Daily Dose Enteric-Coated Depakote to Once-Daily Depakote ER in Elderly Outpatients With Epilepsy or Behavioral Disturbances: Unknown status NCT00312676 Phase 4
9 A Randomised Controlled Trial of the Ketogenic Diet in the Treatment of Epilepsy in Children Under the Age of Two Years Unknown status NCT02205931 Phase 4 Antiepileptic drug therapy
10 Effects of Perampanel on Cognition and Electroencephalography in Patients With Epilepsy Unknown status NCT02900755 Phase 4 Perampanel
11 Effects on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Magnetic Imaging Angiographies of the Supra-Aortic Vessels by Three Different Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agents in Patients With Headache and Dizziness or Epilepsy and Clinical Indication for an Angiography by Magnetic Imaging Unknown status NCT00132223 Phase 4 Contrast agent
12 Levetiracetam Treatment of Children With Subclinical Sleep-Activated Epileptiform Activity (SSEA) - a Placebo Controlled Double-blind Cross-over-study Unknown status NCT00393614 Phase 4 levetiracetam
13 Open Label Study of Milnacipran in the Preventive Treatment of Episodic Migraine With and Without Aura and Chronic Migraine. Unknown status NCT01319825 Phase 4 milnacipran
14 Comparison of Oral 30 % Dextrose and iv Midazolam Sedation During MRI in Neonates Unknown status NCT02645279 Phase 4 IV midazolam
15 The Effect of Central Insulin on Insulin Sensitivity and Energy Metabolism Unknown status NCT01479075 Phase 4 intransal insulin;Placebo
16 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Generic Substitution of Antiepileptic Drugs Unknown status NCT02429596 Phase 4 Experimental
17 Effect of Bispectral Index (BIS) Monitoring on Faster Recovery Time and Analgesic Consumption in Abdominal Surgery Patients Unknown status NCT01470898 Phase 4
18 Treatment With Acetyl-Choline Esterase Inhibitors in Children With Autism Unknown status NCT01098383 Phase 4 Acetyl-Choline Esterase Inhibitors and Choline supplements;Indistinguishable placebo tablets, matching both donepezil and choline
19 Evaluation Whether Higher Retention Rate is in Those of Combined Methadone With N-Acetyl-Cysteine Compared to Those With Methadone Alone During a Six-month Study Unknown status NCT01047956 Phase 4 Methadone; NAC;Methadone
20 Antispastic Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients With Cerebral and Spinal Spasticity Unknown status NCT01786005 Phase 4
21 9-11 Week Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel Study to Determine Effects of Adjunctive Levetiracetam on Sleep Architecture of Adults With Partial Onset Epilepsy Receiving a First Generation Anti-epileptic Drug. Completed NCT00245713 Phase 4 levetiracetam
22 A 24-Week Prospective, Open-Label, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Effect on Seizure Frequency, Safety and Tolerability of Oxcarbazepine Monotherapy in Adult Patients With Partial Seizures Completed NCT00275925 Phase 4 Oxcarbazepine
23 A Phase IV, Open-label, Multi-center, Community-based Trial Studying the Safety and Efficacy of Keppra™ as Adjunctive Therapy in Adult Subjects With Uncontrolled Partial Epilepsy. Completed NCT00160654 Phase 4 Levetiracetam
24 A Phase IV, Open-label, Multi-center Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Keppra® After Conversion to Mono-therapy in Adult Subjects With Partial Epilepsy Completed NCT00630357 Phase 4 Levetiracetam (Keppra)
25 An Open Label, Randomized, Multicenter Clinical Trial to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of Lamotrigine / Valproate Coadministration and Carbamazepine as Initial Pharmacotherapy in Epilepsies (Phase Ⅳ) Completed NCT00807989 Phase 4 Carbamazepine;Lamotrigine/Valproate
26 Pharmacovigilance Study of Keppra. SPAIN - SKATE : Safety of Keppra as Adjunctive Therapy in Epilepsy Completed NCT00643500 Phase 4 Levetiracetam
27 An Open, Randomized, Multicenter Comparative Clinical Trial of Lamotrigine or Carbamazepine for Cognitive Function as Initial Monotherapy in Adult Untreated Epilepsies Completed NCT00896987 Phase 4 lamotrigine (Lamictal);Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
28 A Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group Multi-center Comparative Flexible-dose Trial Of Pregabalin Versus Gabapentin As Adjunctive Therapy In Subjects With Partial Seizures. Completed NCT00537940 Phase 4 Pregabalin;Gabapentin
29 A Randomized, Single-dose, Parallel-group Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Two Formulation of Pregabalin in Healthy Volunteers Under Fasting Conditions Completed NCT03712475 Phase 4 Pregabalin
30 A 24-week Prospective Open-label Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Effect on Seizure Frequency, Safety and Tolerability of Oxcarbazepine Monotherapy in Children With Partial Seizures Completed NCT00275912 Phase 4 Oxcarbazepine
31 Liceo Study: A Prospective, Observational Study On The Effectiveness Of New Antiepileptic Drugs As First Bitherapy In The Daily Clinical Practice Completed NCT00855738 Phase 4 Gabapentin, Lamotrigine, Levetiracetam, Pregabalin, Oxcarbacepine, Tiagabine, Topiramate, Zonisamide
32 A Multicenter, Open Label Study to Evaluate the Tolerability, Safety and Efficacy of Lacosamide (200mg - 400mg/Day) as add-on Therapy for Patients With Partial Onset Epilepsy Using a Flexible Dose-escalation Schedule and Individualized Maintenance Doses Completed NCT01235403 Phase 4 Lacosamide
33 A Korean Open-label, Multi-center, Community-based Trial Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Zonisamide as Adjunctive Therapy in Patients With Uncontrolled Partial Epilepsy Completed NCT01140867 Phase 4 zonisamide
34 An Open-Label, Multicenter, Multinational Study of Lacosamide as First Add-On Anti-epileptic Drug (AED) Treatment in Subjects With Partial-Onset Seizures Completed NCT00955357 Phase 4 Lacosamide
35 A Multi-Center, Open-label, Randomized Study to Evaluate the Long Term Effectiveness of Levetiracetam as Monotherapy in Comparison With Oxcarbazepine in Subjects With Newly or Recently Diagnosed Partial Epilepsy Completed NCT01498822 Phase 4 Levetiracetam;Oxcarbazepine
36 TOPAMAX� (Topiramate) Initiated as Monotherapy in Epilepsy (TIME): A Multicenter, Outpatient, Open-Label, Study to Evaluate the Dosing, Effectiveness and Safety of TOPAMAX� as Monotherapy in the Treatment of Epilepsy in Clinical Practice Completed NCT00266604 Phase 4 Topiramate
37 The Effects on Cognitive Function of Levetiracetam (Keppra®) Compared to Carbamazepine (Tegretol®, Carmazepine®) as Monotherapy for Children With Partial Seizure; A Multicentric Randomized Controlled Study Completed NCT02208492 Phase 4 Levetiracetam;Carabamazepine
38 A Multicentre, Double-blind, Randomized, Phase IV Clinical Trial Comparing the Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of Levetiracetam Versus Lamotrigine and Carbamazepine in the Oral Antiepileptic Therapy of Newly Diagnosed Elderly Patients With Focal Epilepsy. Completed NCT00438451 Phase 4 Levetiracetam;Carbamazepine;Lamotrigine
39 Searching for "Sleep Friendly" Therapies for a Sleepy Population: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial to Assess the Effects of Lacosamide on Sleep and Wake in Adults With Focal Epilepsy Completed NCT01190098 Phase 4 Lacosamide;Placebo
40 A Multicenter, Open-Label Conversion of Valproate Monotherapy to Lamotrigine Monotherapy in Patients With Epilepsy Completed NCT00043914 Phase 4 lamotrigine
41 A Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Evaluation of Lamotrigine Adjunctive Therapy in Subjects Wtih Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures Completed NCT00043901 Phase 4 lamotrigine
42 RCT of the Efficacy of the Ketogenic Diet in the Treatment of Epilepsy Completed NCT00564915 Phase 4
43 Efficacy of Levetiracetam for Language Dysfunction Associated With Benign Epilepsy With Centrotemporal Spikes Completed NCT00181116 Phase 4 Levetiracetam
44 Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Treatment of Childhood Pharmacoresistant Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, A Pilot Study Completed NCT02731300 Phase 4
45 A Phase IV-Pharmacovigilance Study of Keppra Greece - S.K.A.T.E.: Safety of Keppra as Adjunctive Therapy in Epilepsy Completed NCT00631150 Phase 4 Levetiracetam (Keppra)
46 Trial Studying the Safety and Efficacy of Keppra® as Adjunctive Therapy in Adult Patients With Uncontrolled Partial Epilepsy Completed NCT00630968 Phase 4 Levetiracetam (Keppra)
47 A Multi-center Comparative Trial of Low and High Dose Zonisamide in Children as Monotherapy Completed NCT01127165 Phase 4 zonisamide low dose group;zonisamide high dose group
48 Evaluation of Bioequivalence of Lamotrigine Tablets in Epileptic Patients Completed NCT01995825 Phase 4 lamotrigine
49 A Randomized, Open Label, Comparative, Multi-center Clinical Trial to Determine the Efficacy and Safety of Topiramate Comparing With Carbamazepine in Benign Rolandic Epilepsy. Completed NCT00216567 Phase 4 topamax
50 A Multicenter, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel Group Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Levetiracetam in the Adjunctive Treatment of Adult Female Subjects (18 to 40 Years of Age) With C1 Catamenial Epilepsy Completed NCT00630630 Phase 4 Levetiracetam

Search NIH Clinical Center for Epilepsy

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :

Anti-epileptic Agent [EPC]
Divalproex Sodium
Fludeoxyglucose (18F)
Fosphenytoin sodium
gabapentin enacarbil
Phenytoin sodium
Sodium Valproate
Tiagabine hydrochloride
Valproic Acid

Cochrane evidence based reviews: epilepsy

Genetic Tests for Epilepsy

Genetic tests related to Epilepsy:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Epilepsy 29

Anatomical Context for Epilepsy

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Epilepsy:

Temporal Lobe, Brain, Testes, Cortex, Bone, Amygdala, Heart

Publications for Epilepsy

Articles related to Epilepsy:

(show top 50) (show all 31303)
# Title Authors PMID Year
An update on the problem of osteoporosis in people with epilepsy taking antiepileptic drugs. 38 17
31159612 2019
Clinical characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of new onset epilepsy during pregnancy. 38 17
31277117 2019
Stigma and epilepsy in onchocerciasis-endemic regions in Africa: a review and recommendations from the onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy working group. 38 17
31109376 2019
NaV1.1 channels and epilepsy. 9 38
20194124 2010
Intracellular aggregation of human stefin B: confocal and electron microscopy study. 9 38
20078424 2010
Epilepsy and the natural history of Rett syndrome. 9 38
20231667 2010
Disruption of LGI1-linked synaptic complex causes abnormal synaptic transmission and epilepsy. 9 38
20133599 2010
Sporadic hemiplegic migraine and epilepsy associated with CACNA1A gene mutation. 9 38
20071244 2010
Reelin deficiency causes granule cell dispersion in epilepsy. 9 38
19633980 2010
Therapeutic epilepsy research: from pharmacological rationale to focal adenosine augmentation. 9 38
19682439 2009
Doublecortin expression in focal cortical dysplasia in epilepsy. 9 38
19583780 2009
CDKL5 and ARX mutations are not responsible for early onset severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy. 9 38
19734009 2009
Down-regulation synaptic vesicle protein 2A in the anterior temporal neocortex of patients with intractable epilepsy. 9 38
19757204 2009
Dynamic up-regulation of prodynorphin transcription in temporal lobe epilepsy. 9 38
19437412 2009
The 1674+11C>T polymorphism of CHRNA4 is associated with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. 9 38
19577488 2009
Arrested maturation of excitatory synapses in autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy. 9 38
19701204 2009
Neuropsychological performance in patients with POLG1 mutations and the syndrome of mitochondrial spinocerebellar ataxia and epilepsy. 9 38
19435586 2009
The mechanisms of medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. 9 38
19960958 2009
Severe epilepsy syndromes of early childhood: the link between genetics and pathophysiology with a focus on SCN1A mutations. 9 38
19666879 2009
Metabolic epilepsies: approaches to a diagnostic challenge. 9 38
19760908 2009
Sodium and potassium channel dysfunctions in rare and common idiopathic epilepsy syndromes. 9 38
19464834 2009
The Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene is associated with epilepsy in fragile X syndrome. 9 38
19394799 2009
Epilepsy in glioblastoma multiforme: correlation with glutamine synthetase levels. 9 38
19183851 2009
Altered expression of synaptotagmin I in temporal lobe tissue of patients with refractory epilepsy. 9 38
18779938 2009
Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in focal and generalized epilepsy: A study on 233 patients. 9 38
19428124 2009
Gene-wide tagging study of association between ABCB1 polymorphisms and multidrug resistance in epilepsy in Han Chinese. 9 38
19450124 2009
Dravet syndrome or genetic (generalized) epilepsy with febrile seizures plus? 9 38
19203856 2009
PET and SPECT in epilepsy: a critical review. 9 38
19236949 2009
Pleiotropic functional effects of the first epilepsy-associated mutation in the human CHRNA2 gene. 9 38
19383498 2009
Haploinsufficiency of glutamine synthetase increases susceptibility to experimental febrile seizures. 9 38
19170755 2009
{beta} subunit-specific modulations of BK channel function by a mutation associated with epilepsy and dyskinesia. 9 38
19204046 2009
Developing novel antiepileptic drugs: characterization of NAX 5055, a systemically-active galanin analog, in epilepsy models. 9 38
19332332 2009
New GLUT-1 mutation in a child with treatment-resistant epilepsy. 9 38
19237265 2009
Exogenous reelin prevents granule cell dispersion in experimental epilepsy. 9 38
19185570 2009
Lack of association between ABCB1, ABCG2, and ABCC2 genetic polymorphisms and multidrug resistance in partial epilepsy. 9 38
19167193 2009
Partial epilepsy in an adolescent male with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1B. 9 38
19258295 2009
Mechanism of increased BK channel activation from a channel mutation that causes epilepsy. 9 38
19204188 2009
Nestin in the temporal neocortex of the intractable epilepsy patients. 9 38
18719994 2009
Cyst-like tubers are associated with TSC2 and epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex. 9 38
19332694 2009
Two novel CLCN2 mutations accelerating chloride channel deactivation are associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. 9 38
19191339 2009
Cyclooxygenase in epilepsy: from perception to application. 9 38
19343233 2009
Hippocampal NPY gene transfer attenuates seizures without affecting epilepsy-induced impairment of LTP. 9 38
19038255 2009
Changes in sex steroid levels in women with epilepsy on treatment: relationship with antiepileptic therapies and seizure frequency. 9 38
19125844 2009
P-gp expression in epilepsy. 9 38
19125837 2009
No association of ABCB1 polymorphisms with drug-refractory epilepsy in a north Indian population. 9 38
18812236 2009
No major role of common SV2A variation for predisposition or levetiracetam response in epilepsy. 9 38
18977120 2009
Altered pharmacology and GABA-A receptor subunit expression in dorsal midline thalamic neurons in limbic epilepsy. 9 38
18992345 2009
LAMA2 stop-codon mutation: merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy with occipital polymicrogyria, epilepsy and psychomotor regression. 9 38
18406646 2009
Drug-resistant epilepsy and epileptic phenotype-EEG association in MECP2 mutated Rett syndrome. 9 38
18842453 2008
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency associated with epilepsy mimicking non-epileptic involuntary movements. 9 38
18754761 2008

Variations for Epilepsy

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Epilepsy:

6 (show top 50) (show all 221)
# Gene Variation