Aliases & Classifications for Exostosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Exostosis:

Name: Exostosis 12 15
Osteophyte 12 73
Exostoses 44 73
Cartilaginous Exostosis 73
Swimmer's Exostosis 12
Exostosis of Orbit 73
Orbital Exostosis 12
External Exotoses 73
Bony Outgrowth 12
Bone Spur 12

Classifications:



Summaries for Exostosis

Disease Ontology : 12 A hyperostosis that involves formation of new bone on the surface of preexisting bone.

MalaCards based summary : Exostosis, also known as osteophyte, is related to exostoses, multiple, type i and trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type ii. An important gene associated with Exostosis is EXT1 (Exostosin Glycosyltransferase 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways is heparan sulfate biosynthesis. The drugs Etoricoxib and Tramadol have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, spinal cord and brain.

Wikipedia : 76 An exostosis (plural: exostoses) or bone spur, is the formation of new bone on the surface of a bone.... more...

Related Diseases for Exostosis

Diseases related to Exostosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 75)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 exostoses, multiple, type i 32.6 EXT1 EXT2
2 trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type ii 32.5 EXT1 EXTL1
3 osteochondroma 31.7 EXT1 EXT2
4 hereditary multiple exostoses 31.2 EXT1 EXT2 EXTL1 EXTL3 POMGNT2
5 hereditary multiple osteochondromas 30.0 EXT1 EXT2 EXTL1 EXTL3 POMGNT2
6 exostosis, dupuytren subungual 12.0
7 hyperostosis 11.2
8 heel spur 11.0
9 bicipital tenosynovitis 10.9
10 ear exostoses 10.9
11 dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica 10.4 EXT1 EXT2
12 multiple enchondromatosis, maffucci type 10.3 EXT1 EXT2
13 cervicitis 10.3
14 aneurysm 10.2
15 chondrosarcoma 10.1
16 trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type i 10.1 EXT1 EXTL1
17 thrombosis 10.1
18 enchondromatosis, multiple, ollier type 10.0 EXT1 EXT2
19 gingivitis 10.0
20 aging 9.9
21 periostitis 9.9
22 thrombophilia due to thrombin defect 9.8
23 osteoid osteoma 9.8
24 brachydactyly 9.8
25 scoliosis 9.8
26 pneumothorax 9.8
27 ischemia 9.8
28 syringomyelia 9.8
29 bone remodeling disease 9.8 BGLAP EXT1 EXT2
30 hypophosphatasia 9.8
31 fasciitis 9.8
32 plantar fasciitis 9.8
33 bone disease 9.7 BGLAP EXT1 EXT2
34 cervical rib 9.7
35 fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva 9.7
36 legg-calve-perthes disease 9.7
37 neurofibromatosis, type i 9.7
38 neurofibromatosis, type iv, of riccardi 9.7
39 osteoporosis 9.7
40 otitis media 9.7
41 rheumatoid arthritis 9.7
42 schizophrenia 9.7
43 down syndrome 9.7
44 mismatch repair cancer syndrome 9.7
45 encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis 9.7
46 arthritis 9.7
47 joint disorders 9.7
48 osteoarthritis 9.7
49 pseudoarthrosis 9.7
50 sinusitis 9.7

Comorbidity relations with Exostosis via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Hypertension, Essential

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Exostosis:



Diseases related to Exostosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Exostosis

Drugs & Therapeutics for Exostosis

Drugs for Exostosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 67)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Etoricoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 202409-33-4 123619
2
Tramadol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 27203-92-5 33741
3 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4,Not Applicable
4 Analgesics Phase 4,Not Applicable
5 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4,Not Applicable
6 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 4
7 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4,Not Applicable
8 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4,Not Applicable
9 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Not Applicable
10 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors Phase 4
11 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
12 Narcotics Phase 4
13 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Not Applicable
14
Alitretinoin Approved, Investigational Phase 3 5300-03-8 444795 449171
15
Tretinoin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 3 302-79-4 5538 444795
16 Dermatologic Agents Phase 3
17 Keratolytic Agents Phase 3
18 Mitogens Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
19
Coal tar Approved Phase 1, Phase 2,Phase 2 8007-45-2
20 Anesthetics Phase 1, Phase 2,Phase 2,Not Applicable
21 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2,Not Applicable
22
Adalimumab Approved 331731-18-1 16219006
23
Certolizumab pegol Approved 428863-50-7
24
Etanercept Approved, Investigational 185243-69-0
25
Infliximab Approved 170277-31-3
26
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 83-43-2 6741
27
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 50-24-8 5755
28
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 51-43-4 5816
29
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 137-58-6 3676
30
Racepinephrine Approved Not Applicable 329-65-7 838
31
Menthol Approved Not Applicable 2216-51-5 16666
32 Immunosuppressive Agents
33 Anesthetics, General Not Applicable
34 Antiemetics Not Applicable
35 Autonomic Agents Not Applicable
36 Gastrointestinal Agents Not Applicable
37 glucocorticoids Not Applicable
38 Hormone Antagonists Not Applicable
39 Hormones Not Applicable
40 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Not Applicable
41 Methylprednisolone acetate Not Applicable
42 Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate Not Applicable
43 Neuroprotective Agents Not Applicable
44 Prednisolone acetate Not Applicable
45 Prednisolone hemisuccinate Not Applicable
46 Prednisolone phosphate Not Applicable
47 Protective Agents Not Applicable
48 Calcium, Dietary Not Applicable
49 Adrenergic Agents Not Applicable
50 Adrenergic Agonists Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 70)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Transferring the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Unknown status NCT01341509 Phase 4
2 The Effect of Anti-inflammatory Analgesics on Pain Following Hallux Valgus Surgery Completed NCT00733421 Phase 4 etoricoxib;tramadol
3 Prevention of Heterotopic Ossification With Arcoxia After Total Hip Replacement Completed NCT01022190 Phase 4 Etoricoxib (Arcoxia)
4 Chronic Insertional Achilles Tendonitis Treated With or Without Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Transfer Completed NCT00950053 Phase 4
5 Amniotic Membrane as an Adjunct Treatment for Hallux Rigidus Active, not recruiting NCT01825356 Phase 4
6 Study on the Treatment of Degenerative Lumbar Spine Stenosis With a Percutaneous Interspinous Implant Terminated NCT01057641 Phase 4
7 Study to Investigate the Performance of Cervical Arthroplasty for the Treatment of Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease Terminated NCT00700739 Phase 4
8 Post-Approval Clinical Trial of the PCM® Cervical Disc Completed NCT01905930 Phase 3
9 Efficacy and Safety of a Retinoid in the Treatment of Severe Chronic Hand Eczema Completed NCT00817063 Phase 3 alitretinoin;Placebo
10 Study to Determine the Efficacy and Effectiveness of TG-C in Subjects With Kellgren/Lawrence Grade 2 or 3 OA of the Knee Not yet recruiting NCT03291470 Phase 3
11 A Study to Determine the Safety and Efficacy of TG-C in Subjects With Kellgren and Lawrence Grade 2 or 3 OA of the Knee Not yet recruiting NCT03203330 Phase 3
12 Surgical Management of Spinal Cord Injuries In Neck Unknown status NCT00475748 Phase 2
13 Effectiveness and Safety of Autologous ADRC for Treatment of Degenerative Damage of Knee Articular Cartilage Completed NCT02219113 Phase 1, Phase 2
14 An Efficacy and Safety Study of Palovarotene for the Treatment of MO Recruiting NCT03442985 Phase 2 Palovarotene 2.5 mg;Palovarotene 5.0 mg
15 Evaluation of Two Types of PRP in Knee Osteoarthritis Recruiting NCT02923310 Phase 1, Phase 2 Hialuronic Acid
16 Autologous Stem Cells in Achilles Tendinopathy Recruiting NCT02064062 Phase 2
17 Flexible Footwear and Insole in Heel Pain Recruiting NCT03040557 Phase 1, Phase 2
18 Effectiveness and Safety of Autologous ADRC for Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Partial Rupture Enrolling by invitation NCT02469792 Phase 1, Phase 2
19 Autologous Stromal Vascular Fraction of Cells for Treatment of Knee Articular Cartilage Dystrophy Enrolling by invitation NCT02827851 Phase 2
20 The Safety/Efficacy of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapy for Patients With Osteoarthritis Not yet recruiting NCT03383081 Phase 2
21 Sprifermin (AS902330) in Cartilage Injury Repair (CIR) Terminated NCT01066871 Phase 2 Sprifermin (AS902330) 10 mcg;Sprifermin (AS902330) 30 mcg;Sprifermin (AS902330) 100 mcg
22 A Phase 1, Double-Blind, Randomized, Single Dose Escalation Safety Study of Intra-articular OP-1 in Subjects With Osteoarthritis of the Knee Completed NCT00456157 Phase 1 Intra-articular Injection of OP-1 to affected knee
23 Comparing the Efficacy of Periarticular Bone Structure in Patients Treated With Either Tocilizumab or Tumor Necrosis Factor Blockers Unknown status NCT02778789 Tocilizumab;TNF-alpha Inhibitor
24 Distal Erosions and Nail Psoriasis Unknown status NCT02813720
25 Patellar Resurfacing Under Subvastus Approach in Total Knee Arthroplasty Unknown status NCT02683460 Not Applicable
26 Surgical or Exercise Therapy on Patients With Degenerative Meniscus Tears Unknown status NCT01002794 Not Applicable
27 Baxter: Actifuse SHAPE vs DBX in ACC Unknown status NCT02005081 Not Applicable
28 The Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Hereditary Multiple Exostoses Completed NCT00474448
29 NGS Strategy Effectiveness in Molecular Diagnosis Completed NCT03557567
30 Weight Management and Coping Skills Training For Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis Completed NCT00305890 Not Applicable
31 The Three-dimensional Gait Analysis of Medial Knee Osteoarthritis Completed NCT02878239
32 MaxAn Post Market Surveillance Validation Completed NCT01343693
33 Patellar Resurfacing in Total Knee Arthroplasty Completed NCT00553982 Not Applicable
34 Observational Study Rheumatological Manifestations Associated With Endometriosis Completed NCT02826980
35 Can Shoulder Arthroscopy Work Completed NCT01623011 Not Applicable
36 Cone-beam vs Multidetector Computed Tomography (CT) for Arthrography of the Wrist, Ankle, Elbow and Knee Completed NCT01771393 Not Applicable
37 DTI of the Brain and Cervical Spine: Evaluation in Normal Subjects and Patients With Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Completed NCT01868958
38 A Comparison of the Analgesic Efficacies of Ultrasound and Shock Wave Therapy in the Patients With Calcaneal Spur Completed NCT01510249
39 Effects of Myofascial Trigger Point Dry Cupping on Plantar Heel Pain Completed NCT02895698 Not Applicable
40 Effectiveness of Manual Therapy Combined With Standard Treatment in the Management of Plantar Fasciitis Completed NCT01439932 Not Applicable
41 High-Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) of the Cervical Spinal Cord in the Setting of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Completed NCT01407705
42 Predicting Response to Intra-Articular Corticosteroid Injection in Patients With Osteoarthritis of the Glenohumeral Joint Recruiting NCT03232749 Not Applicable corticosteroid injections
43 Decompression vs Physical Training for the Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Recruiting NCT03495661 Not Applicable
44 Results of the Treatment of Patients With Elbow Osteoarthritis Recruiting NCT02951403 Not Applicable
45 Subchondroplasty® Knee RCT Recruiting NCT03112200 Not Applicable
46 Precision Assessment of Platelet Rich Plasma for Joint Preservation Recruiting NCT03460236
47 Predictors of Outcome and Natural History in Patients With Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Recruiting NCT02936245
48 The Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) Connection Registry Recruiting NCT02745158
49 Evaluation of Effectiveness of Selected Physical and Kinesiotherapeutic Methods in Patients With Lower Calcaneal Spur Recruiting NCT02934100 Not Applicable
50 Correlation of Spinopelvic Parameters and Acetabular Cup Orientation Recruiting NCT02598700

Search NIH Clinical Center for Exostosis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: exostoses

Genetic Tests for Exostosis

Anatomical Context for Exostosis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Exostosis:

41
Bone, Spinal Cord, Brain, Bone Marrow, Lung, B Cells, Testes

Publications for Exostosis

Articles related to Exostosis:

(show top 50) (show all 465)
# Title Authors Year
1
Subungual exostosis and subungual osteochondromas: a description of 25 cases. ( 29704255 )
2018
2
Prominent exostosis projecting from the occipital squama more substantial and prevalent in young adult than older age groups. ( 29463874 )
2018
3
Surfer's exostosis in a child who does not surf. ( 29849851 )
2018
4
Hereditary exostosis missed by MRI. ( 29901754 )
2018
5
Subungual Exostosis in a Young Soccer Player. ( 29483981 )
2018
6
Internal auditory canal exostosis: A technical case report. ( 29629231 )
2018
7
False aneurysm of the popliteal artery complicated by a deep venous thrombosis revealing an exostosis in a 20-year-old young woman. ( 29787853 )
2018
8
Subungual exostosis on index finger in a child. ( 29350203 )
2018
9
Bilateral maxillary and mandibular buccal exostosis: a self reported case and a proposal to include buccal exostosis under miscellaneous disorders of revised working classification of the psychosomatic disorders pertaining to dental practice. ( 28416999 )
2017
10
Acquired exostosis: a case report and review of literature. ( 28922700 )
2017
11
Dermoscopy of Subungual Exostosis: A Retrospective Study of 10 Patients. ( 28482347 )
2017
12
Transcanal Approach with Osteotomy Versus Retroauricular Approach with Microdrill for Canaplasty in Exostosis and Osteomas. ( 28333780 )
2017
13
Can an exostosis be free floating without any continuity to the underlying bone: A diagnostic dilemma. ( 29339849 )
2017
14
Haberland Syndrome Associated With Calvarial Exostosis. ( 28863121 )
2017
15
Popliteal artery pseudoaneurysm due to femur exostosis. ( 28350211 )
2017
16
Spontaneous Haemothorax Secondary to Rib Exostosis. ( 28343950 )
2017
17
Prevalence of oral tori and exostosis in Malaysian population - A cross-sectional study. ( 29123992 )
2017
18
Case Report of the positive exostosin-1 without B-cell lymphoma-2 gene expression of giant cell tumor lesion in hereditary multiple exostosis. ( 27846455 )
2016
19
Asymptomatic costal exostosis with thickening in the pericardium: a case report. ( 26946299 )
2016
20
Surgical Outcomes for Resection of the Dorsal Exostosis of the Metatarsocuneiform Joints. ( 26872522 )
2016
21
Dystrophy of the Great Toenail by Subungual Exostosis and Hyperostosis: Three Case Reports with Different Clinical Presentations. ( 27386469 )
2016
22
Exostosis Bursata - Multimodality Imaging Approach. ( 27790547 )
2016
23
Bilateral Scapulothoracic Osteochondromas in a Patient With Hereditary Multiple Exostosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. ( 27761218 )
2016
24
Concurrence of Torus Palatinus, Torus Mandibularis and Buccal Exostosis. ( 28666499 )
2016
25
Correction of ankle valgus by hemiepiphysiodesis using the tension band principle in patients with multiple hereditary exostosis. ( 27234571 )
2016
26
External ear canal exostosis and otitis media in temporal bones of prehistoric and historic chilean populations. A paleopathological and paleoepidemiological study. ( 27834109 )
2016
27
Awareness and attitudes towards external auditory canal exostosis and its preventability in surfers in the UK: cross-sectional study. ( 27263424 )
2016
28
Syringomyelia in Hereditary Multiple Exostosis. ( 27480811 )
2016
29
Subungual exostosis. ( 27622256 )
2016
30
Total Hip Arthroplasty Using a Polished Tapered Cemented Stem in Hereditary Multiple Exostosis. ( 27127668 )
2016
31
Oral pathology: Exostosis deforming face features. ( 27444586 )
2016
32
Rare Mimickers of Exostosis: A Case Series. ( 27630926 )
2016
33
Painful and swollen hands 3A months after lungs graft: Suracute voriconazole-induced periostitis and exostosis. ( 27117297 )
2016
34
Popliteal artery thrombosis complicating posterior tibial exostosis in a 35-year-old male. ( 26993856 )
2016
35
Femoral exostosis causing vastus medialis pain in an active young lady: a case report. ( 25889418 )
2015
36
A Novel Cause of Acute Coronary Syndrome Due to Dynamic Extrinsic Coronary Artery Compression by a Rib Exostosis: Multimodality Imaging Diagnosis. ( 26255213 )
2015
37
Reconstruction of the DRUJ in a young adult after resection of a large exostosis of the distal radius. ( 25877933 )
2015
38
Intermediate grade vertebral osteosarcoma in a patient affected by a sacral chondrosarcoma and hereditary multiple exostosis. ( 25901365 )
2015
39
Resection of costal exostosis using piezosurgery associated with uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopy. ( 25742839 )
2015
40
Buccal exostosis: a rare entity. ( 26028907 )
2015
41
Surgical management of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis. ( 26229284 )
2015
42
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva misdiagnosed as cervical exostosis. ( 25832962 )
2015
43
ISCHIOFEMORAL IMPINGEMENT DUE TO A SOLITARY EXOSTOSIS. ( 26223065 )
2015
44
Atraumatic Removal of Mandibular Exostosis. ( 26591495 )
2015
45
Deep vein thrombosis caused by an exostosis in an adolescent patient with peripheral neurofibromatosis type 1. ( 26098328 )
2015
46
Painful exostosis of the external occipital protuberance. ( 26261091 )
2015
47
Surgical treatment of nail bed subungual exostosis. ( 26778465 )
2015
48
IMAGES IN CLINICAL MEDICINE. Oral Maxillary Exostosis. ( 26444732 )
2015
49
Identification of a novel EXT1 mutation in patients with hereditary multiple exostosis by exome sequencing. ( 25421355 )
2015
50
False Arterial Aneurysm due to Long Bone Exostosis: Presentation of Two Cases and Update on Proper Management. ( 25733214 )
2015

Variations for Exostosis

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Exostosis:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.2644A> T (p.Thr882Ser) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 121746134: 121746134
2 GLI2 NM_005270.4(GLI2): c.2644A> T (p.Thr882Ser) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance GRCh38 Chromosome 2, 120988558: 120988558

Expression for Exostosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Exostosis.

Pathways for Exostosis

Pathways related to Exostosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
10.76 EXT1 EXT2 EXTL1 EXTL3

GO Terms for Exostosis

Cellular components related to Exostosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endoplasmic reticulum GO:0005783 9.35 EXT1 EXT2 EXTL1 EXTL3 POMGNT2
2 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.33 BGLAP COL12A1 COL4A5
3 collagen trimer GO:0005581 9.26 COL12A1 COL4A5
4 endoplasmic reticulum membrane GO:0005789 9.02 EXT1 EXT2 EXTL1 EXTL3 POMGNT2

Biological processes related to Exostosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 ossification GO:0001503 9.54 BGLAP EXT1 EXT2
2 collagen catabolic process GO:0030574 9.46 COL12A1 COL4A5
3 skeletal system development GO:0001501 9.46 BGLAP COL12A1 EXT1 EXTL1
4 IRE1-mediated unfolded protein response GO:0036498 9.43 EXTL1 EXTL3
5 glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic process GO:0006024 9.4 EXT1 EXT2
6 heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process, polysaccharide chain biosynthetic process GO:0015014 9.32 EXT1 EXT2
7 cellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process GO:0033692 9.26 EXT1 EXT2
8 heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process GO:0015012 9.13 EXT1 EXT2 EXTL3
9 protein glycosylation GO:0006486 9.02 EXT1 EXT2 EXTL1 EXTL3 POMGNT2

Molecular functions related to Exostosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 transferase activity GO:0016740 9.8 EXT1 EXT2 EXTL1 EXTL3 POMGNT2
2 acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity GO:0008375 9.43 EXT1 EXT2 POMGNT2
3 glucuronosyltransferase activity GO:0015020 9.37 EXT1 EXT2
4 transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups GO:0016757 9.35 EXT1 EXT2 EXTL1 EXTL3 POMGNT2
5 heparan sulfate N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity GO:0042328 9.32 EXT1 EXT2
6 N-acetylglucosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-beta-glucuronosyltransferase activity GO:0050509 9.16 EXT1 EXT2
7 glucuronosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-alpha-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity GO:0050508 8.8 EXT1 EXT2 EXTL1

Sources for Exostosis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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