Categories: Eye diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Exotropia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Exotropia:

Name: Exotropia 12 74 29 6 15 71
Divergent Concomitant Strabismus 12 32
Divergent Strabismus 12


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:1143
ICD9CM 34 378.1
MeSH 43 D005099
NCIt 49 C34601
SNOMED-CT 67 399054005
ICD10 32 H50.1
UMLS 71 C0015310

Summaries for Exotropia

MalaCards based summary : Exotropia, also known as divergent concomitant strabismus, is related to suppression amblyopia and internuclear ophthalmoplegia. An important gene associated with Exotropia is NR2F1 (Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 2 Group F Member 1). The drugs Acetylcholine and Neurotransmitter Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, testes and brain, and related phenotype is cellular.

Wikipedia : 74 Exotropia is a form of strabismus where the eyes are deviated outward. It is the opposite of esotropia... more...

Related Diseases for Exotropia

Diseases related to Exotropia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 181)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 suppression amblyopia 31.8 PLAAT3 PHOX2A
2 internuclear ophthalmoplegia 31.1 NT5C3A JRK
3 pathologic nystagmus 31.0 ROBO3 JRK CRYAA
4 accommodative esotropia 31.0 PLAAT3 PHOX2A CHN1
5 anisometropia 30.7 PLAAT3 DPT CYLC1 CRYAA
6 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 2 30.5 PHOX2A KIF21A
7 astigmatism 30.4 DPT CYLC1 CRYAA
8 amblyopia 30.4 PLAAT3 PHOX2A KIF21A DPT CYLC1 CRYAA
9 hypotropia 30.4 TNNI3K PLAAT3 PHOX2A KIF21A CHN1
10 dissociated nystagmus 30.4 ROBO3 NT5C3A
11 esotropia 30.3 SEMA7A ROBO3 PLAAT3 PHOX2A PES1 NT5C3A
12 cycloplegia 30.3 DPT CYLC1
13 ptosis 30.2 TNNI3K PHOX2A PES1 NT5C3A KIF21A CRYAA
14 presbyopia 30.1 DPT CRYAA
15 abducens nerve disease 30.0 NT5C3A CYLC1 CHN1
16 paralytic squint 30.0 SEMA7A PHOX2A NT5C3A KIF21A CHN1
17 hypertropia 30.0 TNNI3K SEMA7A ROBO3 PLAAT3 PHOX2A NT5C3A
18 duane retraction syndrome 29.7 TNNI3K ROBO3 PHOX2A NT5C3A KIF21A CHN1
19 enophthalmos 29.6 TNNI3K PHOX2A PES1 NT5C3A FBN1 CRYAA
20 congenital ptosis 29.5 TNNI3K ROBO3 PHOX2A NT5C3A KIF21A DPT
21 ocular motility disease 28.7 TNNI3K ROBO3 PLAAT3 PHOX2A PES1 NT5C3A
22 strabismus 28.0 TNNI3K SEMA7A SATL1 ROBO3 PTRH2 PLAAT3
23 alternating exotropia 12.6
24 monocular exotropia 12.3
25 mehes syndrome 11.4
26 miles-carpenter syndrome 11.2
27 lowry-maclean syndrome 11.2
28 focal facial dermal dysplasia 3, setleis type 11.2
29 elsahy-waters syndrome 11.2
30 mental retardation smith fineman myers type 11.2
31 mechanical strabismus 11.1
32 monocular esotropia 11.0
33 refractive error 10.7
34 myopia 10.5
35 joint laxity, short stature, and myopia 10.5
36 marcus gunn phenomenon 10.5 PHOX2A KIF21A
37 myotonic cataract 10.5 PHOX2A KIF21A
38 microphthalmia, isolated 5 10.4 PHOX2A KIF21A
39 disuse amblyopia 10.4 PLAAT3 CRYAA
40 kearns-sayre syndrome 10.4
41 aniseikonia 10.4 PLAAT3 DPT
42 epicondylitis 10.3 PES1 ACAN
43 partial third-nerve palsy 10.3 NT5C3A KIF21A CHN1
44 chondromalacia 10.3 PES1 ACAN
45 ametropic amblyopia 10.3 PHOX2A CYLC1
46 keratitis, hereditary 10.3 PHOX2A KIF21A CRYAA
47 bone development disease 10.3 PES1 FBN1 ACAN
48 immature cataract 10.3 CYLC1 CRYAA
49 diaphragmatic eventration 10.2 FBN1 CHN1
50 facial nerve disease 10.2 ROBO3 NT5C3A KIF21A

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Exotropia:

Diseases related to Exotropia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Exotropia

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Exotropia:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 9.36 CHN1 FBN1 KIF21A NR2F1 PHOX2A PHOX2B

Drugs & Therapeutics for Exotropia

Drugs for Exotropia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 21)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
2 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
3 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
4 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
5 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
6 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4
7 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 51-43-4 5816
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 329-65-7 838
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
11 Anesthetics Phase 2, Phase 3
12 Epinephryl borate Phase 2, Phase 3
13 Anesthetics, Local Phase 2, Phase 3
Nicotine Approved 54-11-5 942 89594
Methamphetamine Approved, Illicit 537-46-2 10836
Dopamine Approved 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
17 Central Nervous System Stimulants
18 Adrenergic Agents
19 Sympathomimetics
20 Dopamine Agents
21 Mydriatics

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 41)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Surgery Associated to Intraoperative Botulinum Toxin A for Large Angle Horizontal Strabismus: a Pilot Study Completed NCT01460355 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin Type A;saline solution
2 Orthoptic Changes Following Photorefractive Keratectomy Completed NCT01279993 Phase 3
3 Bupivacaine Injection of Eye Muscles to Treat Strabismus Recruiting NCT01616108 Phase 2, Phase 3 Bupivacaine
4 Comparison of Medial Rectus Resection and Plication in Exotropic Patients Not yet recruiting NCT03768362 Phase 2, Phase 3
5 Randomized Study of Non-surgical Treatment Versus Observation in Asian Children With Intermittent Exotropia Terminated NCT01267500 Phase 2
6 Pilot Study of Office Based Vergence and Accommodative Therapy as Treatment of Intermittent Exotropia Unknown status NCT03321838
7 Comparison of the Changes of Lateral Rectus Muscle Insertion Measured With AS-OCT in Two Recession Surgeries Unknown status NCT02450162
8 Early Results of Slanted Recession of the Lateral Rectus Muscle for Intermittent Exotropia With Convergence Weakness; A Prospective Study Completed NCT02131792
9 Basic Intermittent Exotropia; is the Axial Length of the Globe One of the Prognostic Factors for Overcorrection and Undercorrection After Binocular Surgery Completed NCT03153423
10 Treatment for Convergence Insufficiency Intermittent Exotropia; A Randomized Trial Completed NCT01435876
11 Protective Effect of Biodegradable Collagen Implant (Ologen) in Scleral Thinning After Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT02699580
12 A Novel Dynamic Random-dot Stereopsis Assessment to Measure the Stereopsis in Intermittent Exotropia Completed NCT04152122
13 Investigation of the Effect of Oculo-Motor Exercises in Intermittent Exotropic Children Completed NCT03661476
14 A Novel Diagnostic Method for Exotropia Using Video-oculography Completed NCT03119311
15 A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial of Overminus Spectacle Therapy for Intermittent Exotropia Completed NCT02223650
16 Strabismus Surgery and Driving Ability Completed NCT02570555
17 Pre and Post-operative Rectus Muscle Insertion Site Changing Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in Strabismus Patients Completed NCT02383381
18 Lateral Rectus Muscle Tendon Elongation by an Auto Graft From the Resected Medial Rectus Muscle as a Monocular Surgery for Large Angle Sensory Exotropia Completed NCT04286945
19 A Randomized Clinical Trial of Observation Versus Occlusion Therapy for Intermittent Exotropia Completed NCT01032330
20 The Flipped Classroom Approach to Teaching Horizontal Strabismus in Ophthalmology Residency: A Multi-Centered Randomized Controlled Study Completed NCT04381676
21 Assessing the Functional and Psychosocial Impact of Strabismus in Asian Children Using the AS-20 and IXTQ Questionnaires Completed NCT01608828
22 Augmented Medial Rectus Muscle Recession Versus Medial Rectus Recession With Posterior Scleral Fixation in Partially Accommodative Esotropia Completed NCT02413463
23 Long-term Prospective Randomized Controlled Clinical Study on Surgical Treatment of Moderate Intermittent Exotropia Recruiting NCT02736526
24 A Clinical Trial of Observation Versus Controlled Intermittent Alternate Occlusion (CIAO) Therapy for Intermittent Exotropia Recruiting NCT02902887
25 Bilateral Lateral Rectus Recession Using Standard Tables Versus Bilateral Lateral Rectus Recession Using Modified Reduced Numbers in Intermittent Exotropia in Children Less Than 6 Years Old Recruiting NCT04308538
26 Changes in Range of Ocular Motility Following Horizontal Rectus Muscle Surgery in Concomitant Strabismus; a Quantitate Measurements Using Lees Screen Recruiting NCT04213053
27 Slanted Bilateral Lateral Rectus Recession Versus Conventional Bilateral Lateral Rectus Recession for Convergence Insufficiency Intermittent Exotropia in Children Recruiting NCT04064112
28 Symmetrical Versus Asymmetrical Inferior Oblique Muscle Weakening Surgery for Asymmetrical Inferior Oblique Overaction Recruiting NCT03507712
29 A Phase 4 Randomized, Single-blind Study to Evaluate the Multi-media Training(SJ-RS-WL2015)Software Rehabilitating Ability of Binocular Functions in Hospitalized Adolescent Patients With Intermittent Exotropia After Eye Surgery Active, not recruiting NCT04263103
30 The Long-Term Efficacy of Overminus Lens Therapy in Intermittent Exotropia Active, not recruiting NCT03952702
31 Intermittent Exotropia Study 6: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial of Base-in Prism Spectacles for Intermittent Exotropia Active, not recruiting NCT03998670
32 A Randomized Clinical Trial of Overminus Spectacle Therapy for Intermittent Exotropia Active, not recruiting NCT02807350
33 A Randomized Trial of Bilateral Lateral Rectus Recession Versus Unilateral Lateral Rectus Recession With Medial Rectus Resection for Intermittent Exotropia Active, not recruiting NCT01032603
34 The Analysis of Ocular Deviations Between Dominant and Non-dominant Eye Using Video-oculography (VOG) in Intermittent Exotropia Enrolling by invitation NCT03641040
35 Effect of Strabismus Surgery on Macular and Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness Assessed by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Enrolling by invitation NCT04285177
36 A Randomized Clinical Trial of Part-time Patching Therapy on Improvement of Deviation Control in 3 to 8 Year-old Children With Intermittent Exotropia Not yet recruiting NCT03700632
37 Improving Control of Alignment in Intermittent Esotropia Not yet recruiting NCT04199871
38 Effect of Age at Time of Surgery on the Surgical Outcome After Bilateral Lateral Rectus Muscle Recession in Intermittent Exotropia Not yet recruiting NCT04307160
39 The Effect of Light Deprivation on Visual Functions in Adult Amblyopes Not yet recruiting NCT02799836
40 LR Resection Versus Plication in Esotropia Not yet recruiting NCT04213768
41 A Clinical Trial of Observation Versus Controlled Intermittent Alternate Occlusion (CIAO) Therapy for Intermittent Exotropia Terminated NCT02466659

Search NIH Clinical Center for Exotropia

Genetic Tests for Exotropia

Genetic tests related to Exotropia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Exotropia 29

Anatomical Context for Exotropia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Exotropia:

Eye, Testes, Brain, Thyroid, Cortex, Retina, Skin

Publications for Exotropia

Articles related to Exotropia:

(show top 50) (show all 2254)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Consecutive strabismus after infantile nystagmus syndrome surgery and potential risk factors. 61
32307586 2020
Effect of unilateral vertical transposition of the horizontal rectus muscles on vertical strabismus. 61
32551994 2020
Pseudostrabismus in the First Year of Life and the Subsequent Diagnosis of Strabismus. 61
32533950 2020
One-Month Postoperative Horizontal Strabismus Surgery Outcomes Using Adjustable and Nonadjustable Sutures. 61
32511075 2020
Analysis of the potential impact of strabismus with and without amblyopia on visual-perceptual and visual-motor skills evaluated using TVPS-3 and VMI-6 tests. 61
32535162 2020
Consanguineous-derived homozygous WNT1 mutation results in osteogenesis imperfect with congenital ptosis and exotropia. 61
32529806 2020
Difference in myopia progression between dominant and non-dominant eye in patients with intermittent exotropia. 61
32307585 2020
Intermittent exotropia - a potential confounding factor for full-field electroretinography. 61
32552214 2020
Formulas to Estimate Appropriate Surgical Amounts of Unilateral Recession-Resection in Intermittent Exotropia with Distance-Near Disparity. 61
32577021 2020
Risk factors for excessive postoperative exo-drift after unilateral lateral rectus muscle recession and medial rectus muscle resection for intermittent exotropia. 61
32503457 2020
Enhanced adjustable nasal transposition of split lateral rectus muscle for surgical management of oculomotor nerve palsy. 61
32522706 2020
Risk factors for spontaneous consecutive exotropia in children with refractive and nonrefractive accommodative esotropia. 61
32108919 2020
Comparison Between Parental Observations and Clinical Evaluation Findings in Korean Pediatric Patients With Intermittent Exotropia. 61
32453854 2020
Abnormal Tuning in Nucleus Prepositus Hypoglossi of Monkeys With "A" Pattern Exotropia. 61
32446250 2020
Congenital Zika Syndrome: Surgical and Visual Outcomes After Surgery for Infantile Strabismus. 61
32453850 2020
Anomalous extraocular muscles in Crouzon syndrome with V-pattern exotropia. 61
32317492 2020
Commentary: Anomalous extraocular muscles in Crouzon syndrome with V-pattern exotropia. 61
32317493 2020
Association of pseudo-exotropia with true esotropia in cicatricial retinopathy of prematurity. 61
32317477 2020
Evolving trends in strabismus following retinal surgery: is there still a role for botulinum toxin? 61
32396025 2020
Fascia lata augmented nasal transposition of split lateral rectus in complete oculomotor nerve palsy with a previous failed surgery. 61
31432693 2020
Surgical Outcomes of Patients with Diagnostic Preoperative Monocular Occlusion in Intermittent Exotropia. 61
32385350 2020
Exotropic heavy eye syndrome in unilateral high axial myopia. 61
32479997 2020
Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Orbit in an 8-Month Old. 61
31880682 2020
Strabismus Surgery of Consecutive Exotropia. 61
32330980 2020
Influence of prenatal environment and birth parameters on amblyopia, strabismus, and anisometropia. 61
32151573 2020
WEBINO syndrome (wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia) secondary to ischemic stroke, about a case. 61
32088083 2020
Prevalence of the thoracic scoliosis in children and adolescents candidates for strabismus surgery: results from a 1935-patient cross-sectional study in China. 61
32112152 2020
Clinical Features of Duane Retraction Syndrome: A New Classification. 61
32233150 2020
Clinical Manifestations of Delayed-onset Consecutive Esotropia after Surgical Correction of Intermittent Exotropia. 61
32233145 2020
Convergence excess consecutive esotropia associated with 0.01% atropine eye drops usage in patients operated for intermittent exotropia. 61
32174596 2020
The Relationship of Age and Other Baseline Factors to Outcome of Initial Surgery for Intermittent Exotropia. 61
31862447 2020
Motor and Sensory Outcomes of Infantile Exotropia: A 10-Year Study (2008-2017). 61
32233148 2020
Binocular discrepancy in lateral rectus muscle attachment in intermittent exotropia with eye dominance. 61
32314031 2020
The stability of horizontal ocular alignment of triad exotropia after one-step triple surgery. 61
31932885 2020
Central Mini-plication of the Medial Rectus for Convergence Insufficiency. 61
32167411 2020
Myectomy of the four horizontal rectus muscles with pulley fixation for the treatment of horizontal nystagmus in 10 adults: a pilot study. 61
32224284 2020
Comparison of surgical outcomes of slanted procedure for exotropia with convergence insufficiency according to their response to preoperative monocular occlusion. 61
32350350 2020
[Clinical research progress of intermittent exotropia]. 61
32187952 2020
[Morphological observation on the anterior ciliary vessels in the horizontal rectus muscles of patients with concomitant horizontal strabismus]. 61
32187948 2020
Topographical profiles of macula and optic nerve head in concomitant strabismus patients as measured using OCT and CSLO. 61
31754829 2020
A Comparative Study of Prism Adaptation and the Augmented Surgery Formula in the Management of Acquired Comitant Esotropia. 61
32203595 2020
Ocular alignment, media, and eyelid disorders in Down syndrome. 61
31830843 2020
The prevalence of tropia, phoria and their types in a student population in Iran. 61
31868064 2020
Comparison of surgery versus observation for small angle intermittent exotropia. 61
32170126 2020
Inferior oblique belly transposition for V pattern strabismus. 61
31847669 2020
Pseudoduplication of the optic disc initially resembling a bifurcated optic nerve in a strabismus child: a case report. 61
32169056 2020
Nystagmus with pendular low amplitude, high frequency components (PLAHF) in association with retinal disease. 61
31889465 2020
Incidence of Strabismus and Amblyopia Among Children Initially Diagnosed With Pseudostrabismus Using the Optum Data Set. 61
31730842 2020
Long-term outcomes following resection-recession versus plication-recession in children with intermittent exotropia. 61
31118183 2020
Measurement of the Angle of Exodeviation With Polarized Glasses in Intermittent Exotropia. 61
31712065 2020

Variations for Exotropia

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Exotropia:

6 ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 46;X;inv(X)(p11.4q24)dninversion Pathogenic 267883
2 46;XY;t(1;14)(q42;q13)Translocation Uncertain significance 267942
3 NR2F1 NM_005654.6(NR2F1):c.265T>C (p.Cys89Arg)SNV Uncertain significance 599002 rs1561523716 5:92920994-92920994 5:93585288-93585288
4 46;XY;t(6;11)(q23;q21)or(q25;q21)dnTranslocation Uncertain significance 267823

Expression for Exotropia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Exotropia.

Pathways for Exotropia

GO Terms for Exotropia

Cellular components related to Exotropia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 collagen-containing extracellular matrix GO:0062023 8.92 SEMA7A FBN1 DPT ACAN

Biological processes related to Exotropia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 skeletal system development GO:0001501 9.61 FBN1 CDH11 ACAN
2 nervous system development GO:0007399 9.43 SEMA7A ROBO3 PHOX2B PHOX2A NR2F1 CHN1
3 dopaminergic neuron differentiation GO:0071542 9.4 PHOX2B PHOX2A
4 sympathetic nervous system development GO:0048485 9.37 PHOX2B PHOX2A
5 enteric nervous system development GO:0048484 9.32 PHOX2B PHOX2A
6 autonomic nervous system development GO:0048483 9.26 PHOX2B PHOX2A
7 noradrenergic neuron differentiation GO:0003357 9.16 PHOX2B PHOX2A
8 parasympathetic nervous system development GO:0048486 8.62 PHOX2B PHOX2A

Molecular functions related to Exotropia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular matrix structural constituent GO:0005201 8.8 FBN1 DPT ACAN

Sources for Exotropia

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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