Aliases & Classifications for Facial Paralysis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Facial Paralysis:

Name: Facial Paralysis 12 74 43 15 71
Facial Palsy 12 15
Bell Palsy 71


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13934
MeSH 43 D005158
NCIt 49 C26769
ICD10 32 G51.0
UMLS 71 C0015469 C0376175

Summaries for Facial Paralysis

MalaCards based summary : Facial Paralysis, also known as facial palsy, is related to bell's palsy and herpes zoster, and has symptoms including seizures, tremor and muscle weakness. An important gene associated with Facial Paralysis is MARVELD1 (MARVEL Domain Containing 1). The drugs Acetylcholine and Methylprednisolone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, testes and eye, and related phenotypes are cellular and endocrine/exocrine gland

Wikipedia : 74 Facial nerve paralysis is a common problem that involves the paralysis of any structures innervated by... more...

Related Diseases for Facial Paralysis

Diseases related to Facial Paralysis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 812)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 bell's palsy 33.1 MTRNR2L5 MARVELD1 LIPN HOXB1 FKBP4 CD40LG
2 herpes zoster 31.3 CRP CD40LG CD4
3 chickenpox 30.8 CRP CD40LG CD4 ALB
4 otitis media 30.6 CRP CD40LG ALB
5 parotitis 30.6 CRP CD40LG CD4 ALB
6 sarcoidosis 1 30.6 CRP CD40LG CD4 ACE
7 asymptomatic neurosyphilis 30.5 CD40LG CD4
8 syphilitic meningitis 30.5 CD40LG CD4
9 glossopharyngeal neuralgia 30.4 KANTR ANTXR2
10 xerophthalmia 30.4 MTRNR2L5 CRP CD40LG CD4
11 keratoconjunctivitis sicca 30.4 CD40LG CD4 ALB
12 multiple cranial nerve palsy 30.4 CRP ACE
13 ankylosis 30.4 TGFB1 CRP ANKH
14 cerebellopontine angle tumor 30.4 NF2 ANTXR2
15 uveoparotid fever 30.4 CD40LG CD4 ACE
16 brucellosis 30.2 TGFB1 CRP CD40LG
17 kawasaki disease 30.2 CRP CD40LG CD4 ALB
18 parotid disease 30.2 CRP CD40LG CD4
19 suppression amblyopia 30.2 MTRNR2L5 MTRNR2L4
20 leprosy 3 30.2 CD40LG CD4 ALB
21 cellulitis 30.1 CRP CD40LG CD4
22 tolosa-hunt syndrome 30.1 NT5C3A CRP ACE
23 late congenital syphilis 30.1 CRP CD40LG
24 epidemic typhus 30.1 CRP CD40LG CD4
25 temporal arteritis 30.1 CRP CD40LG CD4
26 cavernous sinus thrombosis 30.1 NT5C3A KANTR CRP
27 neurosarcoidosis 30.0 CRP CD4 ACE
28 acalculous cholecystitis 30.0 CRP CD40LG ALB
29 purpura 30.0 CRP CD40LG ACE
30 scarlet fever 30.0 CRP CD40LG ALB
31 meningoencephalitis 30.0 CRP CD40LG CD4 ALB
32 spondyloarthropathy 1 30.0 CRP CD40LG ANKH
33 severe cutaneous adverse reaction 29.9 CRP CD40LG CD4 ALB
34 actinomycosis 29.9 CRP CD4 ALB
35 tukel syndrome 29.9 NT5C3A KIF21A HOXB1
36 cat-scratch disease 29.9 CRP CD40LG CD4 ACE
37 iridocyclitis 29.9 CRP CD40LG CD4 ACE
38 neuroretinitis 29.8 CRP CD40LG CD4 ACE
39 collagen disease 29.8 CRP CD40LG CD4 ACE
40 polyneuropathy 29.8 NF2 CRP CD40LG ALB ACE
41 interstitial lung disease 29.8 TGFB1 CRP CD40LG ALB
42 miliary tuberculosis 29.8 CRP CD40LG CD4 ALB
43 middle ear disease 29.8 CRP CD40LG CD4 ALB
44 glomerulonephritis 29.8 TGFB1 CD40LG ALB ACE
45 syphilis 29.8 CRP CD40LG CD4 ALB ACE
46 bone inflammation disease 29.7 CRP CD40LG CD4 ALB
47 optic nerve disease 29.7 CRP CD40LG CD4 ALB ACE
48 systemic scleroderma 29.7 TGFB1 CRP CD40LG CD4 ACE
49 strabismus 29.6 NT5C3A KIF21A KANTR HOXB1
50 pericarditis 29.6 CRP CD40LG ALB ACE

Comorbidity relations with Facial Paralysis via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Acute Cystitis Epilepsy, Focal, with Speech Disorder and with or Without Mental Retardation
Exposure Keratitis Hypertension, Essential
Mechanical Ectropion Myoclonus and Ataxia
Paralytic Lagophthalmos Parotid Gland Cancer
Swallowing Disorders Transient Cerebral Ischemia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Facial Paralysis:

Diseases related to Facial Paralysis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Facial Paralysis

UMLS symptoms related to Facial Paralysis:

seizures, tremor, muscle weakness, generalized muscle weakness, back pain, ophthalmoplegia, pain, headache, hemiplegia, syncope, chronic pain, sciatica, vertigo/dizziness, sleeplessness, oral manifestations, facial paresis, facial palsy, upper motor neuron, facial palsy, lower motor neuron, hemifacial paralysis, flaccid muscle tone

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Facial Paralysis:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 9.93 ALB ANKH ANTXR2 CADM1 CD4 CD40LG
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.61 ACE ALB CADM1 CD4 CD40LG FKBP4
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.36 ACE ALB ANKH ANTXR2 CADM1 CD4

Drugs & Therapeutics for Facial Paralysis

Drugs for Facial Paralysis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 55)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
5 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7
Cortisone Experimental Phase 4 53-06-5 222786
10 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
11 Antiviral Agents Phase 4
12 valacyclovir Phase 4
13 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
14 Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors Phase 4
15 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4
16 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4
17 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
18 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
19 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4
20 Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 4
21 Protective Agents Phase 4
22 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4
23 incobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
24 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
25 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4
26 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4
27 Anesthetics Phase 4
28 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4
29 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 53-03-2 5865
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 50-02-2 5743
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 1177-87-3
tannic acid Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
Phenol Approved, Experimental Phase 2, Phase 3 108-95-2 996
36 Antiemetics Phase 2, Phase 3
37 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
38 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
39 Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
40 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 2, Phase 3
41 Autonomic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
42 glucocorticoids Phase 2, Phase 3
43 Hormones Phase 2, Phase 3
44 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2, Phase 3
45 BB 1101 Phase 2, Phase 3
Salicylic acid Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 69-72-7 338
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 22916-47-8 4189
Lapatinib Approved, Investigational Early Phase 1 231277-92-2, 388082-78-8 208908 9941095
Acyclovir Approved Early Phase 1 59277-89-3 2022
50 Keratolytic Agents

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 67)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Multicentre Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of Prednisolone and/or Valaciclovir for the Treatment of Bell's Palsy Completed NCT00510263 Phase 4 Prednisolone + placebo;Valaciclovir + placebo;Prednisolone + valaciclovir;Placebo + placebo
2 Randomized, Single-blind Comparison of Three Commercially Available Botulinum Neuromodulators in the Management of Facial Synkinesis Completed NCT03048383 Phase 4 OnabotulinumtoxinA Injectable Product;AbobotulinumtoxinA Injectable Product;Incobotulinumtoxin A Injectable Product
3 The Facial Nerve Palsy And Cortisone Evaluation (FACE) Study in Children: A Randomized Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter Trial Recruiting NCT03781700 Phase 4 Prednisolone;Placebo Oral Tablet
4 Mixed Methods Investigation of Chronic Facial Paralysis in Individuals With Synkinesis: Study of Outcomes Before and After Treatment Recruiting NCT04148872 Phase 4 Chemodenervation (4 months)
5 Study of the Reinnervation of Facial Muscles After Lengthening Temporalis Myoplasty Terminated NCT01833221 Phase 4 injection of 1% lidocaine, 2mL for facial nerve block
6 Assessment of Corticosteroid Effect in the Prevention of Facial Palsy After Cerebella-pontine Angle Surgery Completed NCT00438087 Phase 3 methylprednisolone
7 Intratympanic Steroid Injection for Treatment of Idiopathic Facial Nerve Paralysis Recruiting NCT03508440 Phase 2, Phase 3 Prednisone
8 Mimetic Interfaces - Toispuoleisen Kasvohermohalvauksen Kojeellinen Kuntoutus Terveen Puolen Lihasaktiviteettiohjauksella. Stimulaattorin Prototyypin Testaus terveillä koehenkilöillä ja Kasvohermohalvauspotilailla. Active, not recruiting NCT03496025 Phase 1
9 Lengthening Temporalis Myoplasty and Improvement of Primary Swallowing Disorders in Facial Paralysis Unknown status NCT03284125
10 Surgery or Clinical Follow-up in Patients With Bell's Palsy. A Prospective, Parallell, Single Center, Randomized , Open Surgery Clinical Study. Unknown status NCT02179684
11 Study of Psychological Factors on the Occurence of Bell's Palsy Unknown status NCT01377766
12 Prednisone Acetate and Acupuncture for the Treatment of Facial Neuritis: a Multiple Center, Comparative Effectiveness Research in China Unknown status NCT01201642 Prednisolone
13 Quantification, Analysis and Simulation of Facial Mimics Movements Unknown status NCT02002572
14 Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Clinical, Functional and Aesthetics Results of "Classical" Pterional and Minipterional Craniotomies. Unknown status NCT01872741
15 Cognitive and Physical Functions in Patients With TIA. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Physical Activity on Prescription up to One Year After the Event Unknown status NCT01509924
16 Microbiologic Findings of Acute Facial Palsy in Children Completed NCT01537952
17 Assessment of the Cross-face Nerve Graft in the Treatment of Facial Paralysis Completed NCT03006783
18 Improvement of Facial Symmetry With Myofunctional Therapy Combined to Botulinum Toxin Injections in Long Standing Facial Paralysis Completed NCT00989209 Botulinum Toxin Type A
19 Antiviral Treatment in Facial Palsy. Randomized Control Trial Completed NCT02328079 Steroids (Prednisolone) and Steroids plus Antiviral (Prednisolone + acyclovir)
20 Studying of Acupuncture for Bell's Palsy According to Different Stages Completed NCT00608660
21 Anthropometric Angular Measurement to Determine Muscle Tonus in Patients With Peripheral Facial Paralysis Completed NCT00903669
22 Post-parotidectomy Facial Paresis: Intraoperative and Postoperative Factors Completed NCT02527226
23 Neuro Occlusal Rehabilitation in Patient With Peripheral Facial Paralysis - a Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT01327157
24 Function and Form Outcomes in Patients With Facial Paralysis Completed NCT03974763
25 The Role of MyotonPro in Assessing the Biomechanical Properties of Facial Muscles in Facial Paralysis Patients and Its Role in Monitoring Recovery Following Facial Reanimation Surgery Completed NCT02489162
26 Study of Effects of Deqi and Neuropsychological Factors on Acupuncture Effects in Treatment of Bell's Palsy Completed NCT00685789
27 Complications in Parotid Surgery - a Prospective Cohort Study Completed NCT02486393
28 Pilot Study Assessing Cognitive Function and Emotional Possessing in Patients With Bilateral Facial Palsy Completed NCT02179450
29 A New Clinical Therapy for Bell's Palsy Completed NCT01686464 prednisone and valacyclovir treatments
30 Non-surgical Correction of Eye Lid Paralysis With External Magnet Systems Completed NCT02988856
31 Treatment Bell´s Palsy: Prednisone vs Prednisone Valacyclovir Completed NCT00561106 prednisone- valacyclovir;prednisone-placebo
32 Retrospective Clinical Outcome of Parotid Tumor Surgery Completed NCT01983176
33 Clinical Research Core Dental Screening Protocol Completed NCT00090818
34 Exploration of the Diagnostic Capabilities of Ultrasound of the Oropharynx and Larynx Completed NCT00001167
35 Validation of Prehospital Stroke Scale (FAST PLUS TEST) to Predict Patients With Large Arterial Vessel Intracranial Occlusion. Completed NCT03072524
36 Exploration and Estimation of Intratumoral Concentration and Activity of Lapatinib in Vivo in Vestibular Schwannomas Completed NCT00863122 Early Phase 1 lapatinib
37 Assessment Effects of Somatosensorial and Vestibular Rehabilitation Additional Conventional Therapy on Balance in Patients With Acute Stroke Completed NCT03477188
38 Iowa/Nucleus 10/10 mm and Nucleus Freedom Cochlear Implants Implanted Bilaterally in Children Ages 12-24 Months Completed NCT00594061
39 Pilot Clinical Trial to Study Facial Electrical Stimulation to Promote Recovery in Patients With Bell's Palsy and Poor Prognostic Factors Recruiting NCT03836989
40 Electrical Stimulation to Improve Recovery After Peripheral Nerve Injury - A Randomized Controlled Prospective Study Recruiting NCT03996525
41 Comparative Study of Peripheral Facial Paralysis Sequelae Based on the Initial Medical Care of Lyme Disease Among Children Recruiting NCT03981874
42 A Pilot Study Evaluating the Effectiveness of Information and Therapy Guides for Improving the Psychosocial Wellbeing of People With Facial Palsy. Recruiting NCT03943953
43 Production et Perception émotionnelle Chez Les Patients paralysés Faciaux: Marqueurs Respiratoires, Phonatoires et expressivité Faciale. Recruiting NCT03619720
44 Validation of a French-language Version of Specific Quality of Life Questionnaires in Patients With Peripheral Facial Palsy Recruiting NCT03581253
45 Morphometric Study of the Muscles of the Skin in MRI 3 Tesla in Patients With Facial Paralysis. Recruiting NCT03115203
46 Reliability of Multislice Computed Tomography Scan in Cases With Facial Nerve Paralysis Due to Temporal Bone Trauma Recruiting NCT03469427
47 Effect of Laser Acupuncture Treatment on Chronic Facial Paralysis: A Randomized Sham Control, Double Blind Pilot Study Recruiting NCT03592797
48 Imaging of Facial Neuritis Using T2-weighted Gradient-echo Fast Imaging Employing Steady State Acquisition After Gadolinium Injection Recruiting NCT03543384
49 Genetic Studies of Strabismus, Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders (CCDDs), and Their Associated Anomalies Recruiting NCT03059420
50 Postoperative Facial Weakness in Parotidectomy for Deep Seated Parotid Tumor With or Without Intra-parotid Facial Nerve Imaging (3D Double-Echo Steady-State With Water Excitation MRI Imaging) Recruiting NCT03822728

Search NIH Clinical Center for Facial Paralysis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Scopolamine Hydrobromide

Cochrane evidence based reviews: facial paralysis

Genetic Tests for Facial Paralysis

Anatomical Context for Facial Paralysis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Facial Paralysis:

Bone, Testes, Eye, Brain, Skin, Myeloid, Kidney

Publications for Facial Paralysis

Articles related to Facial Paralysis:

(show top 50) (show all 8224)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Facial mobility and recovery in patients with unilateral facial paralysis. 61
31529611 2020
[Effect of the local application of stem cells on repairing facial nerve defects: a systematic review]. 61
32037768 2020
Sterno-omohyoid Free Flap for Dual-Vector Dynamic Facial Reanimation. 61
31578078 2020
Case 278. 61
31961782 2020
Extracapsular dissection via sternocleidomastoid muscle-parotid space approach-a new operative technique for treating clinically benign tumor in the parotid tail. 61
31227451 2020
Orofacial Edema and Facial Paralysis: Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome. 61
32015259 2020
Comparative Study of 2 Different Innervation Techniques in Facial Reanimation: Cross-face Nerve Graft-Innervated Versus Double-Innervated Free Gracilis Muscle Transfer. 61
31688275 2020
Etiology and therapy of delayed facial paralysis after middle ear surgery. 61
32008076 2020
Postradiotherapy facial palsy: What is your diagnosis? 61
32035832 2020
Recurrent facial palsy: The prognostic value of electrophysiological tests according to recurrence interval. 61
31078356 2020
Differential Recovery in Early- and Late-Onset Delayed Facial Palsy Following Vestibular Schwannoma Resection. 61
31065704 2020
Side-to-End Hypoglossal-Facial Neurorrhaphy for Treatment of Complete and Irreversible Facial Paralysis after Vestibular Schwannoma Removal by Means of a Retrosigmoid Approach: A Clinical and Anatomic Study. 61
31904436 2020
Unilateral Facial Paralysis During an Airline Flight. 61
31986523 2020
A Modified Technique of Transposition of Temporalis Muscle in Selected Cases of Longstanding Facial Paralysis. 61
31403508 2020
Cross-sectional study on the occurrence of Frey's syndrome following superficial parotidectomy or extracapsular dissection. 61
32033873 2020
A Simple, Objective, and Mathematical Grading Scale for the Assessment of Facial Nerve Palsy. 61
31663991 2020
[Salivary ductal carcinoma of the parotid: A rare and agressive entity]. 61
31992517 2020
Safety and efficacy of surgery combined with bleomycin irrigation for complex cervical-facial lymphatic malformations of children. 61
31678623 2020
Surgical Outcomes in Idiopathic Recurrent Facial Nerve Paralysis: A Rare Clinical Entity. 61
30840311 2020
Ramsay Hunt syndrome: characteristics and patient self-assessed long-term facial palsy outcome. 61
31982948 2020
An update on Toscana virus distribution, genetics, medical and diagnostic aspects. 61
31904562 2020
Reliability of diffusion tensor tractography of facial nerve in cerebello-pontine angle tumours. 61
31956974 2020
Interaction effect of tegmen tympani and superior semicircular canal statuses on the thickness of the roof of the glenoid fossa: a cross-sectional descriptive study. 61
31641805 2020
Onyx embolization of skull base paragangliomas: a single-center experience. 61
31919599 2020
Lyme Neuroborreliosis in a Patient with Breast Cancer: MRI and PET/CT Findings. 61
31936608 2020
A nasolabial fold reset technique for enhancing midface lifts in facial reanimation: Three-dimensional volumetric analysis. 61
31987714 2020
Peripheral facial nerve palsy following ventriculoperitoneal shunting in an infant. 61
31367785 2020
Comparison of Lengthening Temporalis Myoplasty and Free-Gracilis Muscle Transfer for Facial Reanimation in Children. 61
31609948 2020
Evaluation of Factors Associated With Favorable Outcomes in Adults With Bell Palsy. 61
31971554 2020
Validation and multidimensional analysis of the japanese penn acoustic neuroma quality-of-life scale. 61
31922264 2020
A case of a facial nerve venous malformation presenting with crocodile tear syndrome. 61
31966922 2020
Isolated peripheral-type facial palsy due to contralateral precentral gyrus cavernoma hemorrhage. 61
31982278 2020
Cryptococcal meningitis presenting as acute flaccid paralysis: A case report. 61
31350098 2020
Epinephrine Use in Endoscopic Ear Surgery: Quantitative Safety Assessment. 61
31743900 2020
Management of invasive intralabyrinthine cholesteatoma: Can one realistically preserve hearing when disease is medial to the otic capsule? 61
32014300 2020
Analysis of Preoperative Factors Influencing Hypoglossal-facial 'Side'-to-side Neurorrhaphy for Facial Paralysis after Excision of Acoustic Neuroma. 61
32029056 2020
Developmental unilateral facial palsy in a newborn: six cases and literature review. 61
31989259 2020
Electrical Injury Causing Facial Nerve Palsy in a Toddler. 61
31937709 2020
The spectrum of facial palsy: The MEEI facial palsy photo and video standard set. 61
31021433 2020
Unusual Cerebral Involvement of Rheumatoid Arthritis Mimicking a Tumor. 61
32003314 2020
Anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome presenting with visual deterioration as the initial symptom: A case report. 61
31977873 2020
Increased muscle tone and contracture late after ischemic stroke. 61
31893564 2020
Tick-bite-Induced Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Peripheral Facial Palsy. 61
31449210 2020
Recognising meibomian gland inversion in patients with facial palsy to improve the ocular surface. 61
31893955 2020
[Effect of acupuncture and moxibustion on brain functional connectivity network in patients with refractory facial paralysis]. 61
31820608 2019
Socioemotional functioning with facial paralysis: Is there a congenital or acquired advantage? 61
31855039 2019
Prognostic factors for the sequelae and severity of Guillain-Barré syndrome in children. 61
31531862 2019
Surface electrical stimulation for facial paralysis is not harmful. 61
31875972 2019
Microsurgical Resection of Multiple Giant Glomus Tumors. 61
31750072 2019
Comparative outcomes of extracapsular dissection and superficial parotidectomy. 61
31560243 2019

Variations for Facial Paralysis

Expression for Facial Paralysis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Facial Paralysis.

Pathways for Facial Paralysis

GO Terms for Facial Paralysis

Cellular components related to Facial Paralysis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.28 TGFB1 MTRNR2L5 MTRNR2L4 LIPN CRP CD40LG

Biological processes related to Facial Paralysis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 lens fiber cell differentiation GO:0070306 8.96 TGFB1 NF2
2 mononuclear cell proliferation GO:0032943 8.62 TGFB1 ACE

Sources for Facial Paralysis

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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