Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)

Categories: Fetal diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder:

Name: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder 12 15
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders 53 72
Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder - Type 53
Alcohol-Related Birth Defects - Type 53
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - Type 53
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 72
Fasd 53


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Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050696
UMLS 72 C0015923 C2985290

Summaries for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Disease Ontology : 12 A specific developmental disorder and physical disorder that is characterized by physical, behavioral and learning birth defects resulting from maternal ingestion of alcohol during pregnancy.

MalaCards based summary : Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, also known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, is related to fetal alcohol syndrome and ocular dominance. An important gene associated with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder is BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are fMLP Pathway and Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons. The drugs Epigallocatechin gallate and Epigallocatechin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, cortex and testes, and related phenotypes are Decreased shRNA abundance and Decreased shRNA abundance

Wikipedia : 75 Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose... more...

Related Diseases for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Diseases in the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome family:

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Diseases related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 105)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 fetal alcohol syndrome 33.5 PFAS GRIN2B GRIN2A AKR1A1 ADH1B
2 ocular dominance 30.4 GRIN2B GRIN2A BDNF
3 status epilepticus 30.2 GRIN2B CASP3 BDNF
4 disease of mental health 30.2 SLC27A5 GRIN2B GRIN2A BDNF
5 aphasia 30.0 L1CAM GRIN2A BDNF
6 alcohol dependence 29.9 GRIN2B GRIN2A BDNF ALDH9A1 AKR1A1 ADH1B
7 alcohol-related birth defect 11.8
8 alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder 11.7
9 alcohol use disorder 11.7
10 partial fetal alcohol syndrome 11.7
11 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 10.6
12 global developmental delay, absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facies 10.5
13 alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation syndrome 10.4
14 autism spectrum disorder 10.4
15 methanol poisoning 10.4 AKR1A1 ADH1B
16 autism 10.4
17 substance abuse 10.4
18 microcephaly 10.4
19 learning disability 10.3
20 bile acid synthesis defect, congenital, 1 10.3 GRIN2B GRIN2A
21 conduct disorder 10.2
22 down syndrome 10.2
23 iron metabolism disease 10.2
24 epilepsy, focal, with speech disorder and with or without mental retardation 10.2 GRIN2B GRIN2A
25 hair whorl 10.1
26 strabismus 10.1
27 microphthalmia 10.1
28 visual epilepsy 10.1
29 mechanical strabismus 10.1
30 seizure disorder 10.1
31 cleft palate, isolated 10.0
32 placental insufficiency 10.0
33 placenta disease 10.0
34 coloboma of macula 10.0
35 otitis media 10.0
36 neural tube defects 10.0
37 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 10.0
38 polymicrogyria with or without vascular-type ehlers-danlos syndrome 10.0
39 pervasive developmental disorder 10.0
40 non-alcoholic steatohepatitis 10.0
41 suppression amblyopia 10.0
42 amblyopia 10.0
43 glucose intolerance 10.0
44 expressive language disorder 10.0
45 personality disorder 10.0
46 mood disorder 10.0
47 refractive error 10.0
48 polymicrogyria 10.0
49 encephalopathy 10.0
50 toxic encephalopathy 9.9 GRIN2B GRIN2A CASP3 BDNF

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder:

Diseases related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased shRNA abundance GR00251-A-1 9.17 ALDH9A1
2 Decreased shRNA abundance GR00251-A-2 9.17 ALDH9A1
3 Decreased shRNA abundance GR00297-A 9.17 ADH6 AKR1A1 ALDH9A1 DIO3 SV2C
4 Decreased caspase 3/7 activity GR00318-A 9.13 CASP3 GRIN2A GRIN2B

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 craniofacial MP:0005382 9.43 AKR1A1 BDNF CASP3 L1CAM PFAS SHH
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 9.36 AKR1A1 BDNF CASP3 DIO3 GRIN2B KDM4C

Drugs & Therapeutics for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Drugs for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 27)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Epigallocatechin gallate Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 989-51-5 65064
Epigallocatechin Experimental, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 970-74-1 72277
3 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
4 Antioxidants Phase 2, Phase 3
5 Protective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
6 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 3
7 Adrenergic Agents Phase 3
8 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 3
9 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Phase 3
Choline Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 2 62-49-7 305
11 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2
12 Nootropic Agents Phase 2
13 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2
14 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
15 Antimetabolites Phase 2
tannic acid Approved 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
Nicotine Approved 54-11-5 942 89594
Nitric Oxide Approved 10102-43-9 145068
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
21 Micronutrients
22 Trace Elements
23 Vitamins
24 Nutrients
25 Central Nervous System Depressants
26 Anti-Infective Agents, Local
27 Anti-Infective Agents

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 46)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) as Therapeutic Tool to Improve Cognitive Performance in Foetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Children Unknown status NCT02558933 Phase 2, Phase 3
2 An Open-label Study of the Long Term Tolerability and Safety of Atomoxetine in Treating the Inattention, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity in Children With Fetal-Alcohol Syndrome or Effects. Completed NCT00418262 Phase 3 Atomoxetine
3 Choline Supplementation in Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Completed NCT01911299 Phase 2
4 Postnatal Choline Supplementation in Children With Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Completed NCT01149538 Phase 1, Phase 2 Choline bitartrate
5 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/ARND Research Consortion-Oklahoma Completed NCT00164554 Phase 1, Phase 2
6 Neurocognitive Habilitation for Children With FAS/ARND Completed NCT00164346 Phase 1, Phase 2
7 Study to Investigate the Effectiveness of a Math Intervention for Children With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or Related Condition Completed NCT00164229 Phase 1, Phase 2
8 A Media Based Motivational Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Exposed Pregnancies (AEPs) Completed NCT00219336 Phase 2
9 Choline Supplementation as a Neurodevelopmental Intervention in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Recruiting NCT02735473 Phase 2 Choline bitartrate;Placebo
10 Neighborhood Alcohol & HIV Prevention in South African Townships (Philani) Active, not recruiting NCT00996528 Phase 2
11 A Study of the Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Treating the Inattention, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity in Children With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or Effects Completed NCT00417794 Phase 1 Strattera;Placebo
12 Computer-delivered SBIRT for Alcohol Use in Pregnancy: Planning a Stage II Trial Completed NCT01643044 Phase 1
13 Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Cognitive Function on Autistic Spectrum Disordered Children Unknown status NCT00631215
14 Strongest Families FASD: Parent Training for Challenging Behaviour in Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Completed NCT02210455
15 Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Attachment-Focused Intervention in Preschool Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) or At-risk for FASD: A Randomized Controlled Field Trial Completed NCT01536184
16 Improving Self Regulation in Children With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Spectrum Disorders: A Neuroplastic Intervention Completed NCT02457676
17 Neuromodulation Augmented Cognitive Remediation to Improve Executive Dysfunction in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Completed NCT03361293
18 Development of Education Materials for Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in Russia Completed NCT01971398
19 "Brief Alcohol Intervention: The Healthy Moms Project." Completed NCT00244062
20 Self-Regulation in Adolescents With FASD: The Efficacy of a Targeted Intervention Completed NCT02912962
21 Reducing Alcohol Exposed Pregnancy Risk Completed NCT01446653
22 Dog-Assisted Therapy for Children and Adolescents With FASD: a Randomized Controlled Pilot Study Completed NCT04038164
23 Preventing FAS/ARND in Russian Children Completed NCT01961050
24 Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Damage Using Maternal Blood Markers Completed NCT00696085
25 A Randomized Clinical Trial of the Contraception and Alcohol Risk Reduction Internet Intervention to Reduce AEP Risk in Community Women Completed NCT02128880
26 Preventing FAS/ARND in Russian Children/Expansion to Interdisciplinary HIV Prevention in Women Completed NCT01994603
27 Comprehensive Program for Youth Mental Health Completed NCT02169960
28 Early Identification of Affected Children and Nutritional Risk Factors for FASD in Ukraine Completed NCT03782935
29 Modeling and Testing Change in Mental Abilities in Childhood Through Computer-based Interventions Completed NCT02459873
30 Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Clinical Symptoms and Markers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Autistic Children: A Pilot Study Completed NCT00324909 Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
31 Face Anthropometric Pattern Recognition Technology, Based on 3D Reconstruction Technology, for Computer Aided Diagnosis of Human Genetic Disorders. Multicenter Collaborative Study. Completed NCT00705055
32 A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study on the Clinical Effects of Hyperbaric Therapy in Autistic Children Completed NCT00335790
33 Development of an Epigenetic Biomarker for Prediction of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Recruiting NCT03494738
34 In Utero Alcoholic Exposure: PlGF, Biomarker of Fetal Brain Lesions Recruiting NCT03371641
35 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder-Is This a Ciliopathy? Recruiting NCT03802708
36 The Trajectory of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Across the Life Span: Continuing Prevention and Longitudinal Epidemiology Recruiting NCT04026620
37 Parent Emotion Socialization and Child Emotion Regulation in FASD Recruiting NCT03524664
38 Newborn Phosphatidylethanol Screening to Detect Fetal Alcohol Exposure in Uruguay Recruiting NCT02600624
39 Native-Changing High-risk Alcohol Use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study Recruiting NCT03930342
40 Evaluating Innovations in Transition From Pediatric to Adult Care - The Transition Navigator Trial Recruiting NCT03342495
41 The Effectiveness of an Educational Program on Parenting Stress and Coping Mechanism Among Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Amman, Jordan Recruiting NCT03805828
42 Behavioral Exploration of Cognitive and Emotional Alterations in Adult Individuals Exposed to Alcohol During the Prenatal Period Active, not recruiting NCT03793920
43 Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) by the Use of Technology Enrolling by invitation NCT02759874
44 CHILD-BRIGHT READYorNot[TM] Brain-Based Disabilities Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03852550
45 Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of an Internet-based Behavioural Sleep Intervention for Children With NDD and Insomnia Not yet recruiting NCT02694003
46 Evaluating the Efficacy of a Video Based Intervention to Educate Teen Moms About Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Terminated NCT00747630 Early Phase 1

Search NIH Clinical Center for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Genetic Tests for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Anatomical Context for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder:

Brain, Cortex, Testes, Cerebellum, Fetal Brain, Eye, Prefrontal Cortex

Publications for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Articles related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 1523)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Advocacy-Related Information Distortion: The Case of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. 38
31288558 2019
Distinct functions of endogenous cannabinoid system in alcohol abuse disorders. 38
31265740 2019
Social deficits following embryonic ethanol exposure arise in post-larval zebrafish. 38
30178621 2019
Facebook ads to the rescue? Recruiting a hard to reach population into an Internet-based behavioral health intervention trial. 38
31080751 2019
Health, Social, Education, and Justice Outcomes of Manitoba First Nations Children Diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A Population-Based Cohort Study of Linked Administrative Data. 38
30595040 2019
Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. 38
31160204 2019
6-month Follow up of the Families on Track Intervention Pilot Trial for Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Their Families. 38
31408192 2019
Impaired bidirectional synaptic plasticity in juvenile offspring following prenatal ethanol exposure. 38
31386206 2019
Chronic Ethanol Exposure Alters DNA Methylation in Neural Stem Cells: Role of Mouse Strain and Sex. 38
31414368 2019
Early life alcohol exposure primes hypothalamic microglia to later-life hypersensitivity to immune stress: possible epigenetic mechanism. 38
30737481 2019
Coordinated Tcf7l2 regulation in a mouse model implicates Wnt signaling in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. 38
30398926 2019
Association Analysis: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Hypertension Status in Children and Adolescents. 38
31166027 2019
Can fetal alcohol exposure increase the risk of hypertension? A new study in children and adolescents diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder suggests it can. 38
31403704 2019
Prenatal Alcohol Screening During Pregnancy by Midwives and Nurses. 38
31184777 2019
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) affects the hippocampal levels of histone variant H2A.Z-2. 38
30605356 2019
Forty Years of Assessing Neurodevelopmental and Behavioral Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in Infants: What Have We Learned? 38
31206743 2019
Retinoic acid signaling reduction recapitulates the effects of alcohol on embryo size. 38
30672660 2019
Prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder among special subpopulations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 38
30831001 2019
Oxidative stress and DNA damage in the mechanism of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. 38
31033255 2019
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder prevention program: SBIRT's role in averting fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. 38
31334924 2019
Nurses and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevention. 38
31045467 2019
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. 38
31334923 2019
Suicide risk in adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. 38
30677250 2019
Differential neuroimaging indices in prefrontal white matter in prenatal alcohol-associated ADHD versus idiopathic ADHD. 38
30694611 2019
Adverse Health Outcomes in Offspring Associated With Fetal Alcohol Exposure: A Systematic Review of Clinical and Preclinical Studies With a Focus on Metabolic and Body Composition Outcomes. 38
31063217 2019
3D-Analysis of Mouth, Nose and Eye Parameters in Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). 38
31315192 2019
Increased Maternal Care Rescues Altered Reinstatement Responding Following Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. 38
31318985 2019
DHA supplementation during prenatal ethanol exposure alters the expression of fetal rat liver genes involved in oxidative stress regulation. 38
30521352 2019
Differentially sensitive neuronal subpopulations in the central nervous system and the formation of hindbrain heterotopias in ethanol-exposed zebrafish. 38
30793540 2019
Hippocampal transcriptome reveals novel targets of FASD pathogenesis. 38
31140755 2019
Comparisons of the BRIEF parental report and neuropsychological clinical tests of executive function in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: data from the UK national specialist clinic. 38
30251596 2019
Nucleus reuniens of the midline thalamus of a rat is specifically damaged after early postnatal alcohol exposure. 38
31095109 2019
Sulforaphane protects against ethanol-induced apoptosis in neural crest cells through restoring epithelial-mesenchymal transition by epigenetically modulating the expression of Snail1. 38
31295528 2019
Professionals' accounts of genetic testing in adoption: a qualitative study. 38
31296598 2019
Ethanol and cannabinoids interact to alter behavior in a zebrafish fetal alcohol spectrum disorder model. 38
30648819 2019
Recent advances in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder for mental health professionals. 38
31158108 2019
A fetal alcohol spectrum disorder diagnostic service and beyond: Outcomes for families. 38
31357176 2019
Relation between adaptive function and IQ among youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. 38
30719847 2019
Deferred diagnosis in children assessed for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. 38
29432031 2019
Exploring the contributions and suitability of relational and community-centered fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) prevention work in First Nation communities. 38
30790478 2019
Auxo-endocrinological features in a cohort of internationally adopted children in Italy. 38
30783950 2019
MicroRNA-34a mediates ethanol-induced impairment of neural differentiation of neural crest cells by targeting autophagy-related gene 9a. 38
31247197 2019
Alcohol Consumption and Smoking During Pregnancy Alters Maternal Plasma Fatty Acid Composition: Association with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (P11-028-19). 38
31224760 2019
Untargeted Metabolomics Analysis of Maternal Plasma from Pregnant C57Bl/6J Mice Identifies Significant Metabolic Changes in Response to Gestational Alcohol Exposure (OR26-01-19). 38
31225007 2019
Statistical sensitivity analysis for the estimation of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders prevalence. 38
30959091 2019
Population-based prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Canada. 38
31253131 2019
Mental Health and Affect Regulation Impairment in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD): Results from the Canadian National FASD Database. 38
31216355 2019
Proceedings of the 2018 Annual Meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group. 38
31173861 2019
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Neurobehavioral Deficits Associated With Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. 38
30964197 2019
The Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in An American Indian Community. 38
31226736 2019

Variations for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Expression for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

Pathways for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Pathways related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
8 10.73 GRIN2B GRIN2A
Show member pathways
10.43 ADH6 ADH1B
10 10.3 CASP3 BDNF
Show member pathways
10.29 AKR1A1 ADH6 ADH1B

GO Terms for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Cellular components related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 postsynaptic density membrane GO:0098839 9.16 GRIN2B GRIN2A
2 synaptic vesicle GO:0008021 9.13 SV2C GRIN2A BDNF
3 NMDA selective glutamate receptor complex GO:0017146 8.62 GRIN2B GRIN2A

Biological processes related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.67 SV2C PCDHB14 GRIN2B GRIN2A
2 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.65 GRIN2B GRIN2A ADH6
3 ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling pathway GO:0035235 9.51 GRIN2B GRIN2A
4 neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway GO:0048011 9.49 CASP3 BDNF
5 striated muscle cell differentiation GO:0051146 9.46 SHH CASP3
6 glutamate receptor signaling pathway GO:0007215 9.43 GRIN2B GRIN2A
7 ethanol oxidation GO:0006069 9.4 ADH6 ADH1B
8 cellular aldehyde metabolic process GO:0006081 9.32 ALDH9A1 AKR1A1
9 excitatory chemical synaptic transmission GO:0098976 9.26 GRIN2B GRIN2A
10 calcium ion transmembrane import into cytosol GO:0097553 9.16 GRIN2B GRIN2A
11 learning or memory GO:0007611 9.13 GRIN2B GRIN2A CASP3
12 oxidation-reduction process GO:0055114 9.1 KDM4C DIO3 ALDH9A1 AKR1A1 ADH6 ADH1B

Molecular functions related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 zinc ion binding GO:0008270 9.8 SHH KDM4C GRIN2B GRIN2A ADH6 ADH1B
2 ionotropic glutamate receptor activity GO:0004970 9.37 GRIN2B GRIN2A
3 NMDA glutamate receptor activity GO:0004972 9.26 GRIN2B GRIN2A
4 alcohol dehydrogenase activity, zinc-dependent GO:0004024 9.16 ADH6 ADH1B
5 oxidoreductase activity GO:0016491 9.1 KDM4C DIO3 ALDH9A1 AKR1A1 ADH6 ADH1B
6 glutamate-gated calcium ion channel activity GO:0022849 8.96 GRIN2B GRIN2A

Sources for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
71 Tocris
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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