NAIT
MCID: FTL012
MIFTS: 44

Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia (NAIT)

Categories: Blood diseases, Fetal diseases, Immune diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia:

Name: Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia 20 58 6
Nait 20 58
Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia 70
Fnait 58

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare haematological diseases


External Ids:

ICD10 via Orphanet 33 P61.0
UMLS via Orphanet 71 C3853779 C3854603
Orphanet 58 ORPHA853
UMLS 70 C3853779

Summaries for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

GARD : 20 Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) is a blood disorder that affects pregnant women and their babies. NAIT was first reported in the literature in 1953 and is estimated to occur in as many as 1 in 1200 live births. NAIT results in the destruction of platelets in the fetus or infant due to a mismatch between the mother's platelets and those of the baby. Certain molecules (antigens) on the surface of the baby's platelets are recognized as foreign by the mother's immune system. The mother's immune system then creates antibodies that attack and destroy the baby's platelets. Though NAIT can occur whenever the mother's blood mixes with that of the baby, it is usually triggered when the mother is exposed to the baby's blood during delivery. Many cases of NAIT are mild. Signs and symptoms may include a low platelet count ( thrombocytopenia ) and signs of bleeding into the skin such as petechiae and purpura. In the most severe cases, NAIT can cause bleeding episodes that may result in death or long-term disability. Bleeding episodes can occur either during pregnancy or after birth. Management of the infant with neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia may include platelet transfusions, ultrasounds, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Treatment for pregnant mothers at risk for NAIT may include IVIG and steroids.

MalaCards based summary : Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia, also known as nait, is related to thrombocytopenia and thrombocytopenia due to platelet alloimmunization. An important gene associated with Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia is ITGB3 (Integrin Subunit Beta 3), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+ and Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex. The drugs Immunologic Factors and Immunoglobulins have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include monocytes, t cells and whole blood, and related phenotypes are neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and petechiae

Wikipedia : 73 Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAITP, NAIT, NATP or NAT) is a disease that affects babies in... more...

Related Diseases for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

Diseases related to Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 55)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 thrombocytopenia 29.9 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 HLA-DRB3 GP1BB GP1BA
2 thrombocytopenia due to platelet alloimmunization 29.5 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BA
3 purpura 29.5 ITGB3 ITGA2B GP1BA
4 hemolytic disease due to fetomaternal alloimmunization 10.4
5 triiodothyronine receptor auxiliary protein 10.2
6 down syndrome 10.2
7 hydrops fetalis, nonimmune 10.2
8 retinohepatoendocrinologic syndrome 10.2
9 yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome 10.2
10 branchiootic syndrome 1 10.2
11 platelet glycoprotein iv deficiency 10.2
12 hepatitis c virus 10.2
13 graft-versus-host disease 10.2
14 lymphatic malformation 7 10.2
15 deficiency anemia 10.2
16 chorioamnionitis 10.2
17 porencephaly 10.2
18 neutropenia 10.2
19 cerebral palsy 10.2
20 iron metabolism disease 10.2
21 hemolytic anemia 10.2
22 neonatal alloimmune neutropenia 10.2
23 bleeding disorder, platelet-type, 16 10.0 ITGB3 ITGA2B
24 arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy 10.0 ITGB3 GP1BA
25 autoimmune disease of blood 9.9 ITGB3 ITGA2B
26 hydrocephalus 9.9
27 carotid artery thrombosis 9.9 ITGA2B GP1BA
28 intracranial thrombosis 9.8 ITGA2B GP1BA
29 infective endocarditis 9.8 ITGB3 GP1BA
30 von willebrand's disease 9.7 ITGA2B GP1BA
31 primary thrombocytopenia 9.7 ITGB3 ITGA2B GP1BA
32 coronary thrombosis 9.7 ITGB3 ITGA2B GP1BA
33 acrokeratoderma, hereditary papulotranslucent 9.7 GP1BB GP1BA
34 bleeding disorder, platelet-type, 11 9.7 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BA
35 thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune 9.7 ITGB3 ITGA2B GP1BA
36 myh-9 related disease 9.7 GP1BB GP1BA
37 myeloproliferative syndrome, transient 9.7 ITGB3 ITGA2B GP1BA
38 acute megakaryocytic leukemia 9.7 ITGB3 ITGA2B GP1BA
39 sickle cell anemia 9.7 ITGB3 ITGA2B GP1BA
40 pseudo-von willebrand disease 9.7 GP1BB GP1BA
41 essential thrombocythemia 9.7 ITGB3 ITGA2B GP1BA
42 thrombasthenia 9.5 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BA
43 glanzmann thrombasthenia 1 9.5 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BA
44 thrombosis 9.5 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BA
45 arteriosclerosis 9.5 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BA
46 cerebrovascular disease 9.5 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BA
47 acquired thrombocytopenia 9.5 ITGA2B GP1BB GP1BA
48 vascular disease 9.5 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BA
49 hemorrhagic disease 9.5 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BA
50 aplastic anemia 9.4 ITGB3 ITGA2B GP1BA

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia:



Diseases related to Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

Human phenotypes related to Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia:

58 31 (show all 17)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia 58 31 obligate (100%) Obligate (100%) HP:0004809
2 petechiae 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000967
3 spontaneous hematomas 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0007420
4 cephalohematoma 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012541
5 hematuria 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000790
6 melena 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002249
7 ecchymosis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0031364
8 global developmental delay 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001263
9 blindness 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000618
10 cerebral palsy 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0100021
11 subarachnoid hemorrhage 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002138
12 bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0008619
13 purpura 58 Frequent (79-30%)
14 gastrointestinal hemorrhage 58 Occasional (29-5%)
15 intracranial hemorrhage 58 Occasional (29-5%)
16 abnormality of the nervous system 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
17 abnormal bleeding 58 Frequent (79-30%)

Drugs & Therapeutics for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

Drugs for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 7)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Immunologic Factors
2 Immunoglobulins
3 Rho(D) Immune Globulin
4 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
5 gamma-Globulins
6 Antibodies
7 Isoantibodies

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Multi-center Prospective Cohort Study on the Anti-HPA Antibodies Caused Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia in Chinese Pregnant Women Unknown status NCT02934906
2 Towards Routine HPA-screening in Pregnancy to Prevent FNAIT: Assessing Disease Burden and Optimising Risk Group Selection Completed NCT04067375
3 An Open-label, Single Centre, Exploratory Trial Investigating the Kinetics of Platelets Transfused to Healthy, Male Subjects Completed NCT03561909
4 Neurodevelopmental Outcome After Fetal Neonatal AlloImmune Thrombocytopenia Enrolling by invitation NCT04529382

Search NIH Clinical Center for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

Genetic Tests for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

Anatomical Context for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia:

40
Monocytes, T Cells, Whole Blood, Placenta, Endothelial

Publications for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

Articles related to Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia:

(show top 50) (show all 323)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia: A Concise Review. 61
32657948 2021
2
A nait-associated and previously unreported mutation in the ITGB3 gene with a low frequency in the local population. 61
33724573 2021
3
Down syndrome with neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to anti-HLA A31 and B61 antibodies. 61
33569741 2021
4
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to anti-HPA 5a in a HPA-5a homozygous neonate. 61
32763115 2020
5
Current perspective and scope of fetal therapy: part 2. 61
33135520 2020
6
Hydrops fetalis associated with anti-CD36 antibodies in fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: Possible underlying mechanism. 61
32720360 2020
7
Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia-New Prospects for Fetal Risk Assessment of HPA-1a-Negative Pregnant Women. 61
33039264 2020
8
Naturally occurring point mutation Cys460Trp located in the I-EGF1 domain of integrin β3 alters the binding of some anti-HPA-1a antibodies. 61
32770549 2020
9
A combined effect of anti-HPA-1a and anti-HLA Class I in pregnancy? 61
32608103 2020
10
A new efficient tool for non-invasive diagnosis of fetomaternal platelet antigen incompatibility. 61
32266719 2020
11
Non-invasive risk-assessment and bleeding prophylaxis with IVIG in pregnant women with a history of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: management to minimize adverse events. 61
32495019 2020
12
Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a systematic review of impact of HLA-DRB3*01:01 on fetal/neonatal outcome. 61
32717028 2020
13
HIP (HPA-screening in pregnancy) study: protocol of a nationwide, prospective and observational study to assess incidence and natural history of fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and identifying pregnancies at risk. 61
32690731 2020
14
Preimplantation genetic testing for a monogenic disorder can prevent live births affected by fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. 61
32285999 2020
15
Neonatal Immune Incompatibilities between Newborn and Mother. 61
32422924 2020
16
The use of IVIg in fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia- Principles and mechanisms. 61
31926738 2020
17
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia - The Norwegian management model. 61
31911047 2020
18
Epidemiology and management of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. 61
31974030 2020
19
Strategies to develop a prophylaxis for the prevention of HPA-1a immunization and fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. 61
31948915 2020
20
Recent advances in non-invasive fetal HPA-1a typing. 61
31953107 2020
21
Progress and development of platelet antibody detection. 61
31911048 2020
22
Potential of Next-Generation Sequencing in Noninvasive Fetal Molecular Blood Group Genotyping. 61
32110190 2020
23
High-Throughput Screening of Blood Donors for Twelve Human Platelet Antigen Systems Using Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals Detection of Rare Polymorphisms and Two Novel Protein-Changing Variants. 61
32110192 2020
24
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a late or missed diagnosis disease in fetal and perinatal health-care settings. 61
31973628 2020
25
Crosstalk Between Platelets and Microbial Pathogens. 61
32849656 2020
26
Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests by Evanescence Biosensor Technology for Rapid Phenotyping of the Human Platelet Alloantigens 1a and 5b. 61
31933574 2019
27
Postnatal intervention for the treatment of FNAIT: a systematic review. 61
30971767 2019
28
Fast and low-cost direct ELISA for high-throughput serological HPA-1a typing. 61
31329320 2019
29
Prenatal Management of Pregnancies at Risk of Fetal Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia (FNAIT): Scientific Impact Paper No. 61. 61
30968555 2019
30
Novel method for simultaneously detecting HPA and HLA antibodies using Luminex microbeads. 61
31382976 2019
31
Assessing the use of diagnostic laboratory accession data to support national bovine viral diarrhoea control in New Zealand. 61
31023158 2019
32
Timely diagnosis and treatment of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia caused by anti HPA-3a antibody: A case report. 61
31083173 2019
33
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: recommendations for evidence-based practice, an international approach. 61
30828796 2019
34
Management of neonatal thrombocytopenia in a context of maternal antiplatelet alloimmunization: Expert opinion of the French-speaking working group. 61
30827773 2019
35
HLA-DRB3*01:01 exhibits a dose-dependent impact on HPA-1a antibody levels in HPA-1a-immunized women. 61
30923048 2019
36
[FETAL/NEONATAL ALLOIMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIA (F/NAIT) - THE PREVALENCE VERSUS AWARENESS OF A LIFE-THREATENING CLINICAL CONDITION]. 61
30916500 2019
37
Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia: A Report of Four Cases. 61
31327862 2019
38
Marked thrombocytopenia in a neonate is associated with anti-HPA-5b, anti-HLA-A31, and anti-HLA-B55 antibodies. 61
30488611 2019
39
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to a new alloantigen Bl(a) defined by an Asp458Gly substitution in GPIIIa. 61
30488955 2019
40
Management and Neonatal Outcomes of Pregnancies with Fetal/Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia: A Single-Center Retrospective Cohort Study. 61
29669341 2019
41
Perinatal Outcome and Long-Term Neurodevelopment after Intracranial Haemorrhage due to Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia. 61
29730660 2019
42
From thrombasthenia to next generation thrombocytopenia: Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia induced by maternal Glanzmann thrombasthenia. 61
30216638 2018
43
Implication of antibodies against human leukocyte antigen in simultaneous presentation of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. 61
30318177 2018
44
Investigations for fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: communication from the SSC of the ISTH. 61
30382606 2018
45
Maternal incompatibilities with fetal human platelet alloantigens -1a, -1b and -15 are the main causes of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia in Russia. 61
30701924 2018
46
Identification and follow-up of pregnant women with platelet-type human platelet antigen (HPA)-1bb alloimmunized with fetal HPA-1a. 61
30154886 2018
47
Screening for fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia - lessons learned from a Norwegian screening program. 61
29412452 2018
48
Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia With Amegakaryocytosis, B Lymphopenia, and Villitis. 61
29610181 2018
49
Adding to the complexity of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: Reduced fibrinogen binding in the presence of anti-HPA-1a antibody and hypo-responsive neonatal platelets. 61
29306729 2018
50
Intracranial hemorrhages in neonates born from 32 weeks of gestation-low frequency of associated fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a register-based study. 61
29119564 2018

Variations for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia:

6
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 ITGB3 NM_000212.2(ITGB3):c.1373A>G (p.Asp458Gly) SNV association 446505 rs1555572829 GRCh37: 17:45369617-45369617
GRCh38: 17:47292251-47292251
2 ITGA2 NM_002203.4(ITGA2):c.1594A>C (p.Ile532Leu) SNV Benign 353752 rs199808499 GRCh37: 5:52358751-52358751
GRCh38: 5:53062921-53062921

Expression for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia.

Pathways for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

Pathways related to Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 36)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.99 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BB GP1BA CD109
2
Show member pathways
12.66 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 HLA-DRB3
3
Show member pathways
12.59 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
4
Show member pathways
12.54 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
5
Show member pathways
12.49 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
6
Show member pathways
12.43 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
7 12.39 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
8
Show member pathways
12.13 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
9 12.04 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
10
Show member pathways
12.03 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
11 12 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
12
Show member pathways
11.99 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
13 11.92 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
14 11.91 ITGB3 ITGA2 HLA-DRB3
15
Show member pathways
11.78 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
16 11.77 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BA
17
Show member pathways
11.75 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BB GP1BA
18 11.72 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
19
Show member pathways
11.66 ITGB3 ITGA2B GP1BB GP1BA
20 11.63 ITGA2B ITGA2
21 11.58 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
22 11.5 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
23 11.45 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BB GP1BA
24 11.39 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
25 11.34 ITGB3 ITGA2B
26 11.32 ITGB3 ITGA2B
27 11.32 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
28 11.27 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BB
29 11.22 ITGB3 ITGA2
30 11.17 ITGA2B ITGA2
31 11.14 ITGB3 ITGA2B
32 11.1 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 HLA-DRB3 GP1BB GP1BA
33 11.04 ITGB3 ITGA2B
34 10.91 ITGB3 ITGA2B
35 10.61 ITGA2 GP1BB GP1BA
36 10.49 GP1BB GP1BA

GO Terms for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

Cellular components related to Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 plasma membrane GO:0005886 9.8 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 HLA-DRB3 GP1BB GP1BA
2 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 9.67 ITGB3 HLA-DRB3 GP1BB GP1BA
3 cell surface GO:0009986 9.55 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BA CD109
4 focal adhesion GO:0005925 9.5 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
5 integrin complex GO:0008305 9.13 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
6 platelet alpha granule membrane GO:0031092 8.8 ITGB3 ITGA2B CD109

Biological processes related to Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular matrix organization GO:0030198 9.7 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
2 platelet degranulation GO:0002576 9.58 ITGB3 ITGA2B CD109
3 viral entry into host cell GO:0046718 9.56 ITGB3 ITGA2
4 regulation of megakaryocyte differentiation GO:0045652 9.55 ITGA2B GP1BA
5 cell adhesion GO:0007155 9.55 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2 GP1BB GP1BA
6 hemostasis GO:0007599 9.54 GP1BB GP1BA
7 platelet activation GO:0030168 9.54 ITGB3 GP1BB GP1BA
8 cell adhesion mediated by integrin GO:0033627 9.51 ITGB3 ITGA2
9 integrin-mediated signaling pathway GO:0007229 9.5 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
10 cell-substrate adhesion GO:0031589 9.49 ITGB3 ITGA2
11 blood coagulation, intrinsic pathway GO:0007597 9.48 GP1BB GP1BA
12 mesodermal cell differentiation GO:0048333 9.46 ITGB3 ITGA2
13 positive regulation of leukocyte migration GO:0002687 9.43 ITGA2B ITGA2
14 cell-matrix adhesion GO:0007160 9.43 ITGB3 ITGA2B ITGA2
15 platelet aggregation GO:0070527 9.13 ITGB3 ITGA2B GP1BA
16 blood coagulation GO:0007596 8.92 ITGB3 ITGA2 GP1BB GP1BA

Molecular functions related to Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 virus receptor activity GO:0001618 9.16 ITGB3 ITGA2
2 extracellular matrix binding GO:0050840 8.96 ITGB3 ITGA2B
3 fibrinogen binding GO:0070051 8.62 ITGB3 ITGA2B

Sources for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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