MCID: FTL021
MIFTS: 40

Fetal Macrosomia

Categories: Fetal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Fetal Macrosomia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Fetal Macrosomia:

Name: Fetal Macrosomia 20 54 70

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 70 C0015938

Summaries for Fetal Macrosomia

MalaCards based summary : Fetal Macrosomia is related to gestational diabetes and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. An important gene associated with Fetal Macrosomia is INS (Insulin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Signaling and Folate Metabolism. The drugs Diazoxide and Hypoglycemic Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include breast, placenta and ovary, and related phenotypes are cardiovascular system and homeostasis/metabolism

Wikipedia : 73 Large for gestational age (LGA) describes full-term or post-term infants that are born of high birth... more...

Related Diseases for Fetal Macrosomia

Diseases related to Fetal Macrosomia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 210)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 gestational diabetes 31.1 LEP INSR INS
2 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 30.5 INSR INS IGF2
3 hypoglycemia 30.3 INSR INS IGFBP3 IGF2 IGF1
4 asphyxia neonatorum 30.3 OXT INS
5 hypertriglyceridemia, familial 30.2 INS APOB APOA1
6 glucose intolerance 30.1 LEP INSR INS IGF1
7 placenta disease 30.1 OXT INS IGF2
8 beckwith-wiedemann syndrome 29.9 INS IGF2 IGF1 H19
9 maturity-onset diabetes of the young 29.8 LEP INSR INS APOM
10 protein-energy malnutrition 29.7 LEPQTL1 LEP IGF1
11 insulin-like growth factor i 29.5 LEP INSR INS IGFBP3 IGF2 IGF1
12 hyperglycemia 29.3 SLC2A3 LEP INSR INS IGF1 APOB
13 hyperinsulinism 29.3 LEPQTL1 LEP INSR INS IGFBP3 IGF2
14 type 1 diabetes mellitus 29.1 LEP INSR INS IGFBP3 IGF2 IGF1
15 pre-eclampsia 28.9 OXT LEP INS IGFBP3 IGF2 IGF1
16 diabetes mellitus 28.7 LEP LCAT INSR INS IGFBP3 IGF2
17 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 26.9 SLC2A3 OXT LEPQTL1 LEP LCAT INSR
18 perlman syndrome 11.3
19 kagami-ogata syndrome 11.1
20 overgrowth syndrome 10.4
21 silver-russell syndrome due to 11p15 microduplication 10.3 IGF2 H19
22 silver-russell syndrome due to an imprinting defect of 11p15 10.3 IGF2 H19
23 beckwith-wiedemann syndrome due to imprinting defect of 11p15 10.3 IGF2 H19
24 leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 3 10.3 APOB APOA1
25 pax6-related aniridia 10.3 IGF2 H19
26 hypoglycemic coma 10.3 INS IGF2
27 hemihyperplasia, isolated 10.3 IGF2 H19
28 generalized atherosclerosis 10.3 INS APOB
29 acidophil adenoma 10.3 INS IGF1
30 pituitary infarct 10.3 INS IGF1
31 apo a-i deficiency 10.3 LCAT APOA1
32 silent myocardial infarction 10.3 INS APOB APOA1
33 erb's palsy 10.3
34 hyperlipoproteinemia, type v 10.3 INS APOB APOA1
35 familial lcat deficiency 10.3 LCAT APOA1
36 slipped capital femoral epiphysis 10.3 IGFBP3 IGF1
37 algoneurodystrophy 10.2 LCAT INS
38 intermediate coronary syndrome 10.2 INS APOB APOA1
39 sheehan syndrome 10.2 INS IGF1
40 defective apolipoprotein b-100 10.2 LCAT APOB
41 diabetic encephalopathy 10.2 INS IGF1
42 amyloidosis aa 10.2 LCAT APOA1
43 mammographic density 10.2 IGFBP3 IGF1
44 familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency 10.2 APOB APOA1
45 wilms tumor predisposition 10.2 IGF2 H19
46 hypoalphalipoproteinemia 10.2 LCAT APOA1
47 pica disease 10.2 LEP INS
48 adrenal gland disease 10.2 INS IGF2 IGF1
49 diencephalic astrocytoma 10.2 LEP INS
50 gallbladder disease 10.2 INS APOB APOA1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Fetal Macrosomia:



Diseases related to Fetal Macrosomia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Fetal Macrosomia

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Fetal Macrosomia:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.14 APOA1 APOB ARHGEF11 IGF1 IGF2 IGFBP3
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.13 APOA1 APOB APOM ARHGEF11 IGF1 IGF2
3 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.02 APOA1 IGF1 IGF2 IGFBP3 INS INSR
4 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.98 ARHGEF11 IGF1 IGFBP3 INS INSR LEP
5 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.86 APOA1 APOB IGF2 IGFBP3 INS INSR
6 muscle MP:0005369 9.7 APOB IGF1 IGF2 IGFBP3 INS INSR
7 nervous system MP:0003631 9.65 APOB ARHGEF11 IGF1 IGF2 IGFBP3 INS
8 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.17 IGF1 IGF2 INS INSR LCAT LEP

Drugs & Therapeutics for Fetal Macrosomia

Drugs for Fetal Macrosomia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 17)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Diazoxide Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 364-98-7 3019
2 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
3 Vasodilator Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
4 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
5
tannic acid Approved 1401-55-4
6
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
7
Zinc Approved, Investigational 7440-66-6 32051
8
Insulin aspart Approved 116094-23-6 16132418
9
Oxytocin Approved, Vet_approved 50-56-6 53477758 439302
10 Mitogens
11 Omega 3 Fatty Acid
12 Sunflower
13 Isophane insulin, beef
14 Isophane Insulin, Human
15 Insulin, Isophane
16 insulin
17 Insulin, Globin Zinc

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 24)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Induction of Labor or Waiting for Suspicion Fetal Macrosomia (DAME) Completed NCT00190320 Phase 4
2 Use for Diazoxide in the Initial Management of Hypoglycemia in Infants of Diabetic Mothers and Infants Large for Gestation Unknown status NCT00994149 Phase 2, Phase 3 Diazoxide;Ora-plus
3 Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation in Women With Gestational Diabetes on Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 DNA Methylation in Newborns Unknown status NCT02371343
4 The Prediction of Fetal Macrosomia by Measurement of Placenta Volume and Thickness in Pregnant Women With Diabetes Mellitus Unknown status NCT03451838
5 A Customized Low Glycaemic-index (GI) Diet, Introduced at First Trimester of Pregnancy by Both Gynecologist and Dietitian, Prevents Large for Gestational Age (LGA) Newborns in Overweight/Obese Pregnant Women Unknown status NCT02750774
6 Induction of Labor Versus Expectant Management of Large for Gestational Age/Macrosomic Babies at Term. A Multi-center Randomized Trial Unknown status NCT02315820
7 Effect of Fetal Front-abdominal Wall Thickness on Birth Weight and Perinatal Outcome at 24-26. Gestational Weeks Completed NCT03232294
8 Estimation of Fetal Weight by MR Imaging to PREdict Neonatal MACROsomia (PREMACRO Study) Completed NCT02713568
9 Regulation Of Maternal Fuel Supply And Neonatal Adiposity Completed NCT00826904
10 The Role of Umbilical Cord Thickness, Interventricular Septum Thickness and HbA1C Levels in Prediction of Fetal Macrosomia in Patients With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT02643225
11 Automated Fetal Weight Estimation: A Multicenter Validation Using Fractional Limb Volume Completed NCT03002246
12 Prophylactic Dextrose Gel for Newborns at High-risk for Hypoglycemia Completed NCT02523222
13 Correlation Between Placental Thickness in the Second and Third Trimester and Fetal Weight Completed NCT02473991
14 Epigenetic Alteration of Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 11 (ARHGEF11) in Cord Blood Samples in Macrosomia Exposed to Intrauterine Hyperglycaemia Completed NCT03165643
15 Effect of Tahneek With Dates on Hypoglycemia in Newborn Infants: A Randomised Control Trial Completed NCT03726697
16 Randomized Controlled, Multicenter Study Evaluating Treatment of Glucose Intolerance in Pregnancy Completed NCT00625781 Insulin aspart and Insulin human (isophane)
17 The Utility of Customised Growth Charts for Identifying Macrosomia and the Effect of Intervention Completed NCT04536753
18 Longitudinal Studies of Breast Milk Zinc Transfer to Appropriate- and Small-for-gestational-age, Predominantly Breast Fed, Bangladeshi Infants Completed NCT01728766
19 Study on the Relationship of Gut Microbiota and Changes of SCFAs With Glucolipid Metabolism in Pregnant Women With Abnormal Fetal Size and Their Newborns Recruiting NCT04399434
20 Lifestyle Intervention in Preparation for Pregnancy (LIPP) Recruiting NCT03146156
21 Relevance of Ultrasound Screening for Foetal Macrosomia and Description of Its Management in Champagne-Ardenne Not yet recruiting NCT04443205
22 A Pilot Randomized Control of the Effectiveness of a Calorie-restricted Feeding in Large for Gestational Age Infants With Dysphagia Not yet recruiting NCT04599010
23 Customized Versus Population Fetal Growth Curves: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial Withdrawn NCT02478554
24 Early Term Delivery Versus Expectant Management of the Large for Gestational Age Fetus (TEAM LGA Trial) Withdrawn NCT03218735

Search NIH Clinical Center for Fetal Macrosomia

Genetic Tests for Fetal Macrosomia

Anatomical Context for Fetal Macrosomia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Fetal Macrosomia:

40
Breast, Placenta, Ovary, Pancreas, Uterus, T Cells, Endothelial

Publications for Fetal Macrosomia

Articles related to Fetal Macrosomia:

(show top 50) (show all 915)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Factors predicting the need for insulin therapy in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. 61 54
20071050 2010
2
Polycystic ovarian syndrome--prognosis and treatment outcomes. 54 61
18007129 2007
3
No loss of genomic imprinting of IGF-II and H19 in placentas of diabetic pregnancies with fetal macrosomia. 61 54
17306581 2007
4
Relation between insulin kinetics and insulin sensitivity in pregnancy. 54 61
12864780 2003
5
Screening for gestational diabetes: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. 61 54
12576264 2003
6
Gestational diabetes: a review of the treatment options. 61 54
15981952 2003
7
Prevalence of maternal obesity in an urban center. 61 54
12439501 2002
8
Uterine rupture and dehiscence: ten-year review and case-control study. 54 61
11958242 2002
9
Fetal shoulder dystocia. 61 54
12596626 2002
10
Effect of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I on fetal macrosomia in healthy women. 54 61
11811284 2001
11
Macrosomia associated with maternal serum insulin-like growth factor-I and -II in diabetic pregnancy. 61 54
11339926 2001
12
Cord leptin level and fetal macrosomia. 54 61
11042305 2000
13
Macrosomia revisited: ponderal index and leptin delineate subtypes of fetal overgrowth. 61 54
10486473 1999
14
Prior third- or fourth-degree perineal tears and recurrence risks. 61 54
10190670 1999
15
Anti-insulin antibodies and birth weight in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. 61 54
10195707 1998
16
In vitro modulation of L-arginine transport in trophoblast cells by glucose. 61 54
9893012 1998
17
Insulin-like growth factors, their binding proteins, and fetal macrosomia in offspring of nondiabetic pregnant women. 61 54
9475683 1998
18
On the association between maternal phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) and fetal macrosomia in diabetic pregnancy. 54 61
8863716 1996
19
Growth promoting peptides in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancy: interactions with trophoblastic receptors and serum carrier proteins. 61 54
8887130 1996
20
Use of fetal ultrasound to select metabolic therapy for pregnancies complicated by mild gestational diabetes. 61 54
8026282 1994
21
Lack of association between maternal phosphoglucomutase-1 phenotype and fetal macrosomia in diabetic pregnancy. 61 54
8193100 1994
22
Genetic and non genetic factors in the outcome of diabetic pregnancy. 61 54
7791012 1994
23
Maternal insulin to lower the risk of fetal macrosomia in diabetic pregnancy. 54 61
1868636 1991
24
Prevention of neonatal macrosomia in gestational diabetes by the use of intensive dietary therapy and home glucose monitoring. 54 61
2006939 1991
25
Transplacental passage of insulin in pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Its role in fetal macrosomia. 54 61
2195347 1990
26
First pregnancy risk factors and future gestational diabetes mellitus. 61
33811260 2021
27
The relationship between gestational weight gain, maternal upper-body subcutaneous fat changes and infant birth size: A pilot observational study amongst women with obesity. 61
33453458 2021
28
Interventricular Septal Thickness as a Diagnostic Marker of Fetal Macrosomia. 61
33804406 2021
29
Large-for-gestational-age or macrosomia as a classifier for risk of adverse perinatal outcome: a retrospective cross-sectional study. 61
33602007 2021
30
Shoulder Dystocia during Delivery and Long-Term Neurological Morbidity of the Offspring. 61
31491802 2021
31
Caught Between External Pressures and Internal Battles: Psychosocial Factors Affecting Gestational Weight Gain - A Scoping Review. 61
33777574 2021
32
Universal late pregnancy ultrasound screening to predict adverse outcomes in nulliparous women: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis. 61
33656977 2021
33
Ultrasound evaluation of the fetal fat tissue, heart, liver and umbilical cord measurements in pregnancies complicated by gestational and type 1 diabetes mellitus: potential application in the fetal birth-weight estimation and prediction of the fetal macrosomia. 61
33602333 2021
34
RANK links thymic regulatory T cells to fetal loss and gestational diabetes in pregnancy. 61
33361811 2021
35
Expression of placental glucose transporter proteins in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth disorders. 61
33485490 2021
36
The association of vacuum-assisted delivery and shoulder dystocia among macrosomic newborns: a retrospective study. 61
33471217 2021
37
Evaluation of maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnancy with high BMI. 61
33428089 2021
38
The rates and medical necessity of cesarean delivery in China, 2012-2019: an inspiration from Jiangsu. 61
33487165 2021
39
Magnitude of Pre-Existing Diabetes Mellitus Among Pregnant Women in Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. 61
33737843 2021
40
Re: Maternal and neonatal complications of fetal macrosomia: cohort study. 61
33259095 2020
41
Study on the relationship between the levels of irisin in umbilical cord blood and neonatal growth in China. 61
30890003 2020
42
Comparison of factor XII levels in gestational diabetes, fetal macrosomia, and healthy pregnancies. 61
33267793 2020
43
Fetal macrosomia in home and birth center births in the United States: Maternal, fetal, and newborn outcomes. 61
33058197 2020
44
Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) on Pregnancy/Neonatal Outcomes and Maternal Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. 61
33183669 2020
45
[Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes in Berlin - An Analysis of Perinatal Data Especially Regarding Immigration Background]. 61
33137830 2020
46
The added value of umbilical vein flow in predicting fetal macrosomia at 36 weeks of gestation: A prospective cohort study. 61
33216942 2020
47
Are there specific factors associated with prenatally undiagnosed foetal macrosomia? 61
32438136 2020
48
Obstetric and perinatal outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection versus conventional in vitro fertilization in couples with nonsevere male infertility. 61
32896391 2020
49
Universal third-trimester ultrasonic screening using fetal macrosomia in the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy. 61
33048935 2020
50
Effects of Metabolic Syndrome on Intestinal Flora, Inflammatory Factors, and Infants of Pregnant Patients. 61
33073963 2020

Variations for Fetal Macrosomia

Expression for Fetal Macrosomia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Fetal Macrosomia.

Pathways for Fetal Macrosomia

Pathways related to Fetal Macrosomia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.19 LEP INSR INS IGF1
2
Show member pathways
12.04 INSR INS APOB APOA1
3
Show member pathways
11.86 INSR INS IGF1
4 11.82 LEP INS IGF1
5
Show member pathways
11.76 LCAT APOB APOA1
6 11.71 INSR INS IGF1
7 11.68 INS IGFBP3 IGF1
8 11.45 INSR IGF2 IGF1 ARHGEF11
9 11.27 INS IGF2 IGF1
10 11.23 LEP INS IGFBP3 IGF1
11 11.21 INSR INS IGF1
12 11.13 LEP INSR INS
13 10.9 INSR INS IGF1
14 10.84 LEP INS
15 10.12 IGFBP3 IGF2 IGF1

GO Terms for Fetal Macrosomia

Cellular components related to Fetal Macrosomia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 14)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.85 OXT LEP LCAT INS IGFBP3 IGF2
2 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.8 INS IGFBP3 APOB APOA1
3 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.7 PGM1 OXT LEP LCAT INS IGFBP3
4 endosome lumen GO:0031904 9.54 INS APOB
5 endocytic vesicle lumen GO:0071682 9.52 APOB APOA1
6 chylomicron GO:0042627 9.51 APOB APOA1
7 very-low-density lipoprotein particle GO:0034361 9.5 APOM APOB APOA1
8 spherical high-density lipoprotein particle GO:0034366 9.48 APOM APOA1
9 intermediate-density lipoprotein particle GO:0034363 9.46 APOB APOA1
10 insulin-like growth factor ternary complex GO:0042567 9.43 IGFBP3 IGF1
11 low-density lipoprotein particle GO:0034362 9.43 APOM APOB APOA1
12 discoidal high-density lipoprotein particle GO:0034365 9.4 APOM APOA1
13 insulin-like growth factor binding protein complex GO:0016942 9.37 IGFBP3 IGF1
14 high-density lipoprotein particle GO:0034364 8.92 LCAT APOM APOB APOA1

Biological processes related to Fetal Macrosomia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 41)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 10.04 LEP INSR INS IGF2 IGF1
2 carbohydrate metabolic process GO:0005975 9.89 SLC2A3 PGM1 INSR INS IGF2
3 cholesterol metabolic process GO:0008203 9.87 LEP LCAT APOB APOA1
4 lipid transport GO:0006869 9.86 APOM APOB APOA1
5 steroid metabolic process GO:0008202 9.85 LCAT APOB APOA1
6 platelet degranulation GO:0002576 9.85 IGF2 IGF1 APOA1
7 glucose homeostasis GO:0042593 9.85 LEP INSR INS
8 response to estradiol GO:0032355 9.84 OXT LEP APOB
9 insulin receptor signaling pathway GO:0008286 9.83 INSR INS IGF2
10 cholesterol homeostasis GO:0042632 9.81 LCAT APOM APOB APOA1
11 positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling GO:0051897 9.8 LEP INSR INS IGF2 H19
12 retinoid metabolic process GO:0001523 9.79 APOM APOB APOA1
13 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.78 LEP INSR INS IGF1
14 positive regulation of glucose import GO:0046326 9.77 INSR INS IGF1
15 activation of protein kinase B activity GO:0032148 9.76 INSR INS IGF1
16 cholesterol efflux GO:0033344 9.75 APOM APOB APOA1
17 positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway GO:0046628 9.73 LEP INS IGF2
18 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.73 INS IGFBP3 IGF2 IGF1 APOB APOA1
19 positive regulation of glycolytic process GO:0045821 9.72 INSR INS IGF1
20 lipoprotein metabolic process GO:0042157 9.71 APOM APOB APOA1
21 cholesterol transport GO:0030301 9.7 LCAT APOB APOA1
22 phosphatidylcholine metabolic process GO:0046470 9.68 LCAT APOA1
23 positive regulation of lipid biosynthetic process GO:0046889 9.67 INS APOA1
24 glucose metabolic process GO:0006006 9.67 PGM1 LEP INS IGF2
25 positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0043568 9.66 IGFBP3 IGF1
26 high-density lipoprotein particle assembly GO:0034380 9.66 APOM APOA1
27 chylomicron assembly GO:0034378 9.65 APOB APOA1
28 neuron projection maintenance GO:1990535 9.65 INSR INS
29 high-density lipoprotein particle clearance GO:0034384 9.64 APOM APOA1
30 very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling GO:0034372 9.63 LCAT APOA1
31 chylomicron remodeling GO:0034371 9.63 APOB APOA1
32 reverse cholesterol transport GO:0043691 9.63 LCAT APOM APOA1
33 positive regulation of respiratory burst GO:0060267 9.62 INSR INS
34 bone mineralization involved in bone maturation GO:0035630 9.62 LEP IGF1
35 positive regulation of developmental growth GO:0048639 9.61 LEP INSR
36 high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling GO:0034375 9.61 LCAT APOM APOA1
37 regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption GO:0030300 9.6 LEP APOA1
38 lipoprotein biosynthetic process GO:0042158 9.5 LCAT APOB APOA1
39 positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division GO:0045840 9.46 INSR INS IGF2 IGF1
40 positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process GO:0045725 9.26 INSR INS IGF2 IGF1
41 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.1 LEP INSR INS IGFBP3 IGF2 IGF1

Molecular functions related to Fetal Macrosomia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 phospholipid binding GO:0005543 9.58 APOM APOB APOA1
2 lipid transporter activity GO:0005319 9.43 APOM APOB APOA1
3 insulin-like growth factor I binding GO:0031994 9.37 INSR IGFBP3
4 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.35 OXT LEP INS IGF2 IGF1
5 insulin receptor binding GO:0005158 9.33 INS IGF2 IGF1
6 insulin-like growth factor II binding GO:0031995 9.32 INSR IGFBP3
7 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding GO:0005159 8.92 INSR INS IGF2 IGF1

Sources for Fetal Macrosomia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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