Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

Categories: Fetal diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome:

Name: Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome 52 58
Minamata Disease 52 58
Methyl Mercury Antenatal Infection 58
Methyl Mercury Antenatal Exposure 52


Orphanet epidemiological data:

fetal methylmercury syndrome
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: Antenatal,Neonatal;


Orphanet: 58  
Developmental anomalies during embryogenesis
Teratologic disorders

External Ids:

ICD10 via Orphanet 33 T56.1
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0086626 C0265376
Orphanet 58 ORPHA1917

Summaries for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 The following summary is from Orphanet , a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 1917 Definition A rare disorder characterized by a group of symptoms that may be observed in a foetus or newborn when the mother was exposed during pregnancy to excessive amounts of methylmercury. Epidemiology Accidents have led to the birth of about 800 affected children worldwide over the last 50 years. Clinical description In the late-1950s, methylmercury toxicity became highly publicised after an outbreak of cerebral palsy and microcephaly in newborns from the fishing village of Minimata Bay, Japan. These abnormalities were caused by methylmercury contamination of fish in the bay, and were termed Minimata Disease. Similar intoxications also occurred in Iraq after seeds contaminated with methylmercury were mistakenly used to make bread. In this population, infants exposed in utero displayed psychomotor retardation and cerebral palsy. Similar neurological impairment has been reported in other instances of food contamination, such as in infants of American Indian women who ingested pork contaminated with phenylmercuric acetate. Etiology There are two main types of mercury, metallic mercury (a heavy liquid element at room temperature, used in thermometers) and organic mercury (like methylmercury, used as antifungal agent in seed dressings). The selective neurotoxicity of organic mercury does not appear to apply to metallic mercury and its salts. Methylmercury is lipophilic and more readily distributed to the brain tissue than mercuric salts. Metallic mercury does not cross the placenta readily, and it has been estimated that the rate of methylmercury transport into the brain may exceed that of mercury by a factor of 10. Diagnostic methods Exposure to methylmercury can be monitored by measuring the concentration in the hair. All fish contain some methylmercury, and frequent consumption of highly contaminated fish can lead to a hair concentration of methylmercury ranging between 10 and 50 ppm. A level of 50 ppm in hair has been established as the lowest toxic level, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has applied a safety factor of 10 to cover risks in the most sensitive populations. Thus, 5 ppm has been generally adopted as the international standard for the upper tolerable level of mercury in hair. Management and treatment Since maternal exposure to methylmercury is primarily through fish consumption, it is recommended that women of childbearing age should not consume more than 350g of fish per week. In addition, they should not be occupationally exposed to air concentrations of mercury vapor greater than 0.01 mg. per cubic meter, to inorganic and phenylmercuric compounds at concentrations greater than 0.02 mg per cubic meter, or to any detectable concentration of methylmercury. Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.

MalaCards based summary : Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome, also known as minamata disease, is related to mercury poisoning and ataxia and polyneuropathy, adult-onset. Affiliated tissues include brain, placenta and cortex, and related phenotypes are muscular hypotonia and hearing impairment

Related Diseases for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

Diseases related to Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 35)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 mercury poisoning 11.7
2 ataxia and polyneuropathy, adult-onset 10.4
3 tremor 10.4
4 cerebral palsy 10.4
5 aceruloplasminemia 10.2
6 paresthesia 10.2
7 neuropathy 10.1
8 pathologic nystagmus 10.1
9 cerebellar degeneration 10.1
10 diencephalic syndrome 10.1
11 spasticity 10.1
12 spondylosis, cervical 10.0
13 strabismus 10.0
14 arachnoid cysts, intracranial 10.0
15 retinitis pigmentosa 10.0
16 gastric cancer 10.0
17 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 10.0
18 neuroretinitis 10.0
19 nephrotic syndrome 10.0
20 low compliance bladder 10.0
21 spondylosis 10.0
22 sensory peripheral neuropathy 10.0
23 retinitis 10.0
24 liver disease 10.0
25 brain edema 10.0
26 poliomyelitis 10.0
27 peripheral nervous system disease 10.0
28 paraplegia 10.0
29 cerebrovascular disease 10.0
30 cataract 10.0
31 speech disorder 10.0
32 mechanical strabismus 10.0
33 wallerian degeneration 10.0
34 cerebral atrophy 10.0
35 encephalopathy 10.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome:

Diseases related to Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

Human phenotypes related to Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome:

58 31
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 muscular hypotonia 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001252
2 hearing impairment 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000365
3 short stature 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0004322
4 microcephaly 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000252
5 visual impairment 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000505

Drugs & Therapeutics for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

Search Clinical Trials , NIH Clinical Center for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

Genetic Tests for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

Anatomical Context for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome:

Brain, Placenta, Cortex, Testes, Cerebellum, Endothelial, Spleen

Publications for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

Articles related to Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 280)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Lessons From an Early-stage Epidemiological Study of Minamata Disease. 61
31685724 2020
Mercury speciation in preserved historical sludge: Potential risk from sludge contained within reclaimed land of Minamata Bay, Japan. 61
31648069 2020
Toxicity of mercury: Molecular evidence. 61
31881386 2019
Mercury cycling in the terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environment of the Slovak Republic - an overview. 61
31232059 2019
Cerebellar Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Ataxia in Minamata Disease. 61
31543798 2019
Mercury pollution in modern times and its socio-medical consequences. 61
30448663 2019
Methylmercury-induced neural degeneration in rat dorsal root ganglion is associated with the accumulation of microglia/macrophages and the proliferation of Schwann cells. 61
30842371 2019
Chronic Neurological Disease Due to Methylmercury Poisoning. 61
30278852 2018
Accelerated functional losses in ageing congenital Minamata disease patients. 61
30102975 2018
Methylmercury causes epigenetic suppression of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene in an in vitro neuronal differentiation model. 61
29856999 2018
Health Impacts and Biomarkers of Prenatal Exposure to Methylmercury: Lessons from Minamata, Japan. 61
30081479 2018
Survey of the Extent of the Persisting Effects of Methylmercury Pollution on the Inhabitants around the Shiranui Sea, Japan. 61
30037044 2018
Potential therapeutic effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for tremor in Minamata disease: A case report. 61
29627030 2018
[Mercury as a Global Pollutant and Mercury Exposure Assessment and Health Effects]. 61
30270289 2018
Methylmercury promotes prostacyclin release from cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells via induction of cyclooxygenase-2 through activation of the EGFR-p38 MAPK pathway by inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity. 61
28958600 2017
Temporal trends of infant and birth outcomes in Minamata after severe methylmercury exposure. 61
28967567 2017
Activation of interleukin-6 and -8 expressions by methylmercury in human U937 macrophages involves RelA and p50. 61
27917510 2017
An inter-laboratory comparison of different analytical methods for the determination of monomethylmercury in various soil and sediment samples: A platform for method improvement. 61
27855329 2017
Novel carbon nanotube (CNT)-based ultrasensitive sensors for trace mercury(II) detection in water: A review. 61
27539821 2017
Effects of Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure: From Minamata Disease to Environmental Health Studies. 61
28931792 2017
Secondary sex ratio in regions severely exposed to methylmercury "Minamata disease". 61
26497019 2016
Neurological and neurocognitive functions from intrauterine methylmercury exposure. 61
26267674 2016
Three Case Reports of Successful Vibration Therapy of the Plantar Fascia for Spasticity Due to Cerebral Palsy-Like Syndrome, Fetal-Type Minamata Disease. 61
27082608 2016
[Food Sanitation Act and Minamata Disease]. 61
26832624 2016
Characteristics of hand tremor and postural sway in patients with fetal-type Minamata disease. 61
27853104 2016
Recent Epidemiological Studies on Methylmercury, Mercury and Selenium. 61
27725427 2016
Evaluation of mercury exposure level, clinical diagnosis and treatment for mercury intoxication. 61
26807265 2016
[Textual research for Tibetan medicine Qumazi]. 61
26390671 2015
Tracking the fate of mercury in the fish and bottom sediments of Minamata Bay, Japan, using stable mercury isotopes. 61
25877383 2015
The role of calcium and cyclic nucleotide signaling in cerebellar granule cell migration under normal and pathological conditions. 61
25066767 2015
[Clinical aspects of the Niigata Minamata disease]. 61
25585433 2015
[Epidemiology of Minamata Disease--Focus on the Clinical Features Related to the 1977 Diagnostic Criteria]. 61
26411946 2015
Intrauterine Exposure to Methylmercury and Neurocognitive Functions: Minamata Disease. 61
24971622 2015
Association between social group participation and perceived health among elderly inhabitants of a previously methylmercury-polluted area. 61
24643882 2014
Methylmercury exposure and neurological outcomes in Taiji residents accustomed to consuming whale meat. 61
24685489 2014
S-mercuration of cellular proteins by methylmercury and its toxicological implications. 61
25242398 2014
[History of ignorance of methylmercury toxicity and intoxication in Japan in relation to Minamata disease]. 61
24476597 2014
Signs and symptoms of methylmercury contamination in a First Nations community in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. 61
24091119 2014
Lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with Niigata Minamata disease: a case-control study 50 years after methyl mercury pollution. 61
23163739 2013
Cerebellar abnormalities typical of methylmercury poisoning in a fledged saltmarsh sparrow, Ammodramus caudacutus. 61
23478946 2013
Expression of VEGF-related proteins in cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes after exposure to methylmercury. 61
24213003 2013
Critical appraisal of the 1977 diagnostic criteria for Minamata disease. 61
23298421 2013
Global trends in mercury management. 61
23230466 2012
Rescue of neuronal migration deficits in a mouse model of fetal Minamata disease by increasing neuronal Ca2+ spike frequency. 61
22411806 2012
Role of intracellular defense factors against methylmercury toxicity. 61
23123460 2012
Vibration therapy of the plantar fascia improves spasticity of the lower limbs of a patient with fetal-type Minamata disease in the chronic stage. 61
22675016 2011
[Bibliographical study of the toxicity of organic mercury compounds]. 61
21996777 2011
Recent evidence from epidemiological studies on methylmercury toxicity. 61
21996768 2011
Long-term exposure to methylmercury and psychiatric symptoms in residents of Minamata, Japan. 61
21470684 2011
Congenital minamata disease: intrauterine methylmercury poisoning. Teratology 18:285-8. 1978. 61
20973053 2010

Variations for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

Expression for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome.

Pathways for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

GO Terms for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

Sources for Fetal Methylmercury Syndrome

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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