Filarial Elephantiasis

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Filarial Elephantiasis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Filarial Elephantiasis:

Name: Filarial Elephantiasis 12 20 15 17
Lymphatic Filariasis 12 73 20 58 54 3 15
Elephantiasis 20 70
Filariasis 20 70
Infection by Wuchereria Bancrofti 70
Wuchereria Bancrofti Infection 20
Bancroftian Filarial Chyluria 12
Malayi Tropical Eosinphilia 20
Bancroftian Elephantiasis 12
Elephantiasis of Eyelid 12
Elephantiasis, Filarial 44
Bancroftian Filariasis 20
Filarial Elephantiases 70
Wuchereriasis 20
Elephantitis 20


Orphanet epidemiological data:

lymphatic filariasis
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: >1/1000; Age of onset: All ages;


Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases

Summaries for Filarial Elephantiasis

GARD : 20 Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by microscopic, thread-like worms that only live in the human lymph system, which maintains the body's fluid balance and fights infections. It is spread from person to person by mosquitoes. Most infected people are asymptomatic and never develop clinical symptoms. A small percentage of people develop lymphedema, which may affect the legs, arms, breasts, and genitalia; bacterial infections that cause hardening and thickening of the skin, called elephantiasis; hydrocele (swelling of the scrotum) in men; and pulmonary tropical eosinophilia syndrome. Treatment may include a yearly dose of medicine, called diethylcarbamazine (DEC); while this drug does not kill all of the adult worms, it prevents infected people from giving the disease to someone else.

MalaCards based summary : Filarial Elephantiasis, also known as lymphatic filariasis, is related to onchocerciasis and loiasis, and has symptoms including chyluria An important gene associated with Filarial Elephantiasis is IL10 (Interleukin 10), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Akt Signaling and PAK Pathway. The drugs Glycerol and Petrolatum have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, testis and lung, and related phenotypes are lymphadenopathy and predominantly lower limb lymphedema

Disease Ontology : 12 A filariasis that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts, caused by thread-like parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi or Brugia timori, which inhabit the lymphatics. These nematodes are transmitted by mosquitoes. Acute symptoms include fever, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, funiculitis, and epididymitis. Chronic symptoms include abscesses, hyperkeratosis, polyarthritis, hydroceles, lymphedema, and elephantiasis.

CDC : 3 Lymphatic filariasis, considered globally as a neglected tropical disease (NTD), is a parasitic disease caused by microscopic, thread-like worms. The adult worms only live in the human lymph system. The lymph system maintains the body's fluid balance and fights infections. Lymphatic filariasis is spread from person to person by mosquitoes. People with the disease can suffer from lymphedema and elephantiasis and in men, swelling of the scrotum, called hydrocele. Lymphatic filariasis is a leading cause of permanent disability worldwide. Communities frequently shun and reject women and men disfigured by the disease. Affected people frequently are unable to work because of their disability, and this harms their families and their communities.

Wikipedia : 73 Lymphatic filariasis is a human disease caused by parasitic worms known as filarial worms. Most cases of... more...

Related Diseases for Filarial Elephantiasis

Diseases related to Filarial Elephantiasis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 664)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 onchocerciasis 32.1 IL5 IL4 IL13
2 loiasis 31.9 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 GPT2
3 lymphangitis 31.1 VEGFC GPT2 CD4
4 hypereosinophilic syndrome 31.1 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13
5 eosinophilic pneumonia 31.1 IL5 IL4 IL13
6 pulmonary eosinophilia 31.1 IL5 IL4 IL13
7 elephantiasis 31.0 VEGFC IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 GPT2
8 lymphadenitis 30.9 TLR4 IL10 CD4
9 schistosomiasis 30.7 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
10 endomyocardial fibrosis 30.6 IL5 IL4 IL10
11 cytokine deficiency 30.5 IL9 IL5 IL13
12 filariasis 30.5 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2 IL5 IL10
13 bacterial infectious disease 30.5 TLR4 TLR2 IL10 CD4
14 strongyloidiasis 30.4 MT-CO1 IL5 IL4 IL13 CD4
15 toxocariasis 30.4 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
16 endocarditis 30.2 TLR6 TLR2 IL10
17 human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease 30.2 IL4 IL10 CD8A CD4
18 trichuriasis 30.2 IL9 IL13 IL10
19 silicosis 30.2 TLR4 IL4 IL10
20 severe combined immunodeficiency 30.1 IL9 IL4 IL13 IL10
21 urinary schistosomiasis 30.1 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
22 ige responsiveness, atopic 30.1 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
23 orchitis 30.1 IL10 FOXP3 CD8A CD4
24 cellulitis 30.1 IL5 CD8A CD4
25 leishmaniasis 30.1 TLR4 TLR2 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
26 chagas disease 30.0 TLR4 TLR2 IL4 IL10 CD4
27 chlamydia 30.0 TLR4 TLR2 IL5 IL4 IL10
28 keratoconjunctivitis 30.0 IL5 IL4 IL13
29 actinomycosis 30.0 IL4 IL10 CD4
30 osteomyelitis 30.0 TLR4 TLR2 IL4 IL10
31 babesiosis 30.0 MT-CO1 IL10 CD4
32 paragonimiasis 30.0 MT-CO1 IL5 IL13
33 dengue hemorrhagic fever 30.0 IL4 IL13 IL10
34 pulmonary tuberculosis 30.0 TLR2 IL4 IL10
35 lepromatous leprosy 30.0 TLR2 IL4 IL10
36 cystic echinococcosis 30.0 TLR4 TLR2 MT-CO1 IL10
37 rheumatic heart disease 30.0 TLR2 IL4 IL10
38 iridocyclitis 29.9 TLR4 IL10 CD4
39 urticaria 29.9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4
40 acute cystitis 29.9 TLR4 IL10 CD4
41 giardiasis 29.9 IL10 CD8A CD4
42 cysticercosis 29.9 TLR4 MT-CO1 IL5 IL4 IL10 CD4
43 scrub typhus 29.9 TLR4 TLR2 IL10
44 angiostrongyliasis 29.9 MT-CO1 IL5 IL4 IL13
45 amebiasis 29.8 TLR2 IL4 IL10 CD4
46 disease by infectious agent 29.8 TLR4 TLR2 IL4 IL10 CD8A CD4
47 toxic shock syndrome 29.8 TLR4 TLR2 IL4 IL10
48 poliomyelitis 29.8 IL4 IL10 CD8A CD4
49 tetanus 29.8 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
50 tertiary syphilis 29.8 IL10 CD8A CD4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Filarial Elephantiasis:

Diseases related to Filarial Elephantiasis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Filarial Elephantiasis

Human phenotypes related to Filarial Elephantiasis:

58 31 (show all 34)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 lymphadenopathy 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002716
2 predominantly lower limb lymphedema 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0003550
3 fatigue 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012378
4 hyperkeratosis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000962
5 hyperpigmentation of the skin 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000953
6 pain 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012531
7 circulating immune complexes 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012224
8 hypereosinophilia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0032061
9 lymphadenitis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002840
10 fever 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001945
11 cough 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0012735
12 abnormal lung morphology 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002088
13 orchitis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0100796
14 vaginal hydrocele 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0100673
15 hydrocele testis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000034
16 wheezing 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0030828
17 lymphangiectasis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0031842
18 opportunistic bacterial infection 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0032260
19 restrictive ventilatory defect 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0002091
20 proteinuria 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000093
21 nephrotic syndrome 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000100
22 hematuria 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000790
23 urethral obstruction 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000796
24 glomerulonephritis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000099
25 ankle swelling 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001785
26 no social interaction 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0008763
27 knee osteoarthritis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0005086
28 epididymitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000031
29 lymphedema 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
30 abnormality of the lymphatic system 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
31 abnormality of the kidney 58 Occasional (29-5%)
32 abnormality of the scrotum 58 Occasional (29-5%)
33 restrictive deficit on pulmonary function testing 58 Occasional (29-5%)
34 opportunistic infection 58 Occasional (29-5%)

UMLS symptoms related to Filarial Elephantiasis:


MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Filarial Elephantiasis:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.18 CD4 FOXP3 HPGDS IFT43 IL10 IL13
2 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.1 CD4 CD8A FOXP3 HPGDS IL10 IL13
3 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.1 CD4 FOXP3 GPT2 HPGDS IL10 IL13
4 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.06 CD4 FOXP3 IL10 IL13 IL4 IL5
5 immune system MP:0005387 10 CD4 CD8A FOXP3 HPGDS IL10 IL13
6 integument MP:0010771 9.65 CD4 CD8A FOXP3 HPGDS IL10 IL13
7 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.5 CD4 CD8A FOXP3 GPT2 HPGDS IFT43

Drugs & Therapeutics for Filarial Elephantiasis

Drugs for Filarial Elephantiasis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 26)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Phase 3 56-81-5 753
Petrolatum Approved, Investigational Phase 3 8009-03-8
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 564-25-0 54671203
Diethylcarbamazine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 90-89-1 3052
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 3 68-04-2
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 77-92-9 311
7 Sodium hypochlorite Phase 3
8 Protective Agents Phase 3
9 Eusol Phase 3
10 Antimalarials Phase 3
11 Milbemycin Phase 3
12 Citrate Phase 3
Praziquantel Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 1 55268-74-1 4891
Emodepside Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 1 155030-63-0
15 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 1
16 Toltrazuril Phase 1
Permethrin Approved, Investigational 52645-53-1 40326
Piperazine Approved, Vet_approved 110-85-0 4837
Mebendazole Approved, Vet_approved 31431-39-7 4030
20 Liver Extracts
21 Chelating Agents
22 Anticoagulants
23 DMP 777 157341-41-8
24 Piperazine citrate
25 Calcium, Dietary
Calcium Nutraceutical 7440-70-2 271

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 47)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Cluster Randomized Community-based Trial of Annual Versus Biannual Single-dose Ivermectin Plus Albendazole Against Wuchereria Bancrofti Infection in Human and Mosquito Populations Completed NCT03036059 Phase 4 400 μg/kg Ivermectin + 400 mg Albendazole
2 Impact of Albendazole -Ivermectin Combination Treatment on Wuchereria Bancrofti Infection and Transmission in Mali Completed NCT02784743 Phase 4 ''albendazole'' and ''ivermectin''
3 Safety of the Co-administration of Azithromycin, Albendazole and Ivermectin Versus Standard Treatment Regimens During Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in Ethiopia: a Cluster-randomized Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03570814 Phase 4 Administration of Albendazole on Day 1;Administration of Ivermectin on Day 1;Administration of Azithromycin on Day 1;Administration of Azithromycin on Day 15
4 AZIVAL 2: A Double-blind Cluster-randomized Placebo-controlled Study on the Safety of Integrated Treatment of Trachoma and Lymphatic Filariasis in Children and Adults With Azithromycin, Ivermectin and Albendazole Withdrawn NCT01903057 Phase 4 azithromycin;ivermectin;albendazole;placebo
5 Repeat Ivermectin Mass Drug Administrations for Control of Malaria: a Pilot Safety and Efficacy Study Completed NCT02509481 Phase 2, Phase 3 Ivermectin;Albendazole
6 A Cluster Randomised Trial of the Safety of Co-Administration of IDA (Ivermectin, Diethylcarbamazine and Albendazole) & Azithromycin for Integrated Treatment of Neglected Tropical Diseases Completed NCT03676140 Phase 3 Albendazole on Day 1;Ivermectin on Day 1;Diethylcarbamazine on day 1;Azithromycin on Day 1;Azithromycin on Day 8
7 A Multi-center, Double-blind, Randomized, 24-month Study, to Compare the Efficacy of Doxycycline Once Daily for 6 Weeks Versus Placebo in Improving Filarial Lymphedema Independent of Active Filarial Infection Completed NCT02927496 Phase 3 Doxycycline;Placebo
8 A Multi-center, Double-blind, Randomized, 24-month Study, to Compare the Efficacy of Doxycycline Once Daily for 6 Weeks Versus Placebo in Improving Filarial Lymphedema Independent of Active Filarial Infection Completed NCT02929134 Phase 3 Doxycycline;Placebo
9 A Randomised Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effect of a New Skin Care Regimen on Skin Barrier Function in Those With Podoconiosis in Ethiopia Completed NCT02839772 Phase 3
10 Field Studies on the Feasibility of Interrupting the Transmission of Soil-transmitted Helminths (STH) DeWorm3 Project Recruiting NCT03014167 Phase 3 Albendazole
11 A Multi-center, Double-blind, Randomized, 24-month Study, to Compare the Efficacy of Doxycycline Once Daily for 6 Weeks Versus Placebo in Improving Filarial Lymphedema Independent of Active Filarial Infection Active, not recruiting NCT02929121 Phase 3 Doxycycline;Placebo
12 A Clinical Trial to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Moxidectin Combination Treatments vs. Ivermectin Combination Treatments for Bancroftian Filariasis Enrolling by invitation NCT04410406 Phase 3 Ivermectin;Diethylcarbamazine;Albendazole;Moxidectin
13 Effect of Albendazole Dose and Interval on Wuchereria Bancrofti Microfilarial Clearance in India: A Randomized, Open Label Study Completed NCT00375583 Phase 2 DEC/Albendazole
14 A Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Co-Administration of IDA (Ivermectin, Diethylcarbamazine and Albendazole) & Azithromycin for Integrated Treatment of Neglected Tropical Diseases Completed NCT03664063 Phase 2 Azithromycin;Albendazole;Ivermectin;Diethylcarbamazine
15 Effect of Albendazole and Ivermectin Dose on Wuchereria Bancrofti Microfilarial Clearance in Mali: A Randomized, Open Label Study Completed NCT00339417 Phase 2 Albendazole;Ivermectin
16 Evaluate Triple-Drug Therapy With Diethylcarbamize (DEC), Albendazole (ALB) and Ivermectin (IVM) That Could Accelerate LF Elimination Outside of Africa Completed NCT01975441 Phase 2 Diethylcarbamazine;Albendazole;Ivermectin
17 Effect of Albendazole Dose and Interval on Brugia Malayi Microfilarial Clearance in India: A Randomized, Open Label Study Completed NCT00511004 Phase 2 Albendazole;Diethylcarbamazine
18 Treatment of Mansonella Perstans Infection in an Area Coendemic for Lymphatic Filariasis: A Pilot Study of the Effects of Doxycycline Completed NCT00340691 Phase 2 Doxycycline
19 Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Safety and Tolerability of Single Dose Treatment With Diethylcarbamazine, Albendazole and Ivermectin in Humans With and Without Wuchereria Bancrofti Infection in Côte d'Ivoire Completed NCT02845713 Phase 1 Ivermectin, Diethylcarbamazine Albendazole (IDA)
20 A Phase 1, Single-Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Parallel-Group, Multiple-Dose-Escalation Study to Investigate Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Emodepside (BAY 44-4400) After Oral Dosing in Healthy Male Subjects Completed NCT03383614 Phase 1 LSF emodepside (BAY 44-4400) or matching placebo
21 Phase1,Randomized,Open-Label,Parallel-Group,Relative Bioavailability Study to Investigate PK,Including Food Effect,Safety and Tolerability of Single Doses of New Immediate Release Tablet Formulations of Emodepside (BAY 44-4400),Compared to Oral Solution,in Healthy Male Subjects Completed NCT03383523 Phase 1 Emodepside (BAY 44-4400)
22 Prevalence Survey for Innovative and Intensified Disease Management (IDM) Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs): A Cluster Randomised Two-stage Active Case Search for IDM-NTDs in Liberia Unknown status NCT03683745
23 Community Based Safety Study of 2-drug (Diethylcarbamazine and Albendazole) Versus 3-drug (Ivermectin, Diethylcarbamazine and Albendazole) Therapy for Lymphatic Filariasis, Scabies and Soil Transmitted Helminths in Fiji Completed NCT03177993 3 drug dose - IDA;3 drug dose - IDA with second dose of ivermectin;2 drug dose - DA
24 Community Studies to Monitor the Impact of Triple Drug Therapy Relative to Double Drug Therapy on Lymphatic Filariasis Infection Indicators Completed NCT03352206 2 drug dose - DA;3 drug dose - IDA
25 Community Based Safety Study of 2-drug (Diethylcarbamazine and Albendazole) Versus 3-drug (Ivermectin, Diethylcarbamazine and Albendazole) Therapy for Lymphatic Filariasis Completed NCT02899936 3 drug dose - IDA;2 drug dose - DA
26 Research for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (ICIDR) Completed NCT00406627
27 Optimization of Mass Drug Administration With Existing Drug Regimens for Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis Completed NCT01905423 Albendazole (annual);Diethylcarbamazine (annual);Albendazole (semiannual);Diethylcarbamazine (semiannual)
28 Alternative Chemotherapies for Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) Treatment and Elimination in Africa [Cote d'Ivoire] Completed NCT02974049 Albendazole;Ivermectin;Diethylcarbamazine
29 Disability and Quality of Life in Patients With Lymphatic Filariasis in Rural Southern India Completed NCT01629771
30 Optimization of Mass Drug Administration With Existing Drug Regimens for Lymphatic Filariasis: Monitoring Efficacy of Ongoing Treatment Programs in Papua New Guinea Completed NCT03268252
31 Optimization of Mass Drug Administration With Existing Drug Regimens for Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis for Ivory Coast Completed NCT02032043 Annual versus Semiannual Albendazole plus Ivermectin MDA
32 Studies on the Interaction Between HIV Infection, Lymphatic Filariasis and Diethylcarbamazine Completed NCT00295698 Diethylcarbamazine
33 A Pharmacovigilance Study on the Safety of Integrated Treatment of Trachoma and Lymphatic Filariasis in Children and Adults Living in the Sikasso Region of Mali Completed NCT01586169 triple co administration at once of the combination of Albendazole + ivermectin + azithromycin
34 Determination of the Prevalence of LF Infection in Districts Not Included in LF Control Activities and of the Basis for Integrated Implementation of LF - Onchocerciasis Elimination Strategies in Potentially Co-endemic Areas Completed NCT03131401
35 Evaluation of Antibacterial Soap for Treatment of Lymphedema and Elephantiasis in an Area Endemic for Lymphatic Filariasis Completed NCT00139100 antimicrobial agent in soap
36 Research for Elimination of Human Filariasis Completed NCT00145223
37 Exhaled NO Testing in Filariasis Completed NCT01628497
38 Coinfection With Plasmodium Falciparum and Wuchereria Bancrofti: Clinical, Epidemiologic and Immunologic Implications Completed NCT00471666
39 Promoting Consistent Shoe Use Among Children At High Risk for Podoconiosis Completed NCT01160523
40 Changes in HIV Viral Load in Patients Undergoing Treatment for Filarial Infection Completed NCT00344279
41 Effect of Filarial Infection on Antigen-Specific Immune Responses in Latent Tuberculosis Completed NCT01547884
42 When is it Appropriate to Stop? Applied Field Research to Develop an M&E Strategy to Recruiting NCT04124250
43 Host Response to Infection and Treatment in the Filarial Diseases of Humans Recruiting NCT00001230
44 Spontaneous Antigenemia in Loiasis, A Study of the Loiasis Antigens Responsible for Cross-reactivity in the Rapid Diagnostic Test for Lymphatic Filariasis Active, not recruiting NCT04258670
45 Optimization of Mass Drug Administration With Existing Drug Regimens for Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis for Liberia Enrolling by invitation NCT01905436 Annual versus Semiannual Albendazole plus Ivermectin Mass Drug Administration
46 Efficacy of Higher Albendazole and Ivermectin Doses on Wuchereria Bancrofti Microfilarial Clearance in Malawi, Open Label Study Terminated NCT01213576 Albendazole 400mg and ivermectin 200mcg/kg;Albendazole and ivermectin;Albendazole 400mg and ivermectin 200mcg/kg;albendazole 800mg and ivermectin 400mcg/kg bi-annually
47 Investigation of the Pathogenesis of Podoconiosis Using RNA-seq and Immunopathologic Approaches Terminated NCT01939431

Search NIH Clinical Center for Filarial Elephantiasis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: elephantiasis, filarial

Genetic Tests for Filarial Elephantiasis

Anatomical Context for Filarial Elephantiasis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Filarial Elephantiasis:

Skin, Testis, Lung, T Cells, Endothelial, Kidney, Lymph Node

Publications for Filarial Elephantiasis

Articles related to Filarial Elephantiasis:

(show top 50) (show all 2830)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Regulation of parasite antigen-driven immune responses by interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12 in lymphatic filariasis. 61 54
9125556 1997
Immunoregulation in human lymphatic filariasis: the role of interleukin 10. 61 54
7501419 1995
Genome editing as control tool for filarial infections. 61
33581654 2021
A review on the interactions between dendritic cells, filarial parasite and parasite-derived molecules in regulating the host immune responses. 61
33247468 2021
Development of E1224 by leveraging a strategic partnership for the medicines creation against neglected tropical diseases. 61
33370607 2021
Prevalence of scabies and impetigo in school-age children in Timor-Leste. 61
33722285 2021
Community-directed distributors-The "foot soldiers" in the fight to control and eliminate neglected tropical diseases. 61
33661903 2021
A Draft Genome Assembly of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) Using PacBio Sequencing. 61
33501937 2021
Complex emergencies and the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases in Africa: developing a practical approach for implementing safe and effective mapping and intervention strategies. 61
33789715 2021
The impact of ivermectin on onchocerciasis in villages co-endemic for lymphatic filariasis in an area of onchocerciasis recrudescence in Burkina Faso. 61
33647010 2021
[Abnormal urine color assessment: The urine wheel]. 61
33736891 2021
Tetracyclines improve experimental lymphatic filariasis pathology by disrupting interleukin-4 receptor-mediated lymphangiogenesis. 61
33434186 2021
Delays in lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes due to COVID-19, and possible mitigation strategies. 61
33515454 2021
Immunization with Brugia malayi Calreticulin Protein Generates Robust Antiparasitic Immunity and Offers Protection during Experimental Lymphatic Filariasis. 61
33667079 2021
Semiannual Treatment of Albendazole Alone is Efficacious for Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis: A Randomized Open-label Trial in Cote d'Ivoire. 61
33674871 2021
Corrigendum to: SUPPLEMENT, Two Decades of Public Health Achievements in Lymphatic Filariasis (2000-2020): Reflections, Progress and Future Challenges. 61
33749744 2021
Individual efficacy and community impact of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine and albendazole mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis control in Fiji: a cluster randomised trial. 61
33728462 2021
Safety and Tolerability of Mass Diethylcarbamazine and Albendazole Administration for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Kenya: An Active Surveillance Study. 61
33804133 2021
A multicenter, community-based, mixed methods assessment of the acceptability of a triple drug regimen for elimination of lymphatic filariasis. 61
33657090 2021
Lymphatic filariasis, infection status in Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles species after six rounds of mass drug administration in Masasi District, Tanzania. 61
33648600 2021
An open label, randomized clinical trial to compare the tolerability and efficacy of ivermectin plus diethylcarbamazine and albendazole vs. diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole for treatment of brugian filariasis in Indonesia. 61
33780481 2021
Monitoring migrant groups as a post-validation surveillance approach to contain the potential reemergence of lymphatic filariasis in Togo. 61
33653393 2021
Acidic Calcium-Independent Phospholipase A2 Regulates Eosinophil-Mediated Pathology during Filarial Manifestation of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia. 61
33441441 2021
The use of molecular xenomonitoring for surveillance of mosquito-borne diseases. 61
33357052 2021
New and sensitive HPLC-UV method for concomitant quantification of a combination of antifilariasis drugs in rat plasma and organs after simultaneous oral administration. 61
33527105 2021
Health beliefs and health seeking behavior towards lymphatic filariasis morbidity management and disability prevention services in Luangwa District, Zambia: Community and provider perspectives. 61
33617551 2021
An open label, block randomized, community study of the safety and efficacy of co-administered ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole vs. diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole for lymphatic filariasis in India. 61
33591979 2021
Genetic epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis in American Samoa after mass drug administration. 61
33166540 2021
Evaluating context-specific evidence-based quality improvement intervention on lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration in Northern Ghana using the RE-AIM framework. 61
33602322 2021
Lymphatic filariasis in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
33415391 2021
High Tregs and systemic IL-10 expressions linked to the absence of sheath antibodies in lymphatic filariasis: implications on the persistence of residual infection. 61
33515426 2021
A family-based intervention for prevention and self-management of disabilities due to leprosy, podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis in Ethiopia: A proof of concept study. 61
33600453 2021
Human filariasis-contributions of the Litomosoides sigmodontis and Acanthocheilonema viteae animal model. 61
33547508 2021
Mapping the role of digital health technologies in the case detection, management, and treatment outcomes of neglected tropical diseases: a scoping review. 61
33618757 2021
Current Status and a Perspective of Mosquito-Borne Diseases in the Republic of Korea. 61
33136531 2021
Optimizing Myanmar's community-delivered malaria volunteer model: a qualitative study of stakeholders' perspectives. 61
33557847 2021
The Eagle effect in the Wolbachia-worm symbiosis. 61
33627171 2021
Safety of oral administration of high doses of ivermectin by means of biocompatible polyelectrolytes formulation. 61
33426351 2021
Validation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the detection of Loa loa infection in Chrysops spp in experimental and natural field conditions. 61
33407819 2021
Introducing activities of the Archives of Infectious Diseases History (AIDH) project: Historical epidemiology. 61
33504357 2021
Designing of a novel multi-epitope peptide based vaccine against Brugia malayi: An in silico approach. 61
33181335 2021
Financial burden impact quality of life among lymphatic Filariasis patients. 61
33478462 2021
Dual RNAseq analyses at soma and germline levels reveal evolutionary innovations in the elephantiasis-agent Brugia malayi, and adaptation of its Wolbachia endosymbionts. 61
33406151 2021
A cross-sectional survey on parasitic infections in schoolchildren in a rural Tanzanian community. 61
33159895 2021
Novel Diagnostics for Kaposi Sarcoma and Other Skin Diseases in Resource-Limited Settings. 61
33228864 2021
Simulating a Transmission Assessment Survey: An evaluation of current methods used in determining the elimination of the neglected tropical disease, Lymphatic Filariasis. 61
33130207 2021
Exploring determinants of hydrocele surgery coverage related to Lymphatic Filariasis in Nepal: An implementation research study. 61
33635870 2021
Assessment of the usefulness of anti-Wb123 antibody for post-elimination surveillance of lymphatic filariasis. 61
33407812 2021
Heterogeneous response of Wuchereria bancrofti-infected persons to diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and its implications for the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). 61
33146778 2021
Risk factors for lymphatic filariasis and mass drug administration non-participation in Mandalay Region, Myanmar. 61
33482891 2021

Variations for Filarial Elephantiasis

Expression for Filarial Elephantiasis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Filarial Elephantiasis.

Pathways for Filarial Elephantiasis

Pathways related to Filarial Elephantiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 35)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
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13.26 VEGFC IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
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12.8 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 FOXP3
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5 12.55 TLR6 TLR2 IL4 IL10 FOXP3 CD8A
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12.55 TLR4 TLR2 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL10
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12.51 TLR4 TLR2 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
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12.38 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
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12.29 TLR2 IL5 IL4 IL13
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12.25 VEGFC IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
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12.21 TLR4 TLR2 IL4 IL10
12 12.18 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2 IL10
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12.12 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2 IL4
14 12.04 TLR4 IL10 CD8A CD4
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12.04 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2 IL5 IL13
16 12 IL5 IL4 IL10 CD8A CD4
17 11.87 IL5 IL4 CD8A CD4
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11.85 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2 IL4 CD4
19 11.77 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2
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11.76 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2 IL10 CD4
21 11.75 IL5 IL4 IL13
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11.72 IL5 IL4 FOXP3
23 11.7 IL10 CD8A CD4
24 11.62 IL5 IL4 IL13
25 11.61 IL5 IL4 IL10
26 11.49 TLR4 TLR2 IL10
27 11.48 IL4 IL13 IL10
28 11.45 TLR4 TLR2 IL5 IL4 IL10 FOXP3
29 11.4 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD8A
30 11.32 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13
31 11.18 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4
32 11.07 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
33 10.97 VEGFC IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
34 10.83 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 FOXP3
35 10.81 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13

GO Terms for Filarial Elephantiasis

Biological processes related to Filarial Elephantiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 47)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.31 VEGFC TLR6 TLR4 TLR2 IL5 IL4
2 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 10.03 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2 IL4 IL13 FOXP3
3 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 10.02 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10 CD4
4 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.97 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2 IL9 IL5 IL13
5 negative regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050728 9.93 IL4 IL13 IL10 FOXP3
6 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.88 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2
7 negative regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032715 9.86 TLR4 IL10 FOXP3
8 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.85 TLR4 TLR2 IL13 IL10 FOXP3
9 toll-like receptor signaling pathway GO:0002224 9.82 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2
10 negative regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032689 9.82 TLR4 IL10 FOXP3
11 negative regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:2000352 9.8 IL4 IL13 IL10
12 negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production GO:0032720 9.78 TLR4 IL4 IL10 FOXP3
13 MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway GO:0002755 9.74 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2
14 cellular response to oxidised low-density lipoprotein particle stimulus GO:0140052 9.7 TLR6 TLR4
15 I-kappaB phosphorylation GO:0007252 9.7 TLR4 TLR2
16 cell activation GO:0001775 9.69 TLR6 TLR2
17 T cell mediated immunity GO:0002456 9.69 FOXP3 CD8A
18 response to molecule of bacterial origin GO:0002237 9.69 TLR2 IL10
19 positive regulation of immunoglobulin production GO:0002639 9.69 IL5 IL13 IL10
20 cellular response to lipoteichoic acid GO:0071223 9.68 TLR4 TLR2
21 negative regulation of T-helper 17 cell differentiation GO:2000320 9.68 IL4 FOXP3
22 positive regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome complex assembly GO:1900227 9.68 TLR6 TLR4
23 positive regulation of mast cell degranulation GO:0043306 9.67 IL4 IL13
24 cellular response to bacterial lipopeptide GO:0071221 9.67 TLR6 TLR2
25 regulation of cytokine secretion GO:0050707 9.67 TLR6 TLR2
26 T cell activation GO:0042110 9.67 IL4 FOXP3 CD8A CD4
27 interleukin-1 beta production GO:0032611 9.66 TLR6 TLR4
28 cellular response to diacyl bacterial lipopeptide GO:0071726 9.66 TLR6 TLR2
29 type 2 immune response GO:0042092 9.65 IL4 IL10
30 positive regulation of oxidative stress-induced neuron death GO:1903223 9.64 TLR6 TLR4
31 toll-like receptor TLR6:TLR2 signaling pathway GO:0038124 9.63 TLR6 TLR2
32 positive regulation of B cell proliferation GO:0030890 9.62 TLR4 IL5 IL4 IL13
33 positive regulation of matrix metallopeptidase secretion GO:1904466 9.61 TLR4 TLR2
34 negative regulation of complement-dependent cytotoxicity GO:1903660 9.61 IL4 IL13
35 macrophage activation GO:0042116 9.61 TLR4 IL4 IL13
36 nitric oxide metabolic process GO:0046209 9.6 TLR6 TLR2
37 regulation of isotype switching GO:0045191 9.59 IL4 IL10
38 response to bacterial lipoprotein GO:0032493 9.58 TLR6 TLR2
39 negative regulation of chronic inflammatory response GO:0002677 9.58 IL4 FOXP3
40 positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process GO:0045348 9.58 TLR4 IL4 IL10
41 positive regulation of interleukin-10 production GO:0032733 9.56 TLR4 TLR2 IL4 IL13
42 positive regulation of cellular response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulus GO:1903974 9.55 TLR4 TLR2
43 detection of diacyl bacterial lipopeptide GO:0042496 9.54 TLR6 TLR2
44 asparaginyl-tRNA aminoacylation GO:0006421 9.52 NARS2 NARS1
45 microglial cell activation GO:0001774 9.46 TLR6 TLR2 IL4 IL13
46 immune response GO:0006955 9.32 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2 IL9 IL5 IL4
47 positive regulation of macrophage activation GO:0043032 9.26 TLR6 TLR4 IL13 IL10

Molecular functions related to Filarial Elephantiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 transmembrane signaling receptor activity GO:0004888 9.78 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2 CD4
2 signaling receptor activity GO:0038023 9.73 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2 CD4
3 amyloid-beta binding GO:0001540 9.67 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2
4 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.65 IL9 IL5 IL4 IL13 IL10
5 cytokine receptor binding GO:0005126 9.54 IL9 IL4 IL13
6 lipopeptide binding GO:0071723 9.46 TLR6 TLR2
7 lipopolysaccharide receptor activity GO:0001875 9.4 TLR4 TLR2
8 NAD+ nucleotidase, cyclic ADP-ribose generating GO:0061809 9.33 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2
9 asparagine-tRNA ligase activity GO:0004816 9.32 NARS2 NARS1
10 NAD(P)+ nucleosidase activity GO:0050135 9.13 TLR6 TLR4 TLR2
11 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.02 VEGFC IL9 IL5 IL4 IL10

Sources for Filarial Elephantiasis

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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