Aliases & Classifications for Focal Epilepsy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Focal Epilepsy:

Name: Focal Epilepsy 12 29 6 15
Partial Epilepsy 12 15 17
Epilepsies, Partial 43 71
Localisation-Related Epilepsy 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2234
MeSH 43 D004828
NCIt 49 C122812
SNOMED-CT 67 29753000 67139004
UMLS 71 C0014547

Summaries for Focal Epilepsy

Disease Ontology : 12 An epilepsy syndrome that is characterised by seizures that are preceded by an isolated disturbance of a cerebral function and arise from an epileptic focus, a small portion of the brain that serves as the irritant driving the epileptic response.

MalaCards based summary : Focal Epilepsy, also known as partial epilepsy, is related to epilepsy, familial focal, with variable foci 1 and malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy, and has symptoms including seizures An important gene associated with Focal Epilepsy is SCN1A (Sodium Voltage-Gated Channel Alpha Subunit 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Developmental Biology and Transmission across Chemical Synapses. The drugs Gabapentin and Carbamazepine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, temporal lobe and cortex, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and growth/size/body region

Related Diseases for Focal Epilepsy

Diseases related to Focal Epilepsy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 422)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 epilepsy, familial focal, with variable foci 1 34.5 NPRL2 DEPDC5
2 malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy 33.9 TBC1D24 SCN2A SCN1A KCNT1
3 epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 1 33.5 LGI1 CNTNAP2 CHRNB2 CHRNA2
4 epilepsy, focal, with speech disorder and with or without mental retardation 33.3 SPTAN1 GRIN2B GRIN2A
5 landau-kleffner syndrome 33.2 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A GRIN2A GABRG2 CNTNAP2
6 partial motor epilepsy 33.2 TBC1D24 SCN2A SCN1A LGI1 KCNT1 DEPDC5
7 epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, 2 32.8 CHRNB2 CHRNA4
8 epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, 1 32.8 SCN1A GABRG2 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
9 epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, 3 32.8 CHRNB2 CHRNA4
10 seizure disorder 32.2 TBC1D24 SCN2A SCN1A CDKL5
11 visual epilepsy 32.1 SCN2A SCN1A GABRG2 DEPDC5 CHRNA4 CDKL5
12 epilepsy 32.1 TSPO TBC1D24 SPTAN1 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A
13 temporal lobe epilepsy 32.0 TSPO SCN1A LGI1 GRIN2B
14 febrile seizures 31.7 SCN2A SCN1A GABRG2
15 status epilepticus 31.6 TSPO SCN1A LGI1 GRIN2B
16 encephalopathy 31.5 SPTAN1 SCN1A CDKL5
17 alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation syndrome 31.4 TBC1D24 SCN1A GRIN2B GRIN2A
18 early myoclonic encephalopathy 31.3 TBC1D24 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A KCNT1 GABRG2
19 benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes 31.2 TBC1D24 SPTAN1 SCN2A SCN1A NPRL2 LGI1
20 genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus 31.1 SCN2A SCN1A
21 epilepsy, myoclonic juvenile 31.1 SCN2A SCN1A LGI1 GABRG2 DEPDC5 CHRNB2
22 autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features 31.1 LGI1 DEPDC5 CNTNAP2
23 autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy 31.1 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A LGI1 KCNT1 GABRG2
24 lennox-gastaut syndrome 31.1 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A KCNT1 GRIN2B GRIN2A
25 migraine with or without aura 1 31.0 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A GRIN2B CACNA1H
26 epilepsy, idiopathic generalized 31.0 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A LGI1 KCNT1 GRIN2A
27 speech and communication disorders 30.9 SCN8A LGI1 GRIN2B GRIN2A CNTNAP2
28 generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus 30.9 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A LGI1 KCNT1 GABRG2
29 hemimegalencephaly 30.8 SCN1A MTOR
30 reflex epilepsy 30.8 SCN1A LGI1 GABRG2 CHRNB2 CHRNA2
31 amnestic disorder 30.8 TSPO LGI1 GRIN2B CNTNAP2
32 west syndrome 30.7 TBC1D24 SPTAN1 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A KCNT1
33 low-grade astrocytoma 30.7 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A
34 electroclinical syndrome 30.7 TBC1D24 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A LGI1 KCNT1
35 autoimmune encephalitis 30.6 LGI1 CNTNAP2
36 epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 3 30.6 LGI1 DEPDC5
37 episodic ataxia 30.6 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A CNTNAP2
38 hyperekplexia 30.6 LGI1 GABRG2 CNTNAP2 CHRNA4
39 angelman syndrome 30.6 TSPO MTOR GABRG2 CDKL5
40 pervasive developmental disorder 30.6 SCN2A SCN1A MTOR GRIN2B GRIN2A CNTNAP2
41 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 30.5 TSPO SCN8A GRIN2B GRIN2A CNTNAP2 CHRNA4
42 progressive familial heart block, type ia 30.5 SCN8A SCN1A
43 autism spectrum disorder 30.5 SCN2A SCN1A GRIN2B GRIN2A GABRG2 CNTNAP2
44 epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 6 30.4 TBC1D24 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A LGI1 KCNT1
45 limbic encephalitis 30.4 LGI1 GRIN2B
46 autism 30.4 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A MTOR GRIN2B GRIN2A
47 benign familial infantile epilepsy 30.4 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A LGI1 KCNT1 GABRG2
48 childhood absence epilepsy 30.3 TSPO SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A LGI1 KCNT1
49 early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 30.2 TBC1D24 SPTAN1 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A LGI1
50 autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features 12.6

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Focal Epilepsy:



Diseases related to Focal Epilepsy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Focal Epilepsy

UMLS symptoms related to Focal Epilepsy:


seizures

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Focal Epilepsy:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.25 CACNA1H CDKL5 CHRNA4 CHRNB2 CNTNAP2 DEPDC5
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.13 CACNA1H CHRNB2 CNTNAP2 DEPDC5 GABRG2 GRIN2B
3 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.97 CHRNA4 CHRNB2 DEPDC5 GABRG2 GRIN2B LGI1
4 nervous system MP:0003631 9.91 CACNA1H CDKL5 CHRNA2 CHRNA4 CHRNB2 CNTNAP2
5 normal MP:0002873 9.23 CHRNA2 CHRNB2 GABRG2 KCNT1 MTOR SCN1A

Drugs & Therapeutics for Focal Epilepsy

Drugs for Focal Epilepsy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 120)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
2
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
3
Diazepam Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 439-14-5 3016
4
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
5
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
6
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
7 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
8
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
9
Levetiracetam Approved Phase 4 102767-28-2 441341
10
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
11
Tiagabine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 115103-54-3 60648
12
Zonisamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68291-97-4 5734
13
Pregabalin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
14
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 84057-84-1 3878
15
Lacosamide Approved Phase 4 860352-01-8, 175481-36-4 219078
16
Clobazam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 22316-47-8 2789
17
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
18
Phenobarbital Approved, Investigational Phase 4 50-06-6 4763
19
Vigabatrin Approved Phase 4 60643-86-9, 68506-86-5 5665
20
Phenytoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-41-0 1775
21
Probenecid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-66-9 4911
22
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 7440-70-2 271
23
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7
24 GABA Agonists Phase 4
25 GABA-A Receptor Agonists Phase 4
26 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 4
27 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
28 Antiemetics Phase 4
29 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 4
30 Anesthetics Phase 4
31 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
32 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
33 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4
34 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
35 Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 4
36 Nootropic Agents Phase 4
37 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
38 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4
39 Analgesics Phase 4
40 Hormones Phase 4
41 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4
42 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4
43 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
44 GABA Agents Phase 4
45 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4
46 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
47 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4
48 Excitatory Amino Acids Phase 4
49 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4
50 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 251)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Prospective Open Label Evaluation of Clobazam Adjunctive Treatment of Adults With Refractory Focal Epilepsy: A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02726919 Phase 4 Clobazam
2 Liceo Study: A Prospective, Observational Study On The Effectiveness Of New Antiepileptic Drugs As First Bitherapy In The Daily Clinical Practice Completed NCT00855738 Phase 4 Gabapentin, Lamotrigine, Levetiracetam, Pregabalin, Oxcarbacepine, Tiagabine, Topiramate, Zonisamide
3 A Phase IV, Open-label, Multi-center, Community-based Trial Studying the Safety and Efficacy of Keppra™ as Adjunctive Therapy in Adult Subjects With Uncontrolled Partial Epilepsy. Completed NCT00160654 Phase 4 Levetiracetam
4 A 24-Week Prospective, Open-Label, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Effect on Seizure Frequency, Safety and Tolerability of Oxcarbazepine Monotherapy in Adult Patients With Partial Seizures Completed NCT00275925 Phase 4 Oxcarbazepine
5 A Phase IV, Open-label, Multi-center Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Keppra® After Conversion to Mono-therapy in Adult Subjects With Partial Epilepsy Completed NCT00630357 Phase 4 Levetiracetam (Keppra)
6 A Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group Multi-center Comparative Flexible-dose Trial Of Pregabalin Versus Gabapentin As Adjunctive Therapy In Subjects With Partial Seizures. Completed NCT00537940 Phase 4 Pregabalin;Gabapentin
7 A Korean Open-label, Multi-center, Community-based Trial Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Zonisamide as Adjunctive Therapy in Patients With Uncontrolled Partial Epilepsy Completed NCT01140867 Phase 4 zonisamide
8 Searching for "Sleep Friendly" Therapies for a Sleepy Population: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial to Assess the Effects of Lacosamide on Sleep and Wake in Adults With Focal Epilepsy Completed NCT01190098 Phase 4 Lacosamide;Placebo
9 A Multi-Center, Open-label, Randomized Study to Evaluate the Long Term Effectiveness of Levetiracetam as Monotherapy in Comparison With Oxcarbazepine in Subjects With Newly or Recently Diagnosed Partial Epilepsy Completed NCT01498822 Phase 4 Levetiracetam;Oxcarbazepine
10 A Multicentre, Double-blind, Randomized, Phase IV Clinical Trial Comparing the Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of Levetiracetam Versus Lamotrigine and Carbamazepine in the Oral Antiepileptic Therapy of Newly Diagnosed Elderly Patients With Focal Epilepsy. Completed NCT00438451 Phase 4 Levetiracetam;Carbamazepine;Lamotrigine
11 An Open-Label, Multicenter, Multinational Study of Lacosamide as First Add-On Anti-epileptic Drug (AED) Treatment in Subjects With Partial-Onset Seizures Completed NCT00955357 Phase 4 Lacosamide
12 A Multicenter, Open Label Study to Evaluate the Tolerability, Safety and Efficacy of Lacosamide (200mg - 400mg/Day) as add-on Therapy for Patients With Partial Onset Epilepsy Using a Flexible Dose-escalation Schedule and Individualized Maintenance Doses Completed NCT01235403 Phase 4 Lacosamide
13 The Effects on Cognitive Function of Levetiracetam (Keppra®) Compared to Carbamazepine (Tegretol®, Carmazepine®) as Monotherapy for Children With Partial Seizure; A Multicentric Randomized Controlled Study Completed NCT02208492 Phase 4 Levetiracetam;Carabamazepine
14 TOPAMAX� (Topiramate) Initiated as Monotherapy in Epilepsy (TIME): A Multicenter, Outpatient, Open-Label, Study to Evaluate the Dosing, Effectiveness and Safety of TOPAMAX� as Monotherapy in the Treatment of Epilepsy in Clinical Practice Completed NCT00266604 Phase 4 Topiramate
15 A 24-week Prospective Open-label Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Effect on Seizure Frequency, Safety and Tolerability of Oxcarbazepine Monotherapy in Children With Partial Seizures Completed NCT00275912 Phase 4 Oxcarbazepine
16 9-11 Week Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel Study to Determine Effects of Adjunctive Levetiracetam on Sleep Architecture of Adults With Partial Onset Epilepsy Receiving a First Generation Anti-epileptic Drug. Completed NCT00245713 Phase 4 levetiracetam
17 A Randomized, Single-dose, Parallel-group Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Two Formulation of Pregabalin in Healthy Volunteers Under Fasting Conditions Completed NCT03712475 Phase 4 Pregabalin
18 Pharmacovigilance Study of Keppra. SPAIN - SKATE : Safety of Keppra as Adjunctive Therapy in Epilepsy Completed NCT00643500 Phase 4 Levetiracetam
19 A Multicentre, Randomised, Active Comparator, Parallel Group Study To Compare The Effect On Cognition Of Adjunctive Therapy With Zonisamide Versus Sodium Valproate Completed NCT00713622 Phase 4 Zonisamide;Sodium valproate
20 Trial Studying the Safety and Efficacy of Keppra® as Adjunctive Therapy in Adult Patients With Uncontrolled Partial Epilepsy Completed NCT00630968 Phase 4 Levetiracetam (Keppra)
21 Phase IV Study of Cognitive and Behavioral Effects of Lacosamide as Adjunctive Therapy in Patients With Partial Epilepsy Completed NCT01175954 Phase 4 Lacosamide;Lacosamide
22 Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Treatment of Childhood Pharmacoresistant Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, A Pilot Study Completed NCT02731300 Phase 4
23 PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED 12-WEEK CONTROLLED STUDY OF VISUAL FIELD CHANGE IN SUBJECTS WITH PARTIAL SEIZURES RECEIVING PREGABALIN OR PLACEBO Recruiting NCT00351611 Phase 4 Lyrica (pregabalin);placebo
24 Efficacy and Safety of Rapid Titration Protocols of Lacosamide: An Exploratory Study Not yet recruiting NCT03607851 Phase 4 Lacosamide - conventional titration;Lacosamide - rapid titration 1;Lacosamide - rapid titration 2
25 Efficacy and Tolerability of Low vs. Standard Daily Doses of Antiepileptic Drugs in Newly Diagnosed, Previously Untreated Epilepsy (STANDLOW). A Multicenter, Randomized, Single-blind, Parallel-group Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03689114 Phase 4 Low dose carbamazepine;Standard dose carbamazepine;Low dose levetiracetam;Standard dose levetiracetam;Low dose valproate;Standard dose valproate;Low dose zonisamide;Standard dose zonisamide;Low dose oxcarbazepine;Standard dose oxcarbazepine;Low dose topiramate;Standard dose topiramate;Low dose lamotrigine;Standard dose lamotrigine;Low dose gabapentin;Standard dose gabapentin
26 Electroclinical Effect of Diazepam and Steroid in Patients With Benign Childhood Epilepsy With Centrotemporal Spikes Not yet recruiting NCT03490487 Phase 4 conventional antiepileptic drugs;oral steroid;Diazepam
27 An Open Prospective Randomised Long-Term Effectiveness Study, Comparing Best Medical Practice With or Without Adjunctive VNS Therapy in Patients 16 Years and Older With Pharmaco-resistant Partial Epilepsy Terminated NCT00522418 Phase 4 Best Medical Practive
28 Pregabalin In Partial Seizures (PREPS): An Open-Label, Multicenter Add On Therapy Trial. A Phase IV Open-Label Trial Using 150,300, 600 mg/Day Of Pregabalin Terminated NCT00407797 Phase 4 Pregabalin
29 An Open Label, Randomized Study Prospectively Examining the Effect on Anxiety in Partial Epilepsy Patients Treated With Pregabalin Terminated NCT01128712 Phase 4 Pregabalin;Pregabalin
30 "Rational Polytherapy" Using Perampanel Dual Therapy Anticonvulsant Combination Treatments of Adults With Refractory Focal Epilepsy : a Pilot Study. Terminated NCT02727101 Phase 4 perampanel
31 Post Marketing Study; Randomized, Parallel-Group Comparison of Treatment With Pharmacotherapy or Adjunctive Vagus Nerve Stimulation Therapy for Pharmacoresistant Partial Seizures: A Large Simple Effectiveness Trial Terminated NCT00215215 Phase 4
32 Sabril for Treatment of Adult Refractory Partial Seizures Symptomatic of Tuberous Sclerosis: An Open Label, Phase IV Prospective Safety and Tolerability Study Terminated NCT01266291 Phase 4 vigabatrin
33 Evaluating Transporter Protein Inhibitors in Patients With Epilepsy Terminated NCT00610532 Phase 4 phenytoin;phenytoin and probenecid
34 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study to Evaluate the Effect of Perampanel on Objective and Subjective Sleep in Subjects With Insomnia and Partial Onset Seizures Withdrawn NCT02220972 Phase 4 Perampanel;Placebo
35 Efficacy of Naloxone in Reducing Postictal Central Respiratory Dysfunction in Patients With Epilepsy Unknown status NCT02332447 Phase 3 naloxone;Placebo
36 Pregabalin BID Open-Label Add-On Trial: A Follow-Up Study To Determine Long-Term Safety and Efficacy in Patients With Partial Seizures Completed NCT00143143 Phase 3 Pregabalin
37 Multicenter, Open-Label Extension Study to Evaluate the Long-Term Safety and Tolerability of OXC XR as Adjunctive Therapy in Subjects With Refractory Partial Epilepsy Completed NCT00908349 Phase 3 Oxcarbazepine XR
38 A Korean Open-label, Multi-center, Community-based Trial Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Levetiracetam as Adjunctive Therapy in Adult Subjects With Uncontrolled Partial Epilepsy for Bridging Purpose With a Similar Study on Caucasian Epileptic Subjects Completed NCT00160628 Phase 3 Levetiracetam
39 A Randomized, Comparative, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Multicenter, Monotherapy, Study Of Pregabalin (Lyrica) And Lamotrigine (Lamictal) In Patients With Newly Diagnosed Partial Seizures Completed NCT00280059 Phase 3 Pregabalin;Lamotrigine
40 A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized Study: 16-week Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Levetiracetam (LEV) as add-on Therapy in Adults and Adolescents Older Than 16 Years Suffering From Partial Seizures. Completed NCT00152373 Phase 3 Levetiracetam
41 Follow-up Study of L059 (Levetiracetam) in Epileptic Patients With Partial Onset Seizures by Open Label Method Completed NCT00160615 Phase 3 Levetiracetam
42 A Multi-Center, Open-Label, Long-Term, Follow-Up Study Of The Safety And Efficacy Of Levetiracetam (Ucb L059) In Children With Epilepsy Completed NCT00150709 Phase 3 Levetiracetam (Keppra)
43 Efficacy and Safety of BIA 2-093 as Adjunctive Therapy for Refractory Partial Seizures in a Double-blind, Randomised, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Multicentre Clinical Trial Completed NCT00957047 Phase 3 eslicarbazepine acetate;placebo;ESL - Part II
44 A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized Conversion to Monotherapy Comparison of Two Doses of Lamotrigine for the Treatment of Partial Seizures Completed NCT00355082 Phase 3 lamotrigine, 300 mg/day;lamotrigine, 250 mg/day
45 A Randomized, Multi-centre, Double-blind Study, to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of Zonisamide and Carbamazepine as Monotherapy, in Newly Diagnosed Partial Epilepsy Completed NCT00477295 Phase 3 Zonisamide;Carbamazepine
46 Prospective Pilot Study on Metabolism and Weight Changes in Subjects With Diagnosed Partial Onset Epilepsy, With or Without Secondarily Generalized Seizures and Treated With Topiramate. Completed NCT00236886 Phase 3 topiramate
47 A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter Study, With Optional Open-label Continuation, Of The Efficacy And Safety Of Vanquix(tm) Auto-injector (Diazepam Injection) For The Management Of Selected, Refractory, Patients With Epilepsy Who Require Intermittent Medical Intervention To Control Episodes Of Acute Repetitive Seizures Completed NCT00319501 Phase 3 Placebo;Vanquix Auto-Injector (Diazepam Injection)
48 Double-Blind, Randomized, Historical Control Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Eslicarbazepine Acetate Monotherapy in Subjects With Partial Epilepsy Not Well Controlled by Current Antiepileptic Drugs Completed NCT01091662 Phase 3 Eslicarbazepine acetate 1600 mg;Eslicarbazepine acetate 1200 mg
49 Double-Blind, Randomized, Historical Control Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Eslicarbazepine Acetate Monotherapy in Subjects With Partial Epilepsy Not Well Controlled by Current Antiepileptic Drugs Completed NCT00866775 Phase 3 Eslicarbazepine acetate;Eslicarbazepine acetate
50 Efficacy and Safety of BIA 2-093 as Adjunctive Therapy for Refractory Partial Seizures in a Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Multicenter Clinical Trial Completed NCT00957372 Phase 3 eslicarbazepine acetate;placebo (Part I);ESL - Open-label Extension (Part II)

Search NIH Clinical Center for Focal Epilepsy

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


clorazepate
Clorazepate Dipotassium
ezogabine
gabapentin
gabapentin enacarbil
lamotrigine
Levetiracetam
Lorazepam
Oxazepam
oxcarbazepine
Phenobarbital
Phenobarbital Sodium
Prazepam
tiagabine
Tiagabine hydrochloride
topiramate
zonisamide

Cochrane evidence based reviews: epilepsies, partial

Genetic Tests for Focal Epilepsy

Genetic tests related to Focal Epilepsy:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Focal Epilepsy 29

Anatomical Context for Focal Epilepsy

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Focal Epilepsy:

40
Brain, Temporal Lobe, Cortex, Testes, Amygdala, Heart, Thalamus

Publications for Focal Epilepsy

Articles related to Focal Epilepsy:

(show top 50) (show all 5920)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Disruption of LGI1-linked synaptic complex causes abnormal synaptic transmission and epilepsy. 61 54
20133599 2010
2
The 1674+11C>T polymorphism of CHRNA4 is associated with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. 61 54
19577488 2009
3
LGI1 mutations in autosomal dominant and sporadic lateral temporal epilepsy. 54 61
19191227 2009
4
A novel inherited mutation in the voltage sensor region of SCN1A is associated with Panayiotopoulos syndrome in siblings and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. 54 61
19339291 2009
5
Novel de novo splice-site mutation of SCN1A in a patient with partial epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. 54 61
18632234 2009
6
Cortical glucose metabolism correlates negatively with delta-slowing and spike-frequency in epilepsy associated with tuberous sclerosis. 61 54
17948886 2008
7
Penetrance of LGI1 mutations in autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. 61 54
18711109 2008
8
Expression profile of Lgi1 gene in mouse brain during development. 61 54
18563303 2008
9
Evaluation of epileptogenic networks in children with tuberous sclerosis complex using EEG-fMRI. 54 61
18177362 2008
10
Analysis of LGI1 promoter sequence, PDYN and GABBR1 polymorphisms in sporadic and familial lateral temporal lobe epilepsy. 54 61
18355961 2008
11
Focal epilepsy resulting from a de novo SCN1A mutation. 54 61
18330841 2007
12
A de novo LGI1 mutation causing idiopathic partial epilepsy with telephone-induced seizures. 54 61
17562837 2007
13
The epilepsy gene LGI1 encodes a secreted glycoprotein that binds to the cell surface. 61 54
17067999 2006
14
Epilepsy-related ligand/receptor complex LGI1 and ADAM22 regulate synaptic transmission. 54 61
16990550 2006
15
mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptor antagonists lack anticonvulsant efficacy in rodent models of difficult-to-treat partial epilepsy. 61 54
16563443 2006
16
Increased expression of LGI1 gene triggers growth inhibition and apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells. 54 61
16518856 2006
17
Mutations in GABRA1, GABRA5, GABRG2 and GABRD receptor genes are not a major factor in the pathogenesis of familial focal epilepsy preceded by febrile seizures. 54 61
16256272 2006
18
[Episodic ataxias]. 54 61
16100538 2005
19
ADPEAF mutations reduce levels of secreted LGI1, a putative tumor suppressor protein linked to epilepsy. 54 61
15857855 2005
20
Seizure-related short-term plasticity of benzodiazepine receptors in partial epilepsy: a [11C]flumazenil-PET study. 54 61
15758035 2005
21
Genetics of idiopathic epilepsies. 54 61
15816978 2005
22
A de novo LGI1 mutation in sporadic partial epilepsy with auditory features. 54 61
15349881 2004
23
LGI1 mutations in temporal lobe epilepsies. 54 61
15079010 2004
24
LGI1 mutations in autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. 54 61
15079011 2004
25
Association of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha4 polymorphisms with febrile convulsions. 61 54
12887442 2003
26
Correlation between GABA(A) receptor density and vagus nerve stimulation in individuals with drug-resistant partial epilepsy. 61 54
12948617 2003
27
Novel LGI1 mutation in a family with autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. 61 54
12771268 2003
28
Is central benzodiazepine receptor imaging useful for the identification of epileptogenic foci in localization-related epilepsies? 61 54
12552355 2003
29
alpha-[11C]-Methyl-L-tryptophan PET identifies the epileptogenic tuber and correlates with interictal spike frequency. 61 54
12536053 2003
30
Epilepsy surgery outcome in children with focal epilepsy due to tuberous sclerosis complex. 54 61
12536368 2002
31
Failure to replicate association between the gene for the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit (CHRNA4) and IGE. 54 61
11121188 2000
32
[Benzodiazepine receptor imaging in the brain: recent developments and clinical validity]. 61 54
10390953 1999
33
A novel mutation in the human voltage-gated potassium channel gene (Kv1.1) associates with episodic ataxia type 1 and sometimes with partial epilepsy. 61 54
10355668 1999
34
The localizing value of ictal SPECT in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and refractory partial epilepsy. 61 54
10937131 1999
35
Idiopathic epilepsies with a monogenic mode of inheritance. 61 54
10446744 1999
36
Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal-lobe epilepsy: genetic heterogeneity and evidence for a second locus at 15q24. 54 61
9758605 1998
37
Asymmetries of benzodiazepine receptor binding potential in the inferior medial temporal lobe and cerebellum detected with 123I-iomazenil SPECT in comparison with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in patients with partial epilepsy. 61 54
9795703 1998
38
Possible association of a silent polymorphism in the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha4 with common idiopathic generalized epilepsies. 54 61
9259383 1997
39
Benzodiazepine receptors in focal epilepsy with cortical dysgenesis: an 11C-flumazenil PET study. 54 61
8773600 1996
40
Localized cerebellar reductions in benzodiazepine receptor density in human partial epilepsy. 61 54
8929173 1996
41
L-deprenyl (selegiline) exerts anticonvulsant effects against different seizure types in mice. 54 61
8667204 1996
42
Evaluation of focal epilepsy: a SPECT scanning comparison of 123-I-iomazenil versus HM-PAO. 54 61
1317662 1992
43
Benzodiazepine receptors and cerebral blood flow in partial epilepsy. 61 54
1646108 1991
44
Impact on Clinical Decision Making of Next-Generation Sequencing in Pediatric Epilepsy in a Tertiary Epilepsy Referral Center. 61
31554424 2020
45
Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces seizure frequency in patients with refractory focal epilepsy: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, and three-arm parallel multicenter study. 61
31606448 2020
46
Repetitive miniature spikes - An underreported EEG pattern. 61
31751838 2020
47
Diagnostic added value of electrical source imaging in presurgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy: A prospective study. 61
31466846 2020
48
A skew-based method for identifying intracranial EEG channels with epileptic activity without detecting spikes, ripples, or fast ripples. 61
31805492 2020
49
Rhythmic ictal nonclonic hand (RINCH) motions in general EMU patients with focal epilepsy. 61
31848102 2019
50
Effectiveness and safety of perampanel as early add-on treatment in patients with epilepsy and focal seizures in the routine clinical practice: Spain prospective study (PERADON). 61
31812902 2019

Variations for Focal Epilepsy

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Focal Epilepsy:

6 (show all 12) ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 SCN1A NM_006920.6(SCN1A):c.4753C>T (p.Arg1585Cys)SNV Pathogenic 68553 rs121917993 2:166850722-166850722 2:165994212-165994212
2 CDKL5 NM_001323289.2(CDKL5):c.2641C>T (p.Gln881Ter)SNV Pathogenic 375523 rs1057519541 X:18646635-18646635 X:18628515-18628515
3 SPTAN1 NM_001130438.3(SPTAN1):c.6899_6907ACCAGCTGG[1] (p.2300_2302DQL[1])short repeat Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic 207380 rs587784440 9:131394551-131394559 9:128632272-128632280
4 NID1 NM_002508.3(NID1):c.3385+1G>ASNV Likely pathogenic 183319 rs730882225 1:236143795-236143795 1:235980495-235980495
5 MECP2 NM_004992.3(MECP2):c.915G>T (p.Lys305Asn)SNV Likely pathogenic 375525 rs1057519543 X:153296364-153296364 X:154030913-154030913
6 SCN2A NM_001040142.2(SCN2A):c.571T>G (p.Trp191Gly)SNV Likely pathogenic 375507 rs1057519525 2:166165270-166165270 2:165308760-165308760
7 GRIN2A NM_001134407.3(GRIN2A):c.3827C>G (p.Ala1276Gly)SNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 205679 rs145063086 16:9857574-9857574 16:9763717-9763717
8 SCN8A NM_014191.4(SCN8A):c.5630A>G (p.Asn1877Ser)SNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 130252 rs587780455 12:52200900-52200900 12:51807116-51807116
9 KCNT1 NM_020822.3(KCNT1):c.2882G>A (p.Arg961His)SNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 129360 rs200694691 9:138675910-138675910 9:135784064-135784064
10 SCN1A NM_006920.6(SCN1A):c.4595T>C (p.Phe1532Ser)SNV Uncertain significance 68550 rs121917992 2:166850880-166850880 2:165994370-165994370
11 CACNA1H NM_021098.3(CACNA1H):c.1546C>T (p.His516Tyr)SNV Uncertain significance 375538 rs1057519554 16:1251996-1251996 16:1201996-1201996
12 SCN1A NM_006920.6(SCN1A):c.4937G>A (p.Arg1646His)SNV not provided 68559 rs121917994 2:166848815-166848815 2:165992305-165992305

Expression for Focal Epilepsy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Focal Epilepsy.

Pathways for Focal Epilepsy

Pathways related to Focal Epilepsy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.25 SPTAN1 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A LGI1 GRIN2B
2
Show member pathways
12.73 GRIN2B GRIN2A GABRG2 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
3
Show member pathways
12.47 SCN1A GRIN2B GRIN2A CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CACNA1H
4
Show member pathways
12.32 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A KCNT1 GRIN2B GRIN2A
5 12.17 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A GRIN2B GRIN2A CNTNAP2
6
Show member pathways
11.77 SPTAN1 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A
7
Show member pathways
11.56 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
8
Show member pathways
11.51 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A
9
Show member pathways
10.75 TSPO GABRG2
10 10.73 SPTAN1 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A
11 10.62 GRIN2B GRIN2A GABRG2 CHRNB2 CHRNA4

GO Terms for Focal Epilepsy

Cellular components related to Focal Epilepsy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 19)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integral component of membrane GO:0016021 10.37 TSPO SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A KCNT1 GRIN2B
2 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.36 TBC1D24 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A KCNT1 GRIN2B
3 membrane GO:0016020 10.28 TSPO TBC1D24 SPTAN1 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A
4 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 10.06 SCN2A GRIN2B GRIN2A GABRG2 CHRNB2 CHRNA4
5 axon GO:0030424 9.91 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A GABRG2 CNTNAP2
6 neuron projection GO:0043005 9.91 GRIN2B GRIN2A GABRG2 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
7 glutamatergic synapse GO:0098978 9.88 SCN2A MTOR LGI1 GRIN2A CDKL5
8 synapse GO:0045202 9.86 LGI1 GRIN2B GRIN2A GABRG2 CHRNB2 CHRNA4
9 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.71 SCN2A CHRNB2 CHRNA4
10 postsynaptic membrane GO:0045211 9.63 GRIN2B GRIN2A GABRG2 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
11 axon initial segment GO:0043194 9.58 SCN8A SCN1A
12 acetylcholine-gated channel complex GO:0005892 9.58 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
13 dopaminergic synapse GO:0098691 9.57 CHRNB2 CHRNA4
14 NMDA selective glutamate receptor complex GO:0017146 9.55 GRIN2B GRIN2A
15 node of Ranvier GO:0033268 9.54 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A
16 sodium channel complex GO:0034706 9.52 SCN2A SCN1A
17 GATOR1 complex GO:1990130 9.49 NPRL2 DEPDC5
18 cell junction GO:0030054 9.32 TBC1D24 SCN8A LGI1 GRIN2B GRIN2A GABRG2
19 voltage-gated sodium channel complex GO:0001518 9.26 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A CACNA1H

Biological processes related to Focal Epilepsy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 30)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 brain development GO:0007420 9.93 MTOR GRIN2B GRIN2A CNTNAP2
2 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.91 GRIN2B GRIN2A GABRG2 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
3 regulation of ion transmembrane transport GO:0034765 9.86 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A CACNA1H
4 calcium ion transport GO:0006816 9.83 GRIN2A CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CACNA1H
5 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.82 GRIN2B GRIN2A CHRNB2
6 memory GO:0007613 9.8 SCN2A GRIN2A CHRNB2
7 learning GO:0007612 9.79 GRIN2A CNTNAP2 CHRNB2
8 sodium ion transmembrane transport GO:0035725 9.78 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A CACNA1H
9 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 9.77 GRIN2B GRIN2A CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
10 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.76 GRIN2A CHRNB2 CHRNA4
11 nervous system process GO:0050877 9.76 GABRG2 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
12 social behavior GO:0035176 9.75 MTOR CNTNAP2 CHRNB2
13 visual learning GO:0008542 9.74 MTOR GRIN2A CHRNB2
14 cellular response to amino acid starvation GO:0034198 9.72 NPRL2 MTOR DEPDC5
15 regulation of postsynaptic membrane potential GO:0060078 9.72 GRIN2A GABRG2 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
16 response to nicotine GO:0035094 9.71 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
17 neuronal action potential GO:0019228 9.71 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A CACNA1H
18 regulation of membrane potential GO:0042391 9.7 SCN1A GRIN2A GABRG2 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
19 neuromuscular synaptic transmission GO:0007274 9.69 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
20 synaptic transmission, cholinergic GO:0007271 9.67 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
21 positive regulation of glial cell proliferation GO:0060252 9.64 TSPO MTOR
22 action potential GO:0001508 9.64 CHRNB2 CHRNA4
23 glutamate receptor signaling pathway GO:0007215 9.63 GRIN2B GRIN2A
24 acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway GO:0095500 9.62 CHRNB2 CHRNA4
25 excitatory chemical synaptic transmission GO:0098976 9.61 GRIN2B GRIN2A
26 ion transmembrane transport GO:0034220 9.61 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A GRIN2A GABRG2 CHRNB2
27 calcium ion transmembrane import into cytosol GO:0097553 9.6 GRIN2B GRIN2A
28 behavioral response to nicotine GO:0035095 9.59 CHRNB2 CHRNA4
29 membrane depolarization during action potential GO:0086010 9.56 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A CACNA1H
30 ion transport GO:0006811 9.4 TSPO SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A KCNT1 GRIN2B

Molecular functions related to Focal Epilepsy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 14)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 voltage-gated ion channel activity GO:0005244 9.78 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A CACNA1H
2 sodium channel activity GO:0005272 9.63 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A
3 extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity GO:0005230 9.62 GABRG2 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
4 acetylcholine binding GO:0042166 9.61 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
5 acetylcholine-gated cation-selective channel activity GO:0022848 9.58 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
6 transmitter-gated ion channel activity involved in regulation of postsynaptic membrane potential GO:1904315 9.56 GRIN2B GRIN2A GABRG2 CHRNB2
7 ionotropic glutamate receptor activity GO:0004970 9.54 GRIN2B GRIN2A
8 acetylcholine receptor activity GO:0015464 9.54 CHRNB2 CHRNA4 CHRNA2
9 benzodiazepine receptor activity GO:0008503 9.52 TSPO GABRG2
10 NMDA glutamate receptor activity GO:0004972 9.51 GRIN2B GRIN2A
11 glutamate-gated calcium ion channel activity GO:0022849 9.49 GRIN2B GRIN2A
12 ligand-gated ion channel activity GO:0015276 9.46 GRIN2B GRIN2A CHRNB2 CHRNA4
13 ion channel activity GO:0005216 9.32 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A GRIN2B GRIN2A GABRG2
14 voltage-gated sodium channel activity GO:0005248 9.26 SCN8A SCN2A SCN1A CACNA1H

Sources for Focal Epilepsy

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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