Aliases & Classifications for Galactorrhea

MalaCards integrated aliases for Galactorrhea:

Name: Galactorrhea 57 73 36 29 70
Galactorrhea Not Associated with Childbirth 70
Galactorrhea Associated with Childbirth 70

Characteristics:

OMIM®:

57 (Updated 20-May-2021)
Inheritance:
autosomal recessive


HPO:

31
galactorrhea:
Inheritance autosomal recessive inheritance


External Ids:

OMIM® 57 230300
KEGG 36 H01607
MedGen 41 C3665358
SNOMED-CT via HPO 68 258211005 287085006 42030000
UMLS 70 C0235660 C0269995 C3665358

Summaries for Galactorrhea

KEGG : 36 Galactorrhea is a discharge of milk or a milk-like secretion from the breast in the absence of parturition or beyond six months' post-partum in a nonbreastfeeding woman. The condition is more common in women who are 20 to 35 years of age and in previously parous women. It is less common in children and nulligravid women. Galactorrhea also can occur in men. After infancy, galactorrhea usually is medication-induced. The most common pathologic cause of galactorrhea is a pituitary tumor. Other causes include hypothalamic and pituitary stalk lesions, neurogenic stimulation, thyroid disorders, and chronic renal failure. Tests for pregnancy, serum prolactin level and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level, and magnetic resonance imaging are important diagnostic tools that should be employed when clinically indicated. The decision to treat patients with galactorrhea is based on the serum prolactin level, the severity of galactorrhea, and the patient's fertility desires. Dopamine agonists are the treatment of choice in most patients with hyperprolactinemic disorders. Medications causing hyperprolactinemia should be discontinued or replaced with a medication from a similar class with lower potential for causing hyperprolactinemia. For women who cannot breastfeed after childbirth for some reasons, various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions have been used to suppress lactation and relieve associated symptoms. Pharmacological options mainly involve dopamine agonist medications.

MalaCards based summary : Galactorrhea, also known as galactorrhea not associated with childbirth, is related to amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia, and has symptoms including nipple discharge, signs and symptoms in breast and female endocrine problem. An important gene associated with Galactorrhea is PRL (Prolactin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and ErbB4 Pathway. The drugs Zinc and Radiopharmaceuticals have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, thyroid and breast, and related phenotypes are galactorrhea and abnormality of the genitourinary system

Wikipedia : 73 Galactorrhea (also spelled galactorrhoea) (galacto- + -rrhea) or lactorrhea (lacto- + -rrhea) is the... more...

More information from OMIM: 230300

Related Diseases for Galactorrhea

Diseases related to Galactorrhea via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 244)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 amenorrhea 31.5 PRL IGF1
2 hyperprolactinemia 31.2 PRLR PRL IGF1 DRD2
3 pituitary adenoma, prolactin-secreting 31.2 PRL IGF1 DRD2
4 pituitary tumors 31.0 PRL IGF1
5 chromophobe adenoma 30.4 PRLR PRL
6 empty sella syndrome 30.4 PRL IGF1
7 pituitary adenoma 30.3 PRL IGF1 DRD2
8 acromegaly 30.2 PRLR PRL IGF1
9 pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 2 30.1 PRL IGF1
10 anovulation 30.1 PRL IGF1
11 hypopituitarism 30.1 PRL IGF1
12 craniopharyngioma 30.1 PRL IGF1
13 pituitary apoplexy 30.0 PRL IGF1
14 hyperpituitarism 30.0 PRL IGF1
15 hyperthyroidism 29.9 PRL IGF1
16 goiter 29.8 PRL IGF1
17 mental depression 29.7 DRD2 CYP2D6
18 growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma 29.7 PRL IGF1
19 prolactin producing pituitary tumor 29.7 PRL DRD2
20 mccune-albright syndrome 29.6 PRL IGF1
21 pituitary gland disease 29.6 PRL IGF1 DRD2
22 neuroleptic malignant syndrome 29.3 DRD2 CYP2D6
23 premature menopause 29.3 PRLR PRL IGF1
24 sexual disorder 29.1 PRL IGF1 CYP2D6
25 bipolar disorder 29.1 PRL IGF1 DRD2
26 migraine with or without aura 1 29.0 PRL DRD2 CYP2D6
27 major depressive disorder 28.9 PRL DRD2 CYP2D6
28 obsessive-compulsive disorder 28.8 PRL IGF1 DRD2 CYP2D6
29 dystonia 28.8 PRL DRD2 CYP2D6
30 galactorrhoea-hyperprolactinaemia 11.1
31 amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome 11.1
32 ahumada del castillo syndrome 11.1
33 hypothyroidism 10.6
34 adenoma 10.5
35 infant gynecomastia 10.4
36 gynecomastia 10.4
37 infertility 10.2
38 diabetes insipidus 10.2
39 hypoglycemia 10.1
40 lipid-rich breast carcinoma 10.1 PRLR PRL
41 sarcoidosis 1 10.1
42 hypogonadism 10.1
43 acidophil adenoma 10.1 PRL IGF1
44 breast adenoma 10.1 PRLR PRL
45 pituitary infarct 10.1 PRL IGF1
46 sheehan syndrome 10.1 PRL IGF1
47 hormone producing pituitary cancer 10.1 PRL IGF1
48 partial third-nerve palsy 10.1 PRL IGF1
49 pituitary adenoma 1, multiple types 10.1 PRL IGF1
50 androgenic alopecia 10.1 PRL IGF1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Galactorrhea:



Diseases related to Galactorrhea

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Galactorrhea

Human phenotypes related to Galactorrhea:

31
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 galactorrhea 31 HP:0100829
2 abnormality of the genitourinary system 31 HP:0000119
3 abnormal thorax morphology 31 HP:0000765

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 20-May-2021)
Thorax:
nonpuerperal galactorrhea

G U:
oligoovulation

Clinical features from OMIM®:

230300 (Updated 20-May-2021)

UMLS symptoms related to Galactorrhea:


nipple discharge; signs and symptoms in breast; female endocrine problem; discharge, nipple, female

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Galactorrhea:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neoplasm MP:0002006 8.92 DRD2 IGF1 PRL PRLR

Drugs & Therapeutics for Galactorrhea

Drugs for Galactorrhea (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):


# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Zinc Approved, Investigational 7440-66-6 32051
2 Radiopharmaceuticals
3 Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Phase 2 Study of Recombinant Human Prolactin Efficacy and Safety Completed NCT00438490 Phase 2 Recombinant Human Prolactin
2 Benefit of a Diagnostic MRI in Case of Pathological Nipple Discharge With Normal Mammography / Ultrasound. Unknown status NCT02819362
3 Enhancing Breastfeeding Initiation, Exclusivity, and Duration: Effects of Prenatal Lactation-Focused Motivational Interviewing Unknown status NCT03033459
4 Molecular Breast Imaging: Evaluation of a New Technique Using Scintimammography as an Additional Diagnostic Tool for Women Presenting With a History of Bloody Nipple Discharge and Negative Routine Imaging Studies - A Pilot Study Completed NCT00566280
5 Feasibility and Therapeutic Efficacy of Ductoscopic Papilloma Extraction in Patients With Pathologic Nipple Discharge Active, not recruiting NCT01901562
6 Role of Contrast Enhanced Digital Mammography in Female Patients With Pathological Nipple Discharge Not yet recruiting NCT04651257
7 Diagnostic Utility of MRI in Female Patients With Nipple Discharge: A Prospective Trial Terminated NCT02818946

Search NIH Clinical Center for Galactorrhea

Genetic Tests for Galactorrhea

Genetic tests related to Galactorrhea:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Galactorrhea 29

Anatomical Context for Galactorrhea

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Galactorrhea:

40
Pituitary, Thyroid, Breast, Ovary, Brain, Kidney, Myeloid

Publications for Galactorrhea

Articles related to Galactorrhea:

(show top 50) (show all 1708)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Familial galactorrhea in three sisters with oligo-ovulation. 57 61
5819452 1969
2
Galactorrhea during antipsychotic treatment: results from AMSP, a drug surveillance program, between 1993 and 2015. 61
33768297 2021
3
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 revealed by a hip pathologic fracture. 61
32666178 2021
4
Galactorrhea/Galactocele After Breast Augmentation: A Systematic Review. 61
32079808 2021
5
Prolactin and Estrogen Levels in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Aripiprazole Augmentation Treatment for Depression. 61
33347020 2021
6
Ophthalmic Manifestations of Rathke's Cleft Cyst and Its Association to Radiological Characteristics. 61
33305644 2020
7
Hyperprolactinemic Galactorrhea Associated With Cefpodoxime in a Patient With Recurrent Depressive Disorder on Venlafaxine Monotherapy: A Case Report. 61
33065718 2020
8
Pituitary Gangliocytoma Producing TSH and TRH: A Review of "Gangliocytomas of the Sellar Region". 61
32706866 2020
9
Role of hypothyroidism and associated pathways in pregnancy and infertility: Clinical insights. 61
33163375 2020
10
Serial prolactin sampling as a confirmatory test for true hyperprolactinemia. 61
32113859 2020
11
[BREAST PLASTIC SURGERY - CHALLENGES AND INNOVATIONS BREAST SURGERY EDITORIAL]. 61
32955814 2020
12
Very late recurrence of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia masquerading as a pituitary tumor. 61
32299275 2020
13
Risks associated with vortioxetine in the established therapeutic indication. 61
32811416 2020
14
Clinical validation of the self-reported Glasgow Antipsychotic Side-effect Scale using the clinician-rated UKU side-effect scale as gold standard reference. 61
32500804 2020
15
Incidentally detected sellar spine in a patient with Cushing's syndrome: a case report. 61
32672486 2020
16
Rapid and Sustained Resolution of Risperidone Associated Hyperprolactinemia and Galactorrhea With Low-Dose Lurasidone. 61
32555004 2020
17
Comprehensive treatment of rare multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: A case report. 61
32607345 2020
18
Recurring Primary Xanthomatous Hypophysitis Behaving Like Pituitary Adenoma: Additional Case and Literature Review. 61
32081821 2020
19
Do nothing but observe microprolactinomas: when and how to replace sex hormones? 61
32274622 2020
20
Non-functioning pituitary adenomas and pregnancy: one-center experience and review of the literature. 61
32267360 2020
21
A 30-year-old woman with galactorrhea. 61
32392501 2020
22
Ectopic Prolactin Secretion From a Uterine Leiomyoma. 61
32296740 2020
23
Galactorrhea Following Minimally Invasive Reoperative Mitral Valve Replacement: An Unexpected Complication. 61
32352899 2020
24
Pathology of prolactinomas: any predictive value? 61
31641970 2020
25
Gender differences and temporal trends over two decades in acromegaly: a single center study in 112 patients. 61
31677093 2020
26
Pituitary inflammatory pseudotumor with amenorrhea, polyuria, and impaired vision: case report and review of the literature. 61
32355527 2020
27
Clinical, Hormonal, and Neuroradiological Characteristics and Therapeutic Outcomes of Prolactinomas in Children and Adolescents at a Single Center. 61
32849307 2020
28
[Duloxetine Associated Galactorrhea and Hyperprolactinemia: A Case Report]. 61
33454942 2020
29
Bucillamine-induced gigantomastia with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinaemia. 61
33086961 2020
30
Ranitidine-induced galactorrhea: Exploring the intricacies. 61
32110639 2020
31
Fluvoxamine-Associated Galactorrhea: A Case Report. 61
31804454 2020
32
Proton Pump Inhibitor-Induced Galactorrhea in a Kidney Transplant Recipient: A Friend or Foe? 61
32566351 2020
33
Galactorrhea Induced by Risperidone. 61
31366801 2019
34
Probable Galactorrhea Associated with Sequential Trials of Escitalopram and Duloxetine in an Adolescent Female. 61
31339744 2019
35
Acidophil stem cell pituitary adenoma: a case report and literature review. 61
31721135 2019
36
Spontaneously Regressed Rathke's Cleft Cyst. 61
31064038 2019
37
Idiopathic granulomatous hypophysitis presenting with galactorrhea, headache, and nausea in a woman: a case report and review of the literature. 61
31731892 2019
38
Bromocriptine as a Potential Glucose-lowering Agent for the Treatment of Prolactinoma with Type 2 Diabetes. 61
31243214 2019
39
Fetal Death Associated With Premature Mammary Gland Development and Lactation in a Mare Treated With Weekly Injections of Long-Acting Progesterone. 61
31668309 2019
40
Extraordinary case presentations in pediatric pituitary adenoma: report of 6 cases. 61
31604323 2019
41
VENUS BY BOTTICELLI AND HER PITUITARY ADENOMA. 61
31170360 2019
42
A registry of acromegaly patients and one year following up in Taiwan. 61
30612883 2019
43
AN UNEXPECTED COMBINATION OF PROLACTINOMA AND SEPTO-OPTIC DYSPLASIA. 61
31967053 2019
44
Ranitidine-induced galactorrhea in a postmenopausal female. 61
31681696 2019
45
Galactorrhea Following Silicone Breast Implant Placement 61
31474012 2019
46
Factors associated with spontaneous abortion following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). 61
31056891 2019
47
Amenorrhea: A Systematic Approach to Diagnosis and Management. 61
31259490 2019
48
Euprolactinemic Galactorrhea with Paroxetine: Exploring the Missing Link. 61
31391677 2019
49
Prolactin and human weight disturbances: A puzzling and neglected association. 61
31062250 2019
50
The Intriguing Case of a Double Pituitary Adenoma. 61
30898745 2019

Variations for Galactorrhea

Expression for Galactorrhea

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Galactorrhea.

Pathways for Galactorrhea

Pathways related to Galactorrhea according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.38 PRLR PRL IGF1
2
Show member pathways
12.13 PRLR PRL IGF1
3
Show member pathways
11.36 PRLR PRL
4 10.85 PRLR PRL
5
Show member pathways
10.57 PRLR PRL
6 9.92 PRL DRD2

GO Terms for Galactorrhea

Cellular components related to Galactorrhea according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endosome lumen GO:0031904 8.62 PRLR PRL

Biological processes related to Galactorrhea according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 9.43 PRLR PRL IGF1
2 lactation GO:0007595 9.16 PRLR PRL
3 regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040014 8.96 PRL IGF1
4 JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathway GO:0060397 8.62 PRLR PRL

Molecular functions related to Galactorrhea according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hormone activity GO:0005179 8.62 PRL IGF1

Sources for Galactorrhea

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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