MCID: GLC096
MIFTS: 40

Galactorrhea

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Aliases & Classifications for Galactorrhea

MalaCards integrated aliases for Galactorrhea:

Name: Galactorrhea 57 75 28 71
Galactorrhea Not Associated with Childbirth 71
Galactorrhea Associated with Childbirth 71

Characteristics:


Inheritance:

Autosomal recessive 57

External Ids:

OMIM® 57 230300
MedGen 40 C3665358
SNOMED-CT via HPO 69 287085006 42030000
UMLS 71 C0235660 C0269995 C3665358

Summaries for Galactorrhea

MalaCards based summary: Galactorrhea, also known as galactorrhea not associated with childbirth, is related to amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia, and has symptoms including nipple discharge, signs and symptoms in breast and female endocrine problem. An important gene associated with Galactorrhea is PRL (Prolactin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Signaling by ERBB4. The drugs Zinc cation and Iodine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include breast, pituitary and thyroid, and related phenotypes are galactorrhea and abnormality of the genitourinary system

Wikipedia: 75 Galactorrhea (also spelled galactorrhoea) (galacto- + -rrhea) or lactorrhea (lacto- + -rrhea) is the... more...

More information from OMIM: 230300

Related Diseases for Galactorrhea

Diseases related to Galactorrhea via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 261)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 amenorrhea 31.3 PRL IGF1
2 hyperprolactinemia 31.1 PRLR PRL IGF1 DRD2
3 pituitary tumors 30.7 PRL IGF1
4 prolactinoma 30.7 PRLR PRL IGF1 DRD2
5 gynecomastia 30.6 PRL DRD2
6 pituitary adenoma 30.4 PRL IGF1 DRD2
7 chromophobe adenoma 30.4 PRLR PRL
8 empty sella syndrome 30.2 PRL IGF1
9 mccune-albright syndrome 30.2 PRL IGF1
10 central diabetes insipidus 30.1 PRL IGF1
11 acromegaly 30.0 PRLR PRL IGF1
12 pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 2 29.9 PRL IGF1
13 hypopituitarism 29.9 PRL IGF1
14 craniopharyngioma 29.9 PRL IGF1
15 impotence 29.8 PRL CYP2D6
16 hyperthyroidism 29.7 PRL IGF1
17 hypothalamic disease 29.7 PRL IGF1
18 pituitary adenoma 1, multiple types 29.7 PRL IGF1
19 pituitary apoplexy 29.7 PRL IGF1
20 paranoid schizophrenia 29.7 PRL DRD2
21 hyperpituitarism 29.7 PRL IGF1
22 psychotic disorder 29.6 PRL DRD2 CYP2D6
23 neuroleptic malignant syndrome 29.6 DRD2 CYP2D6
24 anovulation 29.6 PRL IGF1 DRD2
25 goiter 29.6 PRL IGF1
26 obsessive-compulsive disorder 29.5 PRL DRD2 CYP2D6
27 growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma 29.4 PRL IGF1
28 meningioma, familial 29.4 PRLR PRL IGF1
29 major depressive disorder 29.4 PRL DRD2 CYP2D6
30 pituitary cancer 29.3 PRL IGF1 DRD2
31 dystonia 29.3 PRL DRD2 CYP2D6
32 pituitary gland disease 29.3 PRLR PRL IGF1 DRD2
33 migraine with or without aura 1 29.2 PRL DRD2 CYP2D6
34 prolactin producing pituitary tumor 29.1 PRL IGF1 DRD2
35 premature menopause 29.0 PRLR PRL IGF1
36 bipolar disorder 29.0 PRL IGF1 DRD2
37 functioning pituitary adenoma 28.9 PRLR PRL IGF1 DRD2
38 galactorrhoea-hyperprolactinaemia 11.5
39 ahumada del castillo syndrome 11.2
40 amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome 11.2
41 tsh producing pituitary tumor 11.0
42 pituitary deficiency due to empty sella turcica syndrome 10.9
43 functioning gonadotropic adenoma 10.9
44 pituitary deficiency due to rathke cleft cysts 10.9
45 hypothyroidism 10.6
46 adenoma 10.5
47 hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 2 10.4
48 hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 3 10.4
49 thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency 10.4
50 hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 1 10.4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Galactorrhea:



Diseases related to Galactorrhea

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Galactorrhea

Human phenotypes related to Galactorrhea:

30
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 galactorrhea 30 HP:0100829
2 abnormality of the genitourinary system 30 HP:0000119
3 abnormal thorax morphology 30 HP:0000765

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
Thorax:
nonpuerperal galactorrhea

G U:
oligoovulation

Clinical features from OMIM®:

230300 (Updated 08-Dec-2022)

UMLS symptoms related to Galactorrhea:


nipple discharge; signs and symptoms in breast; female endocrine problem; discharge, nipple, female

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Galactorrhea:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.26 DRD2 IGF1 PRL PRLR
2 integument MP:0010771 9.02 CYP2D6 DRD2 IGF1 PRL PRLR

Drugs & Therapeutics for Galactorrhea

Drugs for Galactorrhea (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):


# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Zinc cation Approved, Experimental, Investigational 7440-66-6, 23713-49-7 32051
2
Iodine Approved, Investigational 7553-56-2 807
3
Cadexomer iodine Experimental 94820-09-4
4 Radiopharmaceuticals
5 Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Role of Contrast Enhanced Digital Mammography in Female Patients With Pathological Nipple Discharge Unknown status NCT04651257
2 Benefit of a Diagnostic MRI in Case of Pathological Nipple Discharge With Normal Mammography / Ultrasound. Unknown status NCT02819362
3 Enhancing Breastfeeding Initiation, Exclusivity, and Duration: Effects of Prenatal Lactation-Focused Motivational Interviewing Completed NCT03033459
4 Molecular Breast Imaging: Evaluation of a New Technique Using Scintimammography as an Additional Diagnostic Tool for Women Presenting With a History of Bloody Nipple Discharge and Negative Routine Imaging Studies - A Pilot Study Completed NCT00566280
5 Contrast Enhanced Spectral Mammography (CESM) for the Evaluation of Pathologic Nipple Discharge: A Pilot Study Recruiting NCT05056844 Iodinated Contrast Agent
6 Feasibility and Therapeutic Efficacy of Ductoscopic Papilloma Extraction in Patients With Pathologic Nipple Discharge Active, not recruiting NCT01901562
7 Diagnostic Utility of MRI in Female Patients With Nipple Discharge: A Prospective Trial Terminated NCT02818946

Search NIH Clinical Center for Galactorrhea

Genetic Tests for Galactorrhea

Genetic tests related to Galactorrhea:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Galactorrhea 28

Anatomical Context for Galactorrhea

Organs/tissues related to Galactorrhea:

MalaCards : Breast, Pituitary, Thyroid, Ovary, Spinal Cord, Kidney, Salivary Gland

Publications for Galactorrhea

Articles related to Galactorrhea:

(show top 50) (show all 1745)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Familial galactorrhea in three sisters with oligo-ovulation. 62 57
5819452 1969
2
A rare cause of galactorrhea in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: pituitary stalk compression by an intracranial aneurysm. 62
36468198 2022
3
Management of Nipple Discharge. 62
36335926 2022
4
Venlafaxine-related galactorrhea in an adolescent female: A case report. 62
36064232 2022
5
Epidemiological and clinical profiles of Saudi patients with hyperprolactinemia in a single tertiary care center. 62
36252148 2022
6
Update in Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Therapy of Prolactinoma. 62
35892862 2022
7
Idiopathic granulomatous hypophysitis mimicking adenoma. 62
35779888 2022
8
25-Hydroxyvitamin D and metabolic-related laboratory values in women with schizophrenia and hyperprolactinemia. 62
35429802 2022
9
Mild hyperprolactinemia in a couple: What impact on fertility? 62
35525260 2022
10
Galactorrhea After Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy: Case Report, Review of the Literature, and Algorithmic Approach to Management. 62
34724440 2022
11
Omeprazole-induced galactorrhea in kidney transplant patients-a case report. 62
35339194 2022
12
Disposable and cost-effective label-free electrochemical immunosensor for prolactin based on bismuth sulfide nanorods with polypyrrole. 62
34563856 2022
13
Effects of Prokinetics on the Digestive Tract. 62
34455950 2022
14
Gynecomastia with rare granulomatous lobular mastitis: a case report and literature review. 62
35098766 2022
15
Severe Hyperprolactinemia during Lurasidone Treatment in a 16-year Old Girl with Schizophrenia - A Case Report. 62
35903553 2022
16
Review of Ethnobotanical and Ethnopharmacological Evidence of Some Ethiopian Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used for Peptic Ulcer Disease Treatment. 62
36186925 2022
17
Nipple Eczema Causing Galactorrhea by Reactive Hyperprolactinemia, Complicated by a Galactocele. 62
35059599 2022
18
A rare endocrinological complication of chronic kidney disease. 62
35611427 2022
19
Galactorrhea during antipsychotic treatment: results from AMSP, a drug surveillance program, between 1993 and 2015. 62
33768297 2021
20
Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone in a subject with galactorrhea and menstrual disorder and undergoing infertility treatment: Case report. 62
34967378 2021
21
Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica): An Unusual Case of Galactorrhea. 62
34876549 2021
22
Drug-induced gynecomastia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. 62
34933535 2021
23
Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas. 62
34718111 2021
24
Prolactinomas. 62
34687915 2021
25
Giant plurihormonal pituitary adenoma in a child - case study. 62
34284528 2021
26
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced galactorrhea with hyperprolactinemia. 62
35136264 2021
27
Hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea with duloxetine in neuropathic pain management. 62
34671951 2021
28
Establishment of reference intervals of monomeric prolactin to identify macroprolactinemia in Chinese patients with increased total prolactin. 62
34620143 2021
29
Ophthalmic Manifestations of Rathke's Cleft Cyst and Its Association to Radiological Characteristics. 62
33305644 2021
30
Prolactin Assay Interference by Macroprolactin. 62
34258986 2021
31
Non-functioning pituitary adenomas and pregnancy: one-center experience and review of the literature. 62
34033303 2021
32
NEUROLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF PROLACTINOMA (CASE REPORT). 62
34248039 2021
33
Galactorrhea and Galactocele after Breast Augmentation: Diagnosis and Treatment Algorithm. 62
33885442 2021
34
A case report on azathioprine-induced euprolactinemic galactorrhea. 62
34169910 2021
35
Pseudocyesis Leading to Folie-à-Deux. 62
33927534 2021
36
Prolactin and Other Pituitary Disorders in Kidney Disease. 62
34140094 2021
37
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 revealed by a hip pathologic fracture. 62
32666178 2021
38
Sertraline Induced Oromandibular Dystonia and Galactorrhea: A Case Report. 62
34185745 2021
39
A rare side effect of levosulpiride: Galactorrhea. 62
33976003 2021
40
Galactorrhea/Galactocele After Breast Augmentation: A Systematic Review. 62
32079808 2021
41
Prolactin-Secreting Leiomyoma Causing Hyperprolactinaemia Unresponsive to Dopamine Agonist Therapy and Resolution following Myomectomy. 62
34540295 2021
42
Risks Associated with Vortioxetine in the Established Therapeutic Indication. 62
32811416 2021
43
Prolactin and Estrogen Levels in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Aripiprazole Augmentation Treatment for Depression. 62
33347020 2021
44
Surgical outcome of trans-sphenoidal approach to pituitary adenoma in adult patients: 10 years experience in northwest of Iran. 62
34291012 2021
45
Hyperprolactinemic Galactorrhea Associated With Cefpodoxime in a Patient With Recurrent Depressive Disorder on Venlafaxine Monotherapy: A Case Report. 62
33065718 2020
46
Role of hypothyroidism and associated pathways in pregnancy and infertility: Clinical insights. 62
33163375 2020
47
Pituitary Gangliocytoma Producing TSH and TRH: A Review of "Gangliocytomas of the Sellar Region". 62
32706866 2020
48
Serial prolactin sampling as a confirmatory test for true hyperprolactinemia. 62
32113859 2020
49
[BREAST PLASTIC SURGERY - CHALLENGES AND INNOVATIONS BREAST SURGERY EDITORIAL]. 62
32955814 2020
50
Very late recurrence of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia masquerading as a pituitary tumor. 62
32299275 2020

Variations for Galactorrhea

Expression for Galactorrhea

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Galactorrhea.

Pathways for Galactorrhea

GO Terms for Galactorrhea

Cellular components related to Galactorrhea according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endosome lumen GO:0031904 8.92 PRLR PRL

Biological processes related to Galactorrhea according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein kinase B signaling GO:0043491 9.46 IGF1 DRD2
2 lactation GO:0007595 9.26 PRLR PRL
3 regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040014 8.92 PRL IGF1

Sources for Galactorrhea

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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