Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER)

Categories: Cancer diseases, Gastrointestinal diseases, Oral diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Gastroesophageal Reflux

MalaCards integrated aliases for Gastroesophageal Reflux:

Name: Gastroesophageal Reflux 56 12 74 29 13 6 43 15
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease 56 12 36 54 15 17 71
Gerd 56 12 42
Gerd - Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease 12
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease; Gerd 56
Gastroesophageal Reflux, Pediatric 56
Gastro-Esophageal Reflux 12
Gastresophageal Reflux 12
Acid Reflux 12
Ger 56



autosomal dominant


gastroesophageal reflux:
Inheritance autosomal dominant inheritance


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:8534
OMIM 56 109350
KEGG 36 H01602
ICD9CM 34 530.81
MeSH 43 D005764
NCIt 49 C26781
SNOMED-CT 67 235595009
ICD10 32 K21.9
MedGen 41 C0017168
UMLS 71 C0017168

Summaries for Gastroesophageal Reflux

KEGG : 36 Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which reflux of the stomach contents into the oesophagus results in symptoms or, occasionally, complications. GERD can be classified as non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) or erosive reflux disease (ERD) based on the presence or absence of esophageal mucosal damage seen on endoscopy. ERD can manifest in a wide range of symptoms which can be subdivided into typical, atypical, and extraesophageal symptoms. Typical symptoms include heartburn and acid regurgitation which have high specificity but low sensitivity for GERD. Atypical symptoms such as epigastric pain, dyspepsia, nausea, bloating, and belching may be suggestive of GERD but may overlap with other conditions in the differential diagnosis. Lastly, there are various extraesophageal symptoms including chronic cough, asthma, laryngitis, and dental erosions. In a small but important minority, complications of peptic oesophagitis may occur including oesophageal strictures, Barrett's oesophagus, and rarely oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Hiatus hernia is statistically associated with GERD, the presence of which is relevant to surgical treatment. The diagnosis is typically made by a combination of clinical symptoms, response to acid suppression, as well as objective testing with upper endoscopy and esophageal pH monitoring. GERD is a chronic disease that typically requires long term management in the form of lifestyle modification, medical therapy and, for a subset of patients, surgical therapy. The mainstay of treatment is acid suppression which can be achieved with several classes of medications including antacids, histamine-receptor antagonists (H2RAs), or proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs).

MalaCards based summary : Gastroesophageal Reflux, also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease, is related to hernia, hiatus and gastroparesis, and has symptoms including nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain and constipation. An important gene associated with Gastroesophageal Reflux is CHAT (Choline O-Acetyltransferase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Shigellosis. The drugs Valproic acid and Olanzapine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, lung and liver, and related phenotypes are gastroesophageal reflux and esophagitis

OMIM : 56 Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is characterized by the retrograde movement of stomach contents into the esophagus. In its most severe form, GER results in extensive tissue damage caused by acid reflux. In adolescents and adults, and even infrequently in children, chronic GER is associated with the risk of developing Barrett metaplasia (614266), a premalignant lesion of the esophageal mucosa (Hu et al., 2000). In turn, Barrett metaplasia is correlated with the development of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (see 614266), estimated as the fifth most prevalent neoplasia in the Western world (Lagergren et al., 1999). (109350)

MedlinePlus : 42 Your esophagus is the tube that carries food from your mouth to your stomach. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) happens when a muscle at the end of your esophagus does not close properly. This allows stomach contents to leak back, or reflux, into the esophagus and irritate it. You may feel a burning in the chest or throat called heartburn. Sometimes, you can taste stomach fluid in the back of the mouth. If you have these symptoms more than twice a week, you may have GERD. You can also have GERD without having heartburn. Your symptoms could include a dry cough, asthma symptoms, or trouble swallowing. Anyone, including infants and children, can have GERD. If not treated, it can lead to more serious health problems. In some cases, you might need medicines or surgery. However, many people can improve their symptoms by Avoiding alcohol and spicy, fatty or acidic foods that trigger heartburn Eating smaller meals Not eating close to bedtime Losing weight if needed Wearing loose-fitting clothes NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Wikipedia : 74 Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition in which... more...

Related Diseases for Gastroesophageal Reflux

Diseases related to Gastroesophageal Reflux via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 754)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hernia, hiatus 33.7 HRH2 GHRL GAST CYP2C19
2 gastroparesis 33.4 MLN GHRL GAST CCK
3 peptic esophagitis 33.1 TNF MLN IL1B HRH2 GAST CYP2C19
4 esophagitis 32.7 TP53 TNF MLN IL1B HRH2 GAST
5 laryngitis 32.5 TNF IL1B HRH2
6 helicobacter pylori infection 32.4 IL1B GAST CYP2C19 CXCL8
7 achalasia 32.3 TP53 TNF GAST CHAT
8 sleep apnea 32.1 TNF IL1B GHRL CXCL8
9 bile reflux 32.0 GAST CDX2 CCK
10 pharyngitis 31.8 TNF IL1B CXCL8
11 leptin deficiency or dysfunction 31.8 TNF PYY GHRL GCG CCK
12 gastrointestinal ulceration, recurrent, with dysfunctional platelets 31.8 PTGS1 HRH2 GAST
13 sudden infant death syndrome 31.8 TNF IL1B CXCL8 CHAT
14 asthma 31.7 TNF PTGS1 IL1B HRH2 GHRL CXCL8
15 irritable bowel syndrome 31.7 TNF PYY MLN IL1B GHRL CXCL8
16 systemic scleroderma 31.6 TNF MLN IL1B HRH2 GAST
17 duodenogastric reflux 31.6 PYY NTS MLN GAST CCK
18 rhinitis 31.6 TNF PTGS1 IL1B CXCL8
19 gastrointestinal system disease 31.6 MLN GHRL GCG GAST CCK
20 peptic ulcer disease 31.6 TP53 TNF PTGS1 IL1B HRH2 GHRL
21 sleep disorder 31.6 TNF IL1B GHRL
22 duodenal ulcer 31.6 TNF MLN IL1B HRH2 GAST CYP2C19
23 aspiration pneumonitis 31.5 TNF HRH2 CXCL8
24 volvulus of midgut 31.5 PYY MLN GCG
25 apnea, obstructive sleep 31.5 TNF IL1B GHRL GCG CXCL8
26 anxiety 31.4 TNF MECP2 IL1B CYP2C19 CCK
27 gastritis 31.4 TP53 TNF PTGS1 IL1B HRH2 GHRL
28 atrophic gastritis 31.4 TP53 TNF IL1B GHRL GAST CXCL8
29 active peptic ulcer disease 31.3 PTGS1 HRH2 CYP2C19
30 perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis 31.3 TNF IL1B CXCL8
31 autonomic neuropathy 31.3 MLN GCG GAST CCK
32 dumping syndrome 31.2 PYY NTS MLN GHRL GCG GAST
33 respiratory failure 31.2 TNF PTGS1 MECP2 IL1B CXCL8 CHAT
34 intestinal obstruction 31.2 TNF MLN GHRL CDX2
35 zollinger-ellison syndrome 31.2 NTS MLN HRH2 GAST
36 peripheral nervous system disease 31.2 TP53 TNF IL1B GCG CXCL8
37 gingivitis 31.2 TNF IL1B CXCL8
38 gastric ulcer 31.2 TP53 TNF PTGS1 IL1B HRH2 GAST
39 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 31.1 TP53 TNF PYY NTS MLN IL1B
40 eating disorder 31.1 PYY GHRL GCG CCK
41 bronchopneumonia 31.1 TNF IL1B CXCL8
42 anorexia nervosa 31.1 PYY GHRL GCG CCK
43 constipation 31.1 TNF PYY PTGS1 NTS MLN GHRL
44 ileus 31.0 TNF NTS MLN IL1B GHRL CCK
45 glossitis 31.0 TNF IL1B GCG
46 exanthem 31.0 TNF IL1B CXCL8
47 appendicitis 31.0 TNF IL1B CXCL8
48 acute cystitis 31.0 TNF IL1B CXCL8
49 tonsillitis 31.0 TNF IL1B CXCL8
50 diabetes mellitus 31.0 TP53 TNF PYY MLN IL1B GHRL

Comorbidity relations with Gastroesophageal Reflux via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 12)

Acute Cystitis Anxiety
Bronchitis Deficiency Anemia
Dyskinesia of Esophagus Esophagitis
Heart Disease Hypertension, Essential
Hypothyroidism Intermediate Coronary Syndrome
Osteoporosis Peptic Esophagitis

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gastroesophageal Reflux:

Diseases related to Gastroesophageal Reflux

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Gastroesophageal Reflux

Human phenotypes related to Gastroesophageal Reflux:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 gastroesophageal reflux 31 HP:0002020
2 esophagitis 31 HP:0100633
3 barrett esophagus 31 HP:0100580

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

G I:
gastroesophageal reflux
chronic ulcerating esophagitis

columnar epithelium-lined distal esophagus

adenocarcinoma of the esophagus risk about 10%

Clinical features from OMIM:


UMLS symptoms related to Gastroesophageal Reflux:

nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, icterus, dyspepsia, heartburn, gastrointestinal gas

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Gastroesophageal Reflux:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.8 ALDH18A1 GHRL MECP2 NTS PYY TNF
2 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.76 CDX2 CHAT GAST GHRL HRH2 PTGS1
3 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.61 CCK CDX2 GAST GHRL HRH2 MECP2
4 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.44 CCK CDX2 CHAT GAST GHRL HRH2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gastroesophageal Reflux

Drugs for Gastroesophageal Reflux (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 375)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
Olanzapine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 132539-06-1 4585
Clozapine Approved Phase 4 5786-21-0 2818
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106266-06-2 5073
Lithium carbonate Approved Phase 4 554-13-2
Ziprasidone Approved Phase 4 146939-27-7 60854
Asenapine Approved Phase 4 65576-45-6, 85650-56-2 3001386
Trimebutine Approved Phase 4 39133-31-8
Levofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 100986-85-4 149096
Ofloxacin Approved Phase 4 82419-36-1 4583
Magnesium hydroxide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1309-42-8
Rabeprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 117976-89-3 5029
Nortriptyline Approved Phase 4 72-69-5 4543
Fluticasone Approved, Experimental Phase 4 90566-53-3 62924
Calcium polycarbophil Approved Phase 4 126040-58-2
Clarithromycin Approved Phase 4 81103-11-9 84029
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26787-78-0 33613
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345
Desflurane Approved Phase 4 57041-67-5 42113
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 5311068 68602
Zinc Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-66-6 32051
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 364-62-5 4168
Moxifloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 354812-41-2, 151096-09-2 152946
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
Maleic acid Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 110-17-8, 110-16-7 444972
27 Mosapride Investigational Phase 4 112885-41-3
Rebamipide Investigational Phase 4 90098-04-7
Polaprezinc Experimental Phase 4 107667-60-7
30 Indobufen Investigational Phase 4 63610-08-2
31 Parasympatholytics Phase 4
32 Anesthetics Phase 4
33 Protective Agents Phase 4
34 Aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, simethicone drug combination Phase 4
35 TEMPO Phase 4
36 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
37 Psyllium Phase 4
38 Narcotics Phase 4
39 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
40 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 4
41 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Phase 4
42 Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Phase 4
43 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4
44 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
45 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
46 Olive Phase 4
47 Soy Bean Phase 4
48 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4
49 Tocolytic Agents Phase 4
50 calcium channel blockers Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 1202)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effectiveness of Lactobacillus GG in the Prevention of Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Tract Infections in Children With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Treated With Proton Pump Inhibitors: Randomized Double - Blind Placebo, Controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT01782118 Phase 4
2 Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Control Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of Wu-Chu-Yu Tang on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Unknown status NCT01822106 Phase 4
3 Symptom Assessment for Patients With Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease Receiving Helicobacter Pylori Eradication Unknown status NCT02934152 Phase 4 H pylori eradication
4 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Therapy ( Lansoprazole; Solutab) in the Management of Childhood Asthma Unknown status NCT00237068 Phase 4 Lansoprazole; Solutab
5 Clinical Trial: Esomeprazole Plus Alginate vs. Esomeprazole Alone for Treatment of Nighttime Reflux Symptom and GERD-related Sleep Disturbances in Patients With Erosive GERD Unknown status NCT02277886 Phase 4 sodium alginate;esomeprazole
6 A Pilot Study to Determine if Pantoprazole Modifies Steady-State Plasma Concentrations of Orally Administered Psychotropic Medications Unknown status NCT02213887 Phase 4 Pantoprazole;Pantoprazole
7 Research of Efficient Use of Omeprazole in Combination With Domperidone in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease of Mild to Moderate Severity Unknown status NCT02140073 Phase 4 omeprazole+domperidone SR;omeprazole
8 The Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Trimebutine Maleate Combined With Rabeprazole in Patients With Grade A or B Reflux Esophagitis Whose Symptoms Refractory to Rabeprazole Unknown status NCT02986685 Phase 4 Trimebutine Maleate;rabeprazole
9 Comparing Dexlansoprazole With Double-dose Lansoprazole to Achieve Sustained Symptomatic Response in Overweight and Obesity Patients With Reflux Esophagitis in Los Angeles Grades A & B Unknown status NCT02759393 Phase 4 Dexlansoprazole;Lansoprazole
10 The Relationship Between Gastroesophageal Reflux and Pediatric Rhinitis: Significance of Pale/Blue Colored Turbinate. A Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02278081 Phase 4 lansoprazole;placebo
11 Effect of Magnesium Alginate on Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants. Unknown status NCT02806453 Phase 4
12 Prospective Study Assessing Patient Satisfaction of Symptom Control With Proton Pump Inhibitor Dosing Regimen Unknown status NCT02623816 Phase 4 Optimal Dosing of Omeprazole
13 Cardiac Safety Evaluation of Lansoprazole/Domperidone 30/30 mg Sustained Release Capsule Formulation Unknown status NCT03355170 Phase 4 Lansoprazole
14 Multi-Centre, Prospective, Open Label, Randomized Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Moxifloxacin Versus Levofloxacin Plus Metronidazole in the Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia With Aspiration Factors Unknown status NCT00752947 Phase 4 moxifloxacin;levofloxacin;metronidazole
15 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study of Dexlansoprazole to Treat Laryngopharyngeal Reflux and Lingual Tonsil Hypertrophy Unknown status NCT01328652 Phase 4 dexlansoprazole
16 A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Efficacy Study Comparing 4 Weeks of Treatment With Esomeprazole 20 mg qd to Placebo qd in Patients With Heartburn and Sleep Disturbances Associated With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Completed NCT00660660 Phase 4 Esomeprazole;Placebo
17 An Open, Randomized, Two Way Crossover Study Comparing the Effect of 20mg Esomeprazole Administered Orally and Intravenously as a 15 Minute Infusion on Basal and Pentagastrin-Stimulated Acid Output in Subjects With Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Completed NCT00629564 Phase 4 Esomeprazole;Esomeprazole
18 An Open, Randomized, Two-way Crossover Study Comparing the Effect of 40mg Esomeprazole Administered Orally and Intravenously as a 15 Minute Infusion on Basal and Pentagastrin-Stimulated Acid Output in Subjects With Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Completed NCT00635414 Phase 4 Esomeprazole;Esomeprazole
19 The Effect of Dexrabeprazole on Intragastric and Intraesophageal Acidity Completed NCT02689999 Phase 4 Dexrabeprazole 10 mg Enteric-Coated Tablets
20 A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Efficacy Study Comparing 4 Weeks of Treatment With Esomeprazole 20 mg qd and 40 mg qd to Placebo qd in Patients With Heartburn and Sleep Disturbances Associated With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Completed NCT00628342 Phase 4 Esomeprazole;Esomeprazole;Placebo
21 An Open, Randomised Two Way Crossover Study Comparing the Effects of 20mg of Esomeprazole Administered Orally and Intravenously as a 3 Minute Injection on Basal and Pentagastrin-stimulated Acid Output in Subjects With Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Completed NCT00626262 Phase 4 Esomeprazole
22 An Open, Randomised Two Way Crossover Study Comparing the Effects of 40mg of Esomeprazole Adminstered Orally and Intravenously as a 3 Minute Injection on Basal and Pentrigastrin-stimulated Acid Output in Subjects With Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Completed NCT00625495 Phase 4 Esomeprazole;Esomeprazole
23 The Role of Anti-Reflux Surgery for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Premature Infants With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD). Completed NCT00926276 Phase 4
24 A Phase III, Multicentre, Randomized, Double-blind Parallel-group Study to Evaluate the Safety and Clinical Outcome of Once Daily Esomeprazole for the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Pediatric Patients 1 to 11 Years of Age, Inclusive. Completed NCT00228527 Phase 4 Esomeprazole (Nexium)
25 An Open-Label Study of Once-Daily Oral Administration of Esomeprazole 40 mg in Patients With Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) to Investigate the Relationship Between the Presence of Erosive Esophagitis (EE) at Baseline and Heartburn Resolution After 4 Weeks of Treatment Completed NCT00242736 Phase 4 Esomeprazole
26 The CALIBER Study Randomized Controlled Trial of LINX Versus Double-Dose Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy for Reflux Disease Completed NCT02505945 Phase 4 Omeprazole
27 Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication Combined With Posterior Gastropexy in Surgical Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Completed NCT00872755 Phase 4
28 A Single-Blind Single Arm Study to Validate the Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) for the Diagnosis of Reflux Disease in Primary Care in Patients Treated With Esomeprazole 40 mg o.d. Completed NCT00291746 Phase 4 Esomeprazole
29 A Randomised, Open, Phase IV, Parallel Group Multicentre Study to Evaluate a Change of Management in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Patients by Treatment With Esomeprazole 40 mg or Any Other Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI), After Initial Treatment Failure, in Ordinary Clinical Practice During 4 Weeks. Completed NCT00272701 Phase 4 Esomeprazole;Other PPI marketed in Sweden
30 A Multi-centred, Phase IV, Post-Marketing, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study Comparing Esomeprazole Magnesium 40mg Once Daily Versus Lansoprazole 30 mg Twice Daily in Symptom Control of Subjects With Persistent Gastrooesophageal Reflux Disease While on 30mg Once Daily Lansoprazole Therapy Completed NCT00637845 Phase 4 Esomeprazole Magnesium;Lansoprazole
31 Comparison of the Effect of Rabeprazole 50 mg DDR Capsules and 20 mg Enteric-coated Tablets on Intragastric and Intraesophageal Acidity Completed NCT03037606 Phase 4 Rabelis DDR 50 mg Capsules;Pariet 20 mg Enteric Coated Tablets
32 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Study to Assess Management Strategies for the Use of Esomeprazole (Nexium) in Helicobacter Pylori Infected Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Completed NCT00574925 Phase 4 Esomeprazole
33 A Pilot Study Comparing Clinical Efficacy of One-Week Dual Delayed-Release Dexlansoprazole 60 mg and Esomeprazole 40 mg for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Grade A and B Completed NCT03128736 Phase 4 Esomeprazole group;Dexlansoprazole group
34 The Impact of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Sleep Disorders: A Pilot Investigation of Rabeprazole, 20 mg Twice Daily for the Relief of GERD-Related Insomnia. Completed NCT00287391 Phase 4 Rabeprazole
35 Role of Pain Modulation in GERD Patients Who Failed Standard Dose PPI. Completed NCT00251732 Phase 4 Standard dose (once daily) PPI plus low-dose antidepressant;Double dose PPI plus evening placebo;Rabeprazole , placebo, placebo
36 Phase 4 Study, Assessing the Efficacy of Lansoprazole and Domperidone Combination on Intragastric and Intraesophageal Acidity Completed NCT02958046 Phase 4 Lansoprazole/Domperidone
37 Determination of the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) of the Patient Orientated Self Assessment Scale ReQuest TradeMark in Patients Suffering From Endoscopically Confirmed Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), Grade A-D According to Los Angeles Classification Treated With Pantoprazole 40 mg o.d. or Placebo o.d. Over One Week. Completed NCT00246909 Phase 4 Pantoprazole
38 A Phase 4, Open-Label Study in Patients From Asia With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Treated With Dexlansoprazole Completed NCT02351960 Phase 4 Dexlansoprazole
39 A Non Interventional Post Authorization Safety Study (PASS) On The Rabeprazole's Administration To Adults With Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Disease (GORD) Completed NCT00216489 Phase 4 rabeprazole sodium
40 Role of Mosapride in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Completed NCT00729339 Phase 4 mosapride for the first month and placebo for the 2nd month;placebo for the first and mosapride for the second month
41 Role of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Pepsin Assay in Wheezy Infants Completed NCT02685436 Phase 4 Omeprazole and domperidone
42 PRISM: Determination of the Performance Characteristics of ReQuest (TradeMark) in Practice in the Stepped Down Management of GORD Completed NCT00261339 Phase 4 Pantoprazole
43 The Proton Pump Inhibitor Test in Reflux Disease: a Study Using Nexium in General Practice Patients Completed NCT00318084 Phase 4 Esomeprazole
44 Phase III: The Study of Acid Reflux in Children With Asthma Completed NCT00442013 Phase 4 Lansoprazole;Matching placebo
45 Do Laryngeal Biopsy Findings Predict Treatment Response in Suspected Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Completed NCT00444145 Phase 4 Prevacid
46 A Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative 3-Way Crossover Study of 24-Hour Intragastric pH Profile of Once Daily Oral Administration of Esomeprazole 40 mg, Lansoprazole 30 mg, and Pantoprazole 40 mg at Steady State in Hispanic Patients With Symptomatic GERD Completed NCT00410592 Phase 4 Esomeprazole 40mg;Pantoprazole 40mg;Lansoprazole 30mg
47 Phase IV Non Comparative Study of the Impact of Dietary Fiber Deficiency Correction Using Mucofalk® on Clinical Features and Motor Function of the Esophagus in Patients With Non-erosive Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Completed NCT01882088 Phase 4 Mucofalk
48 A Pilot Study of Efficacy and Safety of Continuous Intravenous Infusion of Pantoprazole in the Treatment of Severe Erosive Esophagitis Completed NCT00133770 Phase 4 pantoprazole
49 Role of Esophageal and Laryngeal Biopsies in Suspected Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Completed NCT00373997 Phase 4
50 Chronic Cough and Reflux Disease: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial of High Dose Proton Pump Inhibition Completed NCT00287339 Phase 4 Esomeprazole;Placebo

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gastroesophageal Reflux

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Aluminum carbonate
Aluminum Hydroxide
Aluminum Hydroxide / Magnesium Hydroxide
Aluminum Hydroxide Gel
aluminum hydroxide, dried (USP)
basic aluminum carbonate gel
Bethanechol Chloride
Calcium Carbonate
Calcium gluceptate
Cimetidine Hydrochloride
dihydroxyaluminum sodium carbonate
Esomeprazole magnesium
esomeprazole sodium
Esomeprazole Strontium
Isosorbide Dinitrate
Isosorbide Mononitrate
magnesium carbonate
Magnesium Hydroxide
magnesium trisilicate
Metoclopramide Hydrochloride
Omeprazole 2 MG/ML Oral Suspension
Omeprazole magnesium
Pantoprazole sodium
Sodium Bicarbonate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: gastroesophageal reflux

Genetic Tests for Gastroesophageal Reflux

Genetic tests related to Gastroesophageal Reflux:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Gastroesophageal Reflux 29

Anatomical Context for Gastroesophageal Reflux

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gastroesophageal Reflux:

Testes, Lung, Liver, Heart, Kidney, Colon, Bone

Publications for Gastroesophageal Reflux

Articles related to Gastroesophageal Reflux:

(show top 50) (show all 18385)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Fine mapping a gene for pediatric gastroesophageal reflux on human chromosome 13q14. 56 61
15014979 2004
Refined localization of a gene for pediatric gastroesophageal reflux makes HTR2A an unlikely candidate gene. 61 56
11140952 2000
Mapping of a gene for severe pediatric gastroesophageal reflux to chromosome 13q14. 56 61
10891964 2000
Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux as a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. 56 61
10080844 1999
GERD outcome after bariatric surgery: A protocol for systematic review and meta analysis. 61 42
32384427 2020
Efficacy of vonoprazan for initial and maintenance therapy in reflux esophagitis, nonerosive esophagitis, and proton pump inhibitor-resistant gastroesophageal reflux disease. 42 61
32176102 2020
Stretta procedure versus proton pump inhibitors for the treatment of nonerosive reflux disease: A 6-month follow-up. 42
32011441 2020
Esomeprazole reduces gastroesophageal reflux after beer consumption in healthy volunteers. 54 61
18924018 2008
Influence of cytochrome P450 2C19 genetic polymorphism and dosage of rabeprazole on accuracy of proton-pump inhibitor testing in Chinese patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. 61 54
17559380 2007
Gastric emptying of glucose solution and associated plasma concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, and PYY before and after fundoplication. 61 54
17200910 2007
Sporadic versus hereditary gastrinomas of the duodenum and pancreas: distinct clinico-pathological and epidemiological features. 61 54
17006979 2006
Helicobacter pylori infection is the major risk factor for gastric inflammation in the cardia. 61 54
16602036 2006
[Roles of bile and gastrin in the pathogenesis of childhood gastroesophageal reflux disease]. 54 61
16923358 2006
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1: role in airway inflammation and disease. 61 54
16464449 2006
Short report: Autistic gastrointestinal and eating symptoms treated with secretin: a subtype of autism. 61 54
16287506 2005
Comparative study of nizatidine and famotidine for maintenance therapy of erosive esophagitis. 61 54
15683433 2005
Edkins and a century of acid suppression. 54 61
16172550 2005
Quantitative, tissue-specific analysis of cyclooxygenase gene expression in the pathogenesis of Barrett's adenocarcinoma. 54 61
15585388 2004
The relationship between the esophageal tissue content of neurotensin and the presence or absence of esophageal inflammation. 61 54
14992433 2004
Colonization with cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strains in intestinal metaplasia of the esophagus and the esophagogastric junction. 54 61
12907324 2003
[Modern aspects of treating gastroesophageal reflux disease]. 61 54
12664775 2003
[A study on the relationship of Helicobacter pylori, gastrin and gastroesophageal reflux disease]. 54 61
12812673 2003
Role of CCK(A) receptors in postprandial lower esophageal sphincter function in morbidly obese subjects. 61 54
12452391 2002
The effect of cholecystectomy on plasma cholecystokinin. 61 54
12358231 2002
Effects of adjustable gastric banding on altered gut neuropeptide levels in morbidly obese patients. 61 54
11775572 2001
The importance of vacA, cagA, and iceA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori infection in peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease. 61 54
11569682 2001
Restoration of enamel and dentin erosion due to gastroesophageal reflux disease: a case report. 61 54
11402771 2001
Alterations of gut neuropeptides in gastroesophageal reflux disease are resolved after antireflux surgery. 54 61
11182403 2000
Parietal cell protrusions and fundic gland cysts during omeprazole maintenance treatment. 61 54
10872661 2000
Endogenous cholecystokinin enhances postprandial gastroesophageal reflux in humans through extrasphincteric receptors. 54 61
9721157 1998
Effect of long-term gastric acid suppressive therapy on serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. 54 61
9626024 1998
Prolongation of the QT interval related to cisapride-diltiazem interaction. 61 54
9545159 1998
Effect of gastrin-17 on lower esophageal sphincter characteristics in man. 61 54
9440634 1997
Effects of gastroesophageal reflux on the oral cavity. 54 61
9422634 1997
The role of motilin and cisapride in the enteric nervous system of the lower esophageal sphincter in humans. 54 61
9413048 1997
Duodenal ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease today: long-term therapy--a sideways glance. 54 61
9165690 1996
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with enteric hormone abnormalities. 61 54
8311131 1994
Incidence of gastroesophageal reflux with casein and whey-based formulas. 61 54
8350205 1993
Nonulcer dyspepsia: current approaches to diagnosis and management. 54 61
8480563 1993
Efficacy of abdominal massage with mastic gum oil on gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms of infant: a randomized controlled trial. 61
32426224 2020
Helicobacter pylori, Sleeve Gastrectomy, and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease; Is there a Relation? 61
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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Obesity, and Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Complex Relationship-a Narrative Review. 61
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An Evaluation of the Modern North American Bariatric Surgery Landscape: Current Trends and Predictors of Procedure Selection. 61
32382964 2020
CDX-2 Expression in Esophageal Biopsies Without Goblet Cell Intestinal Metaplasia May Be Predictive of Barrett's Esophagus. 61
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Third-time ("redo-redo") anti-reflux surgery: patient-reported outcomes after a thoracoabdominal approach. 61
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Resolution of anemia and improved quality of life following laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair. 61
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Robotic and per-oral endoscopic myotomy have fewer technical complications compared to laparoscopic Heller myotomy. 61
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Magnetic sphincter augmentation: a viable rescue therapy for symptomatic reflux following bariatric surgery. 61
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Short- and long-term results after laparoscopic floppy Nissen fundoplication in elderly versus non-elderly patients. 61
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Apnea in preterm neonates: what's the role of gastroesophageal reflux? A systematic review. 61
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Variations for Gastroesophageal Reflux

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Gastroesophageal Reflux:

6 (show all 17) ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 CHAT NM_020549.4(CHAT):c.2081C>G (p.Ser694Cys)SNV Pathogenic 523529 rs201439531 10:50872926-50872926 10:49664880-49664880
2 46;XY;t(9;16)(p24;q22)dnTranslocation Pathogenic 267798
3 45;XY;t(11;18;13;21;17)(p11.2;p11.2;q33;q11;q11)dnTranslocation Pathogenic 267940
4 46;XY;t(3;5)(q23;q13)dnTranslocation Likely pathogenic 267884
5 46;XX;t(4;14)(p15.2;q13)dnTranslocation Likely pathogenic 267892
6 RPS6KA3 NM_004586.3(RPS6KA3):c.533C>G (p.Ala178Gly)SNV Likely pathogenic 374121 rs1057518914 X:20211665-20211665 X:20193547-20193547
7 ACTL6A NM_004301.5(ACTL6A):c.1129C>T (p.Arg377Trp)SNV Likely pathogenic 549661 rs868064163 3:179304340-179304340 3:179586552-179586552
8 ABCC8 NM_000352.6(ABCC8):c.1793G>A (p.Arg598Gln)SNV Likely pathogenic 523361 rs1344172059 11:17452385-17452385 11:17430838-17430838
9 COL5A1 NM_001278074.1(COL5A1):c.608G>T (p.Gly203Val)SNV Likely pathogenic 523328 rs1554781700 9:137593133-137593133 9:134701287-134701287
10 ABCC8 NM_000352.6(ABCC8):c.3517G>A (p.Val1173Met)SNV Likely pathogenic 35609 rs141322087 11:17426099-17426099 11:17404552-17404552
11 FAM120AOS NM_198841.4(FAM120AOS):c.743C>T (p.Thr248Ile)SNV Likely pathogenic 183343 rs140119177 9:96209921-96209921 9:93447639-93447639
12 CHAT NM_020549.4(CHAT):c.1061C>T (p.Thr354Met)SNV Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 523528 rs769234940 10:50835781-50835781 10:49627735-49627735
13 ZNF469 NM_001367624.1(ZNF469):c.2569A>G (p.Asn857Asp)SNV Uncertain significance 523411 rs1555518955 16:88496447-88496447 16:88430039-88430039
14 ZNF469 NM_001367624.1(ZNF469):c.9532G>A (p.Gly3178Ser)SNV Uncertain significance 523412 rs887755283 16:88503410-88503410 16:88437002-88437002
15 SYNE2 NM_182914.2(SYNE2):c.19624G>T (p.Gly6542Trp)SNV Uncertain significance 598975 rs746433383 14:64685197-64685197 14:64218479-64218479
16 RYR1 NM_000540.2(RYR1):c.10097G>T (p.Arg3366Leu)SNV Uncertain significance 598974 rs137932199 19:39009932-39009932 19:38519292-38519292
17 ZNF469 NM_001367624.1(ZNF469):c.470G>A (p.Gly157Glu)SNV Uncertain significance 320853 rs781096189 16:88494348-88494348 16:88427940-88427940

Cosmic variations for Gastroesophageal Reflux:

# Cosmic Mut ID Gene Symbol COSMIC Disease Classification
(Primary site, Site subtype, Primary histology, Histology subtype)
Mutation CDS Mutation AA GRCh38 Location Conf
1 COSM120376601 upper aerodigestive tract,mouth,other,premalignant c.85C>T p.R29* 9:21971121-21971121 0

Expression for Gastroesophageal Reflux

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gastroesophageal Reflux.

Pathways for Gastroesophageal Reflux

Pathways related to Gastroesophageal Reflux according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 17)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
2 12.23 TP53 TNF IL1B CXCL8
Show member pathways
12.16 TP53 TNF IL1B CXCL8
Show member pathways
12.16 TP53 TNF PTGS1 IL1B
5 11.7 TP53 TNF IL1B CXCL8
6 11.61 TP53 TNF IL1B CXCL8
7 11.59 TNF IL1B CXCL8
Show member pathways
11.49 TNF IL1B CXCL8
9 11.41 TNF IL1B CXCL8
10 11.33 TNF IL1B CXCL8
11 11.3 TNF IL1B CXCL8
13 11.2 TNF IL1B CDX2
14 11.06 TNF MECP2 IL1B CXCL8
15 10.61 TNF PTGS1 CXCL8
16 10.34 GAST CCK
17 10.1 HRH2 GAST

GO Terms for Gastroesophageal Reflux

Cellular components related to Gastroesophageal Reflux according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.7 TNF PYY NTS MLN IL1B GHRL
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.32 TNF PYY MECP2 IL1B GHRL GCG

Biological processes related to Gastroesophageal Reflux according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 18)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune response GO:0006955 9.95 TNF IL1B HRH2 CXCL8 CCL26
2 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.77 TNF PTGS1 IL1B CXCL8 CCL26
3 regulation of cell proliferation GO:0042127 9.76 TP53 TNF PTGS1 GHRL
4 memory GO:0007613 9.74 MECP2 HRH2 CCK
5 neutrophil chemotaxis GO:0030593 9.71 IL1B CXCL8 CCL26
6 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.67 TNF IL1B GCG
7 positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process GO:0045080 9.58 TNF IL1B
8 positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150078 9.56 TNF IL1B
9 negative regulation of production of miRNAs involved in gene silencing by miRNA GO:1903799 9.52 TP53 TNF
10 response to salt stress GO:0009651 9.51 TP53 TNF
11 visual learning GO:0008542 9.5 MECP2 HRH2 CCK
12 intestinal epithelial cell differentiation GO:0060575 9.48 PYY CDX2
13 regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier GO:1903140 9.43 TNF IL1B
14 gastric acid secretion GO:0001696 9.4 HRH2 GHRL
15 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 9.32 PYY NTS MLN HRH2 GHRL GCG
16 positive regulation of fever generation GO:0031622 9.26 TNF IL1B
17 sequestering of triglyceride GO:0030730 9.16 TNF IL1B
18 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 8.96 TNF IL1B

Molecular functions related to Gastroesophageal Reflux according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.46 TNF IL1B CXCL8 CCL26
2 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 9.13 PYY NTS CCK
3 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.1 PYY MLN GHRL GCG GAST CCK

Sources for Gastroesophageal Reflux

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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