MCID: GST009
MIFTS: 55

Gastroschisis

Categories: Fetal diseases, Gastrointestinal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Gastroschisis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Gastroschisis:

Name: Gastroschisis 57 12 53 59 55 44 15 73
Laparoschisis 53 59
Congenital Fissure of the Abdominal Cavity 53

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

59
gastroschisis
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: 1-5/10000 (Europe),1-5/10000 (Austria),1-5/10000 (Belgium),1-5/10000 (Croatia),1-5/10000 (Denmark),1-5/10000 (France),1-5/10000 (Germany),1-9/100000 (Hungary),1-5/10000 (Ireland),1-9/100000 (Italy),1-5/10000 (Malta),1-5/10000 (Netherlands),1-5/10000 (Norway),1-5/10000 (Poland),1-5/10000 (Portugal),1-9/100000 (Spain),1-5/10000 (Switzerland),1-5/10000 (United Kingdom),1-9/100000 (Ukraine); Age of onset: Antenatal,Neonatal; Age of death: normal life expectancy;

OMIM:

57
Inheritance:
autosomal recessive vs. multifactorial


Classifications:



External Ids:

OMIM 57 230750
Disease Ontology 12 DOID:11044
ICD10 33 Q79.3
ICD9CM 35 756.73
MeSH 44 D020139
NCIt 50 C84725
SNOMED-CT 68 72951007
Orphanet 59 ORPHA2368
MESH via Orphanet 45 D020139
UMLS via Orphanet 74 C0265706
ICD10 via Orphanet 34 Q79.3
MedGen 42 C0265706
SNOMED-CT via HPO 69 25896009 204125003
UMLS 73 C0265706

Summaries for Gastroschisis

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Gastroschisis is a birth defect that occurs when a baby's intestines extend outside of the body through a hole next to the belly button. This type of defect is known as an abdominal wall defect. Sometimes other organs are also involved.   The exact cause of a gastroschisis is usually not known, but it is more common in babies born to young mothers or to mothers who may have used alcohol or tobacco during their pregnancies. Gastroschisis is typically diagnosed on routine ultrasound examinations before a baby is born. These babies may need to be born in hospitals with specialists who are experienced in treating gastroschisis. Treatment includes a special kind of surgery that gradually returns the intestines to the abdomen (silo repair).Prognosis depends primarily on the degree of injury to the bowel, and on the presence of other birth defects. Though long-term outcomes for babies born with simple gastroschisis are generally good, some children may have problems with digestion later in life. Complications from gastroschisis can include intestinal problems, breathing difficulties, and infection. Some cases of gastroschisis may resolve in utero, with closure of the hole of the abdominal wall, resulting in strangulation and destruction of the herniated bowel (vanishing gastroschisis or vanishing gut syndrome), and very short-bowel syndrome. Other complications include incomplete bowel (atresia), destruction (necrosis), perforation or twisting (volvulos). The prognosis of these cases is poor, but detecting these problems during pregnancy (antenatal diagnosis) and having fetal intervention may improve the outcome in the future.

MalaCards based summary : Gastroschisis, also known as laparoschisis, is related to pericardial effusion and thrombosis. An important gene associated with Gastroschisis is AEBP1 (AE Binding Protein 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Selenium Micronutrient Network and Melatonin metabolism and effects. The drugs Glycerol and Pharmaceutical Solutions have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, skin and colon, and related phenotypes are intestinal atresia and gastroschisis

OMIM : 57 Gastroschisis is a congenital defect of the abdominal wall that occurs laterally to, and often to the right of, a normally closed umbilical ring. Visceral organs that herniate through the defect are not covered by a membrane. Gastroschisis is distinct from omphalocele (164750), which is characterized by herniation of abdominal contents through the base of the umbilical cord; in omphalocele, the visceral organs are covered by membranes (summary by Mastroiacovo et al., 2007). Both omphalocele and gastroschisis, when they occur without other malformations, are probably multifactorial (Baird and MacDonald, 1981). (230750)

Wikipedia : 76 Gastroschisis is a birth defect in which the baby''s intestines extend outside of the body through a... more...

Related Diseases for Gastroschisis

Diseases related to Gastroschisis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 156)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pericardial effusion 29.4 IL6 NPPA
2 thrombosis 29.4 F2 F5 MTHFR
3 abdominal wall defect 12.1
4 omphalocele, autosomal 11.2
5 paraomphalocele 11.1
6 omphalocele 10.8
7 intestinal atresia 10.4
8 osteoporotic fracture 10.2 IL6 MTHFR
9 diaphragmatic hernia, congenital 10.2
10 ischemic heart disease 10.2 IL6 MTHFR
11 encephalomalacia 10.2 IL6 MTHFR
12 short bowel syndrome 10.2
13 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 10.1 IL6 MTHFR
14 mesenteric vascular occlusion 10.1 F2 MTHFR
15 ischemic neuropathy 10.1 F2 MTHFR
16 marantic endocarditis 10.1 F2 MTHFR
17 livedoid vasculitis 10.1 F2 MTHFR
18 hepatic infarction 10.1 F2 MTHFR
19 buerger disease 10.1 F2 MTHFR
20 ascites, chylous 10.1
21 chlamydia 10.1
22 hemorrhagic fever 10.1 F2 IL6
23 branch retinal artery occlusion 10.0 F2 MTHFR
24 inferior vena cava interruption 10.0 F5 MTHFR
25 hepatic vascular disease 10.0 F2 MTHFR
26 amaurosis fugax 10.0 F5 MTHFR
27 korean hemorrhagic fever 10.0 F2 NPPA
28 catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome 10.0 F5 MTHFR
29 chronic kidney failure 10.0 IL6 MTHFR NPPA
30 septooptic dysplasia 10.0
31 neural tube defects 10.0
32 jejunal atresia 10.0
33 colonic atresia 10.0
34 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 10.0
35 oligohydramnios 10.0
36 pure autonomic failure 10.0 ACHE NPPA
37 hepatorenal syndrome 10.0 F2 NPPA
38 intracranial thrombosis 10.0 F5 MTHFR
39 infective endocarditis 10.0 F2 IL6
40 paracetamol poisoning 9.9 F2 F5
41 prune belly syndrome 9.9
42 gastroesophageal reflux 9.9
43 enterocolitis 9.9
44 neural tube defects, folate-sensitive 9.9
45 craniosynostosis 9.9
46 cloacal exstrophy 9.9
47 respiratory failure 9.9
48 ischemia 9.9
49 perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis 9.9
50 ectopia cordis 9.9

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gastroschisis:



Diseases related to Gastroschisis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Gastroschisis

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

57
Abdomen:
gastroschisis
anterior abdominal wall defect


Clinical features from OMIM:

230750

Human phenotypes related to Gastroschisis:

59 32
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 intestinal atresia 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0011100
2 gastroschisis 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001543
3 abnormality of the mesentery 59 Occasional (29-5%)
4 abnormality of mesentery morphology 32 occasional (7.5%) HP:0100016

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Gastroschisis:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.02 ACHE ADD1 AEBP1 BMP1 F2 F5
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10 ACHE ADD1 AEBP1 BMP1 CYP1A2 F2
3 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.98 ACHE AEBP1 CYP1A2 F2 F5 IL6
4 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.95 BMP1 CYP1A2 F2 F5 IL6 NPPA
5 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.87 ACHE ADD1 BMP1 F2 IL6 NPPA
6 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.65 ACHE ADD1 AEBP1 BMP1 CYP1A2 F2
7 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.55 AEBP1 CYP1A2 F5 IL6 MTHFR
8 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.02 ACHE CYP1A2 F2 IL6 TGFB3

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gastroschisis

Drugs for Gastroschisis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 34)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56-81-5 753
2 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Not Applicable
3 Protective Agents Phase 4
4
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 3 364-62-5 4168
5
Dopamine Approved Phase 3 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
6 Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists Phase 3
7 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
8 Autonomic Agents Phase 3
9 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 3
10 Dopamine Agents Phase 3
11 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 3
12 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 3
13 Antiemetics Phase 3
14 Omega 3 Fatty Acid Phase 2, Phase 3
15 Fat Emulsions, Intravenous Phase 2, Phase 3
16
Bilirubin Phase 2, Phase 3 635-65-4 5280352
17 Liver Extracts Phase 2, Phase 3
18 Hormone Antagonists Phase 1, Phase 2
19 Incretins Phase 1, Phase 2
20 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 1, Phase 2
21 glucagon Phase 1, Phase 2
22 Hormones Phase 1, Phase 2
23 Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Phase 1, Phase 2
24
Sodium oxybate Approved Not Applicable 502-85-2 5360545
25 Bifidobacterium Not Applicable
26 Anti-Bacterial Agents ,Not Applicable
27 Antibiotics, Antitubercular ,Not Applicable
28 Micronutrients Not Applicable
29 Vitamins Not Applicable
30 Trace Elements Not Applicable
31 lysine Not Applicable
32 Anesthetics Not Applicable
33 Dialysis Solutions Early Phase 1
34 Fluorides Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 41)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Usefulness of a Prothetic Absorbable Mesh in Incisional Hernia Prevention After Midline Laparotomy Unknown status NCT02208557 Phase 4
2 Multi-Center Study To Examine The Use Of Flex HD® And Strattice In The Repair Of Large Abdominal Wall Hernias Completed NCT01987700 Phase 4
3 Evaluation of Glycerin Suppositories to Improve Bowel Function in Gastroschisis Recruiting NCT03355326 Phase 4 Glycerin Suppository
4 The Use of Gastrografin to Help Alleviate Bowel Obstruction in Gastroschisis Patients. Recruiting NCT03334578 Phase 4 Gastrografin
5 Prophylaxis of Ileostomy Closure Site Hernia by Placing Mesh Recruiting NCT02226887 Phase 4
6 Trial of AMNIOECHANGE in Gastroschisis Affected Foetuses Unknown status NCT00127946 Phase 3
7 Metoclopramide Pilot Trial Recruiting NCT02098915 Phase 3 intravenous metoclopramide
8 Compassionate Use of Omegaven in Children Recruiting NCT02370251 Phase 2, Phase 3 Omegaven
9 Evaluating the Use of a Silastic Spring-Loaded Silo for Infants With Gastroschisis Completed NCT00539292 Phase 2
10 Safety and Dosing Study of Glucagon-like Peptide 2 (GLP-2) in Infants and Children With Intestinal Failure Terminated NCT01573286 Phase 1, Phase 2 Glucagon-Like Peptide 2;Glucagon like peptide-2
11 Music Therapy: An Adjunct To Gastroschisis Infants' Care Unknown status NCT01469208
12 Elemental Formula in Neonates Post Small Bowel Resection: Improved Weaning From Total Parenteral Nutrition? Unknown status NCT01891279 Not Applicable
13 Impact of the Systematic Closure of the Epigastric Trocar on Postoperative Incisional Hernia After Sleeve Gastrectomy Rate of First Intention. Monocentric Study, Before / After Prospective. Unknown status NCT02973009
14 Silo Versus Primary Closure for Gastroschisis Completed NCT01506531 Not Applicable
15 Clinical and Biological Outcomes of Human Milk and Formula Intake After Gastroschisis Repair Completed NCT02575846 Not Applicable
16 Probiotics in Infants With Gastroschisis Completed NCT01316510 Not Applicable
17 Children's Surgery in Sub-Saharan Africa Completed NCT03185637
18 ProLOVE - Prospective Randomized Study of Midline Incisional Hernia Treatment Completed NCT00472537
19 PREMAPIV : Intravesical Pressure Variation at Different Bladder Instillation Volumes in Newborn Children Completed NCT01296724 Not Applicable
20 Determination of Lysine Requirement in the Parenterally Fed Neonate Completed NCT00779753 Not Applicable
21 Multi-Centre Gastroschisis Interventional Study Across Sub-Saharan Africa Recruiting NCT03724214 Not Applicable
22 Oral Care in Infants With Gastroschisis Recruiting NCT03393832 Not Applicable
23 Direct Peritoneal Resuscitation in Gastroschisis Recruiting NCT03205553 Early Phase 1 Investigational Treatment Group
24 Gastroschisis Outcomes of Delivery (GOOD) Study Recruiting NCT02774746 Not Applicable
25 Utility of a Supraaponeurotic Mesh as Prophylaxis of the Midline Eventration After an Oncological Colorrectal Resection Recruiting NCT03520465 Not Applicable
26 The Efficacy and Security of the Small Stitch Technique in Emergency Surgery Recruiting NCT03765060 Not Applicable
27 Fetal Electrophysiologic Abnormalities in High-Risk Pregnancies Associated With Fetal Demise Recruiting NCT03775954
28 Sham Feeding Post-operative Infants Recruiting NCT03350022 Not Applicable
29 Management and Outcomes of Congenital Anomalies in Low-, Middle- and High-Income Countries Recruiting NCT03666767
30 Cost-effectiveness Analysis Between Biosynthetic and Biological Parietal Prostheses Recruiting NCT03590184
31 Interest of the Manual Exploration as a Supplement to the Coelioscopy in the Evaluation of the Resectability of Peritoneal Carcinosis Recruiting NCT02493972 Not Applicable
32 Impact of Life Events and Psychological Stress in Rheumatoid Arthritis Set-up : Case-control Study Within a Multifactorial and Integrative Psychological Model Recruiting NCT03550833
33 Fatty Acid Composition of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Infants: A Prospective and Observational Study Recruiting NCT03785990
34 Regional Blood Saturation Levels in Gastroschisis Active, not recruiting NCT03533439
35 Genetic Analysis of Congenital Diaphragmatic Disorders Active, not recruiting NCT01243229
36 Primary Fascial Closure With Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair: A Randomized Controlled Trial Active, not recruiting NCT02363790 Not Applicable
37 Mini-laparotomy Versus Mini Lumbotomy Not yet recruiting NCT02888613 Not Applicable
38 Sutureless vs Sutured Gastroschisis Closure Terminated NCT01094587 Not Applicable
39 Randomized Clinical Trial of Early Delivery in Fetal Gastroschisis vs. Routine Care Terminated NCT01884324 Not Applicable
40 Bedside Silo Versus Operative Closure for Gastroschisis Terminated NCT00404690 Not Applicable
41 Prevention of Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis With Cyclic Parenteral Nutrition in Infants Terminated NCT01062815 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gastroschisis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: gastroschisis

Genetic Tests for Gastroschisis

Anatomical Context for Gastroschisis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gastroschisis:

41
Liver, Skin, Colon, Small Intestine, Heart, Kidney, Placenta

Publications for Gastroschisis

Articles related to Gastroschisis:

(show top 50) (show all 1114)
# Title Authors Year
1
Re: Herpesvirus Infection in Infants with Gastroschisis. ( 30299407 )
2019
2
Clinical features and practice patterns of gastroschisis: a retrospective analysis using a Japanese national inpatient database. ( 29770842 )
2018
3
Stomach herniation prior to nonreassuring fetal status in a case of fetal gastroschisis. ( 29797442 )
2018
4
The Management of an Ectopic Ovary in an Adolescent Patient with Gastroschisis. ( 29730430 )
2018
5
Gastroschisis and Cumulative Stressor Exposures. ( 29863532 )
2018
6
Mode of delivery in pregnancies with gastroschisis according to delivery institution. ( 29562799 )
2018
7
Complex gastroschisis: Clinical spectrum and neonatal outcomes at a referral center. ( 29628208 )
2018
8
Low serum fatty acid levels in pregnancies with fetal gastroschisis: A prospective study. ( 29575623 )
2018
9
Prevalence, Mortality, and Spatial Distribution of Gastroschisis in Mexico. ( 29317257 )
2018
10
Familial occurrence of gastroschisis: a population-based overview on recurrence risk, sex-dependent influence, and geographical distribution. ( 29335896 )
2018
11
Complexity of gastroschisis predicts outcome: epidemiology and experience in an Australian tertiary centre. ( 29890949 )
2018
12
The influence of gestational age, mode of delivery and abdominal wall closure method on the surgical outcome of neonates with uncomplicated gastroschisis. ( 29417204 )
2018
13
The glucagon like peptide-2 'axis': Capacity for production and response following intestinal resection or repair of gastroschisis in infants. ( 29523359 )
2018
14
Use of a Gastroschisis Feeding Guideline to Improve Standardization of Care and Patient Outcomes at an Urban Children's Hospital. ( 29617042 )
2018
15
A Giant Gastroschisis Associated with Pulmonary Hypoplasia and Spinal Anomaly: A Case Report and a Literature Review. ( 29854529 )
2018
16
Meconium-stained amniotic fluid as a predictor of poor outcomes in gastroschisis. ( 29803305 )
2018
17
Herpesvirus Infection in Infants with Gastroschisis. ( 29634591 )
2018
18
Coincident myelomeningocele and gastroschisis: report of 2 cases. ( 29521606 )
2018
19
Understanding gastroschisis and its clinical management: where are we? ( 29419329 )
2018
20
Maternal administration of cannabidiol promotes an anti-inflammatory effect on the intestinal wall in a gastroschisis rat model. ( 29561958 )
2018
21
National Practice Patterns for Prenatal Monitoring in Gastroschisis: Gastroschisis Outcomes of Delivery (GOOD) Provider Survey. ( 29791899 )
2018
22
Nutrition Delivery and Growth Outcomes in Infants With Gastroschisis. ( 29338079 )
2018
23
Development of a gastroschisis core outcome set. ( 29540463 )
2018
24
Genetic variants conferring susceptibility to gastroschisis: a phenomenon restricted to the interaction with the environment? ( 29550988 )
2018
25
Predicting birth weight in fetuses with gastroschisis. ( 29266095 )
2018
26
Early Life Incidence of Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Infections in Children with Gastroschisis: A Cohort Study. ( 29851769 )
2018
27
The factors associated with successful early enteral feeding in gastroschisis. ( 29802444 )
2018
28
An evaluation of nutritional and vasoactive stimulants as risk factors for gastroschisis: a pilot study. ( 29415587 )
2018
29
Enhanced Vancomycin Elimination in an Infant Following an Unsuccessful Gastroschisis Repair Surgery. ( 29495915 )
2018
30
Impact of Multidisciplinary Standardization of Care for Gastroschisis: Treatment, Outcomes, and Cost. ( 29499843 )
2018
31
Short-term and family-reported long-term outcomes of simple versus complicated gastroschisis. ( 29506856 )
2018
32
Vanishing gastroschisis visualized by antenatal ultrasound: a case report and review of literature. ( 29980113 )
2018
33
Incidence of Gastroschisis in California. ( 30046825 )
2018
34
Trends in incidence and outcomes of gastroschisis in the United States: analysis of the national inpatient sample 2010-2014. ( 30056479 )
2018
35
A clinical-pathogenetic approach on associated anomalies and chromosomal defects supports novel candidate critical regions and genes for gastroschisis. ( 30094464 )
2018
36
The association between gestational age at delivery, closure type and perinatal outcomes in neonates with isolated gastroschisis. ( 30173575 )
2018
37
Single center protocol driven care in 150 patients with gastroschisis 1998-2017: collaboration improves results. ( 30255354 )
2018
38
Association of spontaneous labor onset with neonatal outcomes in pregnancies with fetal gastroschisis: A retrospective cohort analysis. ( 30264855 )
2018
39
Epidemiology of gastroschisis: A population-based study in California from 1995 to 2012. ( 30266482 )
2018
40
A Gastroschisis bundle: effects of a quality improvement protocol on morbidity and mortality. ( 30318281 )
2018
41
Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes of Sutureless vs Sutured Closure Techniques in Gastroschisis Repair. ( 30325977 )
2018
42
Impact of disease-specific volume and hospital transfer on outcomes in gastroschisis. ( 30343976 )
2018
43
Re. Gastroschisis and cumulative stressor exposures. ( 30379694 )
2018
44
Safety and usefulness of plastic closure in infants with gastroschisis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 30392129 )
2018
45
Insights into the etiology and embryology of gastroschisis. ( 30413258 )
2018
46
Advances in prenatal and perinatal diagnosis and management of gastroschisis. ( 30413259 )
2018
47
Risk stratification and outcome determinants in gastroschisis. ( 30413260 )
2018
48
Closure methods in gastroschisis. ( 30413261 )
2018
49
Surgical strategies in complex gastroschisis. ( 30413262 )
2018
50
Impact of societal factors and health care delivery systems on gastroschisis outcomes. ( 30413263 )
2018

Variations for Gastroschisis

Expression for Gastroschisis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gastroschisis.

Pathways for Gastroschisis

Pathways related to Gastroschisis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
11.67 F2 IL6 MTHFR
2 10.82 ACHE CYP1A2
3 10.45 IL6 MTHFR
4 10.03 BMP1 IL6 TGFB3

GO Terms for Gastroschisis

Cellular components related to Gastroschisis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.56 ACHE AEBP1 BMP1 F2 F5 IL6
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.23 ACHE AEBP1 BMP1 F2 F5 IL6

Biological processes related to Gastroschisis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of protein secretion GO:0050714 9.43 ACHE TGFB3
2 blood circulation GO:0008015 9.4 F5 MTHFR
3 acute-phase response GO:0006953 9.37 F2 IL6
4 response to hypoxia GO:0001666 9.33 MTHFR NPPA TGFB3
5 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.32 F2 IL6
6 positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process GO:0032967 9.26 F2 TGFB3
7 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.26 F2 F5 IL6 NPPA
8 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.02 BMP1 F2 IL6 NPPA TGFB3

Molecular functions related to Gastroschisis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.13 BMP1 IL6 TGFB3
2 growth factor activity GO:0008083 8.92 BMP1 F2 IL6 TGFB3

Sources for Gastroschisis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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