GDM
MCID: GST033
MIFTS: 61

Gestational Diabetes (GDM)

Categories: Blood diseases, Metabolic diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Gestational Diabetes

MalaCards integrated aliases for Gestational Diabetes:

Name: Gestational Diabetes 12 25 29 6 15 62 17 71
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus 12 74 25 15
Gdm 12 25 47
Diabetes Mellitus Arising in Pregnancy 25 32
Maternal Gestational Diabetes Mellitus 12
Diabetes Mellitus, Pregnancy Related 25
Diabetes Mellitus, Gestational 25
Diabetes, Pregnancy-Induced 25
Diabetes, Gestational 43
Diabetes Gestational 54

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:11714
MeSH 43 D016640
NCIt 49 C34942
SNOMED-CT 67 11687002
ICD10 32 O24.4
UMLS 71 C0085207

Summaries for Gestational Diabetes

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Gestational diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. Affected women do not have diabetes before they are pregnant, and most of these women go back to being nondiabetic soon after the baby is born. The disease has a 30 to 70 percent chance of recurring in subsequent pregnancies. Additionally, about half of women with gestational diabetes develop another form of diabetes, known as type 2 diabetes, within a few years after their pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is often discovered during the second trimester of pregnancy. Most affected women have no symptoms, and the disease is discovered through routine screening at their obstetrician's office. If untreated, gestational diabetes increases the risk of pregnancy-associated high blood pressure (called preeclampsia) and early (premature) delivery of the baby. Babies of mothers with gestational diabetes tend to be large (macrosomia), which can cause complications during birth. Infants whose mothers have gestational diabetes are also more likely to develop dangerously low blood sugar levels soon after birth. Later in life, these individuals have an increased risk of developing obesity, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes.

MalaCards based summary : Gestational Diabetes, also known as gestational diabetes mellitus, is related to maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 2 and prediabetes syndrome, and has symptoms including hyperemesis gravidarum, pelvic pain and morning sickness. An important gene associated with Gestational Diabetes is GCK (Glucokinase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins. and Regulation of lipid metabolism Insulin signaling-generic cascades. The drugs Cyproterone Acetate and Silicon have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, ovary and placenta, and related phenotypes are Decreased viability and Decreased viability

PubMed Health : 62 About gestational diabetes: Most women's blood sugar levels remain normal during pregnancy. But if blood sugar levels go above a certain value, they are considered to have gestational diabetes. This is the case in about 4 out of 100 women. It is not always clear whether a woman just has slightly higher blood sugar levels or whether she has gestational diabetes. Women’s metabolism changes over the course of pregnancy anyway: It takes longer for the cells in their body to absorb the sugar in their blood after meals. This means that elevated blood sugar levels are often a normal part of pregnancy – and they usually return to normal afterwards. Having gestational diabetes doesn’t mean that you have developed chronic diabetes. The raised blood sugar levels in gestational diabetes slightly increase the risk of certain rare birth complications. This risk can usually be lowered by changing your diet, though. The vast majority of women who develop gestational diabetes experience an otherwise normal pregnancy and go on to give birth to a healthy baby.

Wikipedia : 74 Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels... more...

Related Diseases for Gestational Diabetes

Diseases related to Gestational Diabetes via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 444)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 2 33.4 TCF7L2 KCNJ11 INS GCK
2 prediabetes syndrome 32.8 TCF7L2 SLC2A4 LEP IRS1 INS ADIPOQ
3 hypoglycemia 32.3 KCNJ11 INSR INS GCK
4 pre-eclampsia 32.1 PAPPA LEP INS ADRB3 ADIPOQ
5 fetal macrosomia 32.0 LEP INSR INS
6 placenta disease 31.8 PAPPA INS ADIPOQ
7 acute insulin response 31.4 TCF7L2 KCNJ11 INS
8 hypothyroidism 31.2 SHBG RETN LEP INS ADIPOQ
9 glucose intolerance 31.1 TCF7L2 SLC2A4 SHBG RETN RBP4 LEP
10 fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic 1 31.1 RETN LEP INS ADIPOQ
11 monogenic diabetes 31.1 KCNJ11 INS GCK
12 diabetes mellitus 31.1 TCF7L2 SLC2A4 SHBG RETN RBP4 PTPRN
13 atherosclerosis susceptibility 31.1 RETN NAMPT LEP INS ADIPOQ
14 sleep apnea 31.1 RETN LEP INS ADIPOQ
15 hyperglycemia 31.1 SLC2A4 RETN NAMPT LEP KCNJ11 IRS2
16 vascular disease 31.0 RETN NAMPT LEP INS ADIPOQ
17 diabetes mellitus, ketosis-prone 31.0 PTPRN KCNJ11 INS
18 hyperandrogenism 30.9 SHBG INSR INS ADIPOQ
19 polycystic ovary syndrome 30.9 SHBG RETN NAMPT LEP IRS2 IRS1
20 severe pre-eclampsia 30.9 RBP4 PAPPA LEP ADIPOQ
21 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 3 30.8 KCNJ11 INS GCK
22 lipid metabolism disorder 30.8 TCF7L2 SHBG RETN RBP4 LEP IRS1
23 anovulation 30.8 SHBG LEP INS
24 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 4 30.7 KCNJ11 INS GCK
25 cerebrovascular disease 30.7 RETN NAMPT LEP INS ADIPOQ
26 amenorrhea 30.7 SHBG LEP INS
27 hyperinsulinism 30.7 SLC2A4 SHBG RETN LEP KCNJ11 IRS2
28 hyperthyroidism 30.6 SHBG RETN LEP INS
29 sleep disorder 30.6 LEP INS ADIPOQ
30 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 30.6 KCNJ11 INSR INS GCK
31 acanthosis nigricans 30.6 SLC2A4 SHBG LEP INSR INS ADIPOQ
32 maturity-onset diabetes of the young 30.6 TCF7L2 PTPRN LEP KCNJ11 IRS2 IRS1
33 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 1 30.6 RETN LEP KCNJ11 INS GCK ADIPOQ
34 thyroid gland disease 30.5 SHBG LEP INS
35 hyperproinsulinemia 30.5 SHBG INS
36 diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal 4 30.5 KCNJ11 INS GCK
37 hyperuricemia 30.5 LEP INS ADRB3
38 wolfram syndrome 1 30.5 TCF7L2 KCNJ11 INS
39 skin tag 30.4 SHBG LEP INS
40 glucose metabolism disease 30.4 SLC2A4 RETN LEP KCNJ11 IRS1 INS
41 ovarian disease 30.4 SHBG LEP IRS1 INSR INS ADIPOQ
42 chronic kidney disease 30.4 RETN RBP4 LEP INS ADIPOQ
43 diabetes mellitus, type i 30.3 SLC2A4 RETN RBP4 PTPRN LEP INSR
44 cardiovascular system disease 30.3 SHBG RETN NAMPT LEP INS ADIPOQ
45 acromegaly 30.3 SHBG LEP INS ADIPOQ
46 familial hyperlipidemia 30.3 LEP INS ADRB3 ADIPOQ
47 fatty liver disease 30.2 RETN RBP4 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR
48 abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 1 30.2 SLC2A4 RETN LEP INSR INS GCK
49 turner syndrome 30.2 SHBG PAPPA LEP INS
50 pica disease 30.1 LEP INS

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gestational Diabetes:



Diseases related to Gestational Diabetes

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Gestational Diabetes

UMLS symptoms related to Gestational Diabetes:


hyperemesis gravidarum, pelvic pain, morning sickness

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 15)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00055-A-1 9.77 IRS2
2 Decreased viability GR00055-A-2 9.77 IRS2
3 Decreased viability GR00173-A 9.77 PTPRN
4 Decreased viability GR00221-A-1 9.77 GCK INSR IRS1
5 Decreased viability GR00221-A-2 9.77 GCK INSR IRS1
6 Decreased viability GR00221-A-3 9.77 GCK INSR
7 Decreased viability GR00221-A-4 9.77 GCK INSR
8 Decreased viability GR00249-S 9.77 ADRB3 PTPRN RBP4 SLC2A4
9 Decreased viability GR00342-S-2 9.77 IRS1
10 Decreased viability GR00342-S-3 9.77 IRS1
11 Decreased viability GR00381-A-1 9.77 ADRB3 RBP4
12 Decreased viability GR00381-A-2 9.77 RBP4
13 Decreased viability GR00381-A-3 9.77 RBP4
14 Decreased viability GR00386-A-1 9.77 ADIPOR1 IRS1 SLC29A1
15 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 9.77 RETN SLC2A4

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Gestational Diabetes:

45 (show all 14)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.43 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 ADRB3 GCK HKDC1 INS
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.37 ADIPOQ GCK INS INSR IRS1 IRS2
3 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.35 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 ADRB3 INS INSR IRS1
4 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.35 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 ADRB3 GCK INS INSR
5 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.34 ADIPOQ ADRB3 GCK INS INSR IRS1
6 cellular MP:0005384 10.29 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 GCK INS INSR IRS1
7 immune system MP:0005387 10.21 ADIPOQ INS INSR IRS1 IRS2 LEP
8 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 10.18 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 GCK HKDC1 INS INSR
9 muscle MP:0005369 10.11 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 INS INSR IRS1 IRS2
10 nervous system MP:0003631 10.06 ADIPOQ INS INSR IRS2 KCNJ11 LEP
11 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.76 ADIPOQ GCK INS INSR IRS2 LEP
12 pigmentation MP:0001186 9.65 IRS2 KCNJ11 LEP NAMPT RBP4
13 skeleton MP:0005390 9.61 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 INS IRS1 LEP PAPPA
14 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.32 ADIPOR1 HKDC1 INS IRS1 IRS2 LEP

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gestational Diabetes

PubMed Health treatment related to Gestational Diabetes: 62

A change in diet is usually enough to make the levels return to normal. Women with gestational diabetes can get advice from their doctor. Special dietary counseling can be helpful too. Another way to lower your blood sugar levels is by getting more exercise . In some pregnant women the blood sugar levels stay high for so long that they have to inject insulin or, in rare cases, take medicine for diabetes. The doctor will offer to measure the woman’s blood sugar levels again after the baby is born. If her blood sugar levels have returned to normal, no more treatment is needed.

Drugs for Gestational Diabetes (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 251)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Cyproterone Acetate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 427-51-0
2
Silicon Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-21-3 4082203
3
Cefazolin Approved Phase 4 25953-19-9 656510 33255
4
Zinc Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-66-6 32051
5
Liraglutide Approved Phase 4 204656-20-2 44147092
6
Ursodeoxycholic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 128-13-2 31401
7
Ergocalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-14-6 5280793
8
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 1406-16-2
9
Vitamin D3 Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 67-97-0 5280795 6221
10
Resveratrol Investigational Phase 4 501-36-0 445154
11 Ergocalciferols Phase 4
12 Vitamin D2 Phase 4
13 Androgens Phase 4
14 Contraceptive Agents, Male Phase 4
15 Androgen Antagonists Phase 4
16
Cyproterone Phase 4 2098-66-0 5284537
17 Cyproterone acetate, ethinyl estradiol drug combination Phase 4
18 Protamines Phase 4
19 Insulin, Long-Acting Phase 4
20 Isophane insulin, insulin lispro drug combination 50:50 Phase 4
21 Calciferol Phase 4
22 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4
23 Acidophilus Phase 4
24 Bifidobacterium Phase 4
25 Sitagliptin Phosphate Phase 4
26 Biguanides Phase 4
27 Sulfalene Phase 4
28 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
29 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4
30 Trace Elements Phase 4
31 Vitamins Phase 4
32 Nutrients Phase 4
33 Micronutrients Phase 4
34 Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Phase 4
35
Calcium Nutraceutical Phase 4 7440-70-2 271
36
Vildagliptin Approved, Investigational Phase 3 274901-16-5 6918537
37
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 3 364-62-5 4168
38
Dopamine Approved Phase 3 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
39
Alogliptin Approved Phase 3 850649-61-5 11450633
40 Papaya Approved Phase 2, Phase 3
41
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 3 111025-46-8 4829
42
Ramipril Approved Phase 3 87333-19-5 5362129
43
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 3 122320-73-4 77999
44
Saxagliptin Approved Phase 3 361442-04-8 11243969
45
Empagliflozin Approved Phase 3 864070-44-0
46
Acarbose Approved, Investigational Phase 3 56180-94-0 441184
47
Glucagon Approved Phase 3 16941-32-5
48
Insulin aspart Approved Phase 3 116094-23-6 16132418
49
Insulin detemir Approved Phase 3 169148-63-4 5311023
50
Phentermine Approved, Illicit Phase 3 122-09-8 4771

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 704)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Impacts of Vitamin D Supplementation on Glucose Metabolism in Chinese Women With Vitamin D Deficiency and Former Gestational Diabetes Mellitus:A Randomised Control Trial Unknown status NCT03138616 Phase 4 vitamin D
2 Can Resveratrol Improve Insulin Sensitivity and Preserve Beta Cell Function Following Gestational Diabetes? Unknown status NCT01997762 Phase 4
3 Efficacy of Myo-inositol in Preventing Gestational Diabetes in High-risk Pregnant Women Unknown status NCT01511835 Phase 4 Folic Acid
4 Metformin Treatment for Preventing Gestational Diabetes in High-risk Patients Unknown status NCT00883259 Phase 4 Metformin
5 Oral Antidiabetic Agents on Gestational Diabetes: Modulating Effect on Fetal Growth - a Clinical Randomized Trial Unknown status NCT02091336 Phase 4 Metformin;Glyburide
6 Phase 4 Study of Effectiveness of Metformin in Patients With Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriages Unknown status NCT01718340 Phase 4 Metformin
7 Effect of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium Lactis BB 12 on Beta-cell Function in Children With Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes - a Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT03032354 Phase 4 Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12
8 The Effect of Diane-35 Pretreatment on Endocrine and Clinical Profile for Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Undergoing In-vitro Fertilization Unknown status NCT01752270 Phase 4 Diane-35 pretreatment;Diane-35 pretreatment
9 Therapeutic Monitoring of Metformin in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Unknown status NCT01366391 Phase 4 Metformin
10 A Randomized Control Trial of Vitamin D Prophylaxis in the Prevention of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Unknown status NCT02920593 Phase 4 Vitamin D3
11 Phase 4 Humalog® Mix50/50(tm) for the Treatment of Insulin Requiring Gestational Diabetes Completed NCT01613807 Phase 4 Insulin LISPRO;Insulin, Long-Acting and Insulin LISPRO
12 Metformin Versus Insulin in Gestational Diabetes. A Randomized Controlled Single Center Trial. Completed NCT01240785 Phase 4 metformin;insulin
13 EFFECTIVITY OF MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY PLUS TRANSGESTATIONAL METFORMIN FOR PREVENTING THE INCIDENCE OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS IN HIGH RISK MEXICAN WOMEN. Completed NCT01675310 Phase 4 medical nutrition therapy + metformin
14 Physiological Effects of Gestational Diabetes on the Placenta and Neonatal Outcome; Role of Antioxidant Administration Completed NCT02355197 Phase 4 L-ascorbic acid
15 A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Treatment of Mild Gestational Diabetes With Glyburide Versus Placebo Completed NCT00744965 Phase 4 Glyburide;Placebo
16 A Comparison Between Two Oral Hypoglycemics - Metformin and Glybenclamide for the Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT01563120 Phase 4 metformin;glybenclamide
17 The Effects of Metformin on Retained Postpartum Weight in Women With Gestational Diabetes: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Completed NCT01280409 Phase 4 Metformin;Placebo
18 A Randomized Pilot Study Evaluating Combination Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin Plus Metformin Compared to Metformin Monotherapy and Placebo on Metabolic Abnormalities in Women With a Recent History of GDM Completed NCT01856907 Phase 4 Sitagliptin-Metformin;Metformin;Placebo pill
19 Effects of Resistance Exercise Training Program Performed During the 2nd and 3rd Trimesters of Pregnancy on Maternal and Newborn Health Completed NCT00813657 Phase 4
20 The POP-study: Effect of Probiotics on Weight, Microbiota and Glucose Tolerance in Obese Pregnant Women and Their Newborn - a Randomized, Double-blind Placebo Controlled Trial With Vivomixx® Completed NCT02508844 Phase 4
21 Increased Cefazolin (Ancef) Dosing for Prophylaxis During Cesarean Delivery in the Obese Population Completed NCT02049944 Phase 4 Cefazolin
22 A Double Blind Randomized Control Trial to Study the Effect of Long Term Vitamin D Supplementation on Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity in Apparently Healthy Middle Aged Centrally Obese Adults Completed NCT01052181 Phase 4 Cholecalciferol;placebo
23 The Effect of Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Glycemic Control and Pregnancy Outcomes in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus:A Randomized Controlled Trial. Recruiting NCT03955107 Phase 4
24 Preventing Recurrent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus With Early Metformin Intervention Recruiting NCT02394158 Phase 4 Metformin;placebo
25 Metabolic Analysis for Treatment Choice in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Recruiting NCT03029702 Phase 4 Insulin;Glyburide;Metformin
26 Glucose Control During Labour in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus With Insulin Treatment: Insulin-Glucose-Infusion Versus Observational Approach - Is There a Difference in Neonatal Hypoglycemia Rate? Recruiting NCT02590016 Phase 4 Insulin, Aspart
27 Pertussis Vaccination in Pregnant Women: Implementation and Evaluation of Different Models of Vaccination Dispensation Recruiting NCT03909126 Phase 4
28 Metformin Use to Improve Pregnancy Outcome in Women With Type 1 Diabetes. A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Multicenter Study. Recruiting NCT03765359 Phase 4 metforminhydrochloride;Placebo Oral Tablet
29 Effects of a Supplementation With Zinc and Myo-inositol in Paediatric Obesity Recruiting NCT03283813 Phase 4 Placebos;Myoinositol
30 The Impact of Liraglutide on Glucose Tolerance and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women With Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Active, not recruiting NCT01795248 Phase 4 Liraglutide;Placebo
31 Threshold for Initiation of Medical Treatment for Women With Gestational Diabetes: A Single Site Randomized Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03527537 Phase 4 Insulin;Glyburide;Metformin
32 Randomised Controlled Trial of Gestational Treatment With Ursodeoxycholic Acid Compared to Metformin to Reduce Effects of Diabetes Mellitus Not yet recruiting NCT04407650 Phase 4 Metformin;Ursodeoxycholic Acid
33 Failure Rate of GLyburide And Metformin Among Gestational Diabetics Withdrawn NCT03078725 Phase 4 Glyburide;Metformin
34 Program for the Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus Development in Women Who Had Already Experienced A Gestational Diabetes. Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Life-style Modification and the Life-style Modification in Conjunction With Metformin, in the Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus Development in a Population of Women Who Had Expired a Gestational Diabetes - a Multicenter, Randomized, Double Blind Study. Withdrawn NCT00265746 Phase 4 Metformin
35 Pilot Study of Exenatide Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Gestational Diabetes Withdrawn NCT00572689 Phase 4 Exenatide
36 Glyburide Compared to Insulin in the Management of White's Classification A2 Gestational Diabetes Withdrawn NCT00160485 Phase 4 Glyburide;Insulin
37 Glycemic Profile in Women With Gestational Diabetes Treated With Glyburide Withdrawn NCT01947699 Phase 4 Glyburide
38 Prevenção do Diabetes em Mulheres Com Diabetes Gestacional prévio: Estudo multicêntrico de mudanças Intensivas de Estilo de Vida: LINDA-Brasil Unknown status NCT02327286 Phase 3
39 Metformin vs Control to Prevent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) in Women With a High Risk for GDM, an Open Label Randomized Controlled Trial, The Medico-GDM Trial Unknown status NCT02275845 Phase 3 Metformin
40 Metformin for the Treatment of Diabetes in Pregnancy Unknown status NCT00414245 Phase 3 metformin
41 Metformin for Prevention of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnant Women With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT ) Unknown status NCT02802215 Phase 2, Phase 3 metformin;placebo (folic acid )
42 Metformin in Gestational Diabetes and type2 Diabetes in Pregnancy in a Developing Country Unknown status NCT01855763 Phase 2, Phase 3 Metformin;Insulin
43 Modulation of the Intestinal Flora With the Probiotic VIVOMIXX™ in Pregnant Women at Risk of Metabolic Complications Unknown status NCT02768818 Phase 3
44 Effect of a Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02838147 Phase 3
45 Effects of Probiotics (Lactobacillus Rhamnosus) In Reducing Glucose Intolerance During and After Pregnancy: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial in Antenatal Clinic of Karachi-Pakistan (GRIP) Unknown status NCT01436448 Phase 3 Probiotics Lactobacillus Rhamnosus
46 Metformin Versus Insulin in the Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: a Randomized Controlled Study Completed NCT01087866 Phase 2, Phase 3 Metformin;Insulin
47 Comparison of Metformin and Insulin for Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT03320694 Phase 3 Metformin;Insulin
48 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Insulin or Oral Hypoglycemic Agents? Completed NCT01215331 Phase 3 Insulin;Metformin, glyburide and insulin
49 Multicenter Randomized Trial of Non-inferiority Between Glyburide and Insulin for the Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Completed NCT01731431 Phase 3 Glyburide
50 Safety and Efficacy of Insulin Aspart vs. Regular Human Insulin in Basal/Bolus Therapy for Patients With Gestational Diabetes Completed NCT00065130 Phase 3 human insulin;insulin NPH;insulin aspart

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gestational Diabetes

Cochrane evidence based reviews: diabetes, gestational

Genetic Tests for Gestational Diabetes

Genetic tests related to Gestational Diabetes:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Gestational Diabetes 29

Anatomical Context for Gestational Diabetes

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gestational Diabetes:

40
Testes, Ovary, Placenta, Heart, Liver, Endothelial, Breast

Publications for Gestational Diabetes

Articles related to Gestational Diabetes:

(show top 50) (show all 14567)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Full-length adiponectin attenuates insulin signaling and inhibits insulin-stimulated amino Acid transport in human primary trophoblast cells. 54 61
20150288 2010
2
Nitric oxide reduces SLC29A1 promoter activity and adenosine transport involving transcription factor complex hCHOP-C/EBPalpha in human umbilical vein endothelial cells from gestational diabetes. 54 61
20032083 2010
3
Retinol-binding protein 4 in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. 61 54
20156079 2010
4
Retinol-binding protein 4: a novel adipokine implicated in the genesis of LGA in the absence of gestational diabetes mellitus. 54 61
20146659 2010
5
Further evidence that mutations in INS can be a rare cause of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). 61 54
20226046 2010
6
Assessment of insulin sensitivity/resistance and their relations with leptin concentrations and anthropometric measures in a pregnant population with and without gestational diabetes mellitus. 54 61
19269197 2010
7
Declining beta-cell compensation for insulin resistance in Hispanic women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus: association with changes in weight, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein. 61 54
19933993 2010
8
Association between retinol-binding protein 4 concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus and risk of developing metabolic syndrome after pregnancy. 54 61
19897788 2010
9
Serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and retinol in a cohort of borderline obese women with and without gestational diabetes. 61 54
19857477 2010
10
[Correlation of retinol binding protein 4 expression in maternal serum and subcutaneous adipose tissue with insulin resistance in gestational diabetes mellitus.]. 61 54
20193418 2009
11
Maternal plasma soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and placental growth factor levels as biochemical markers of gestational hypertension for Malaysian mothers. 54 61
20149032 2009
12
Abnormal glucose tolerance is associated with diminished postload change in leptin levels in women. 54 61
19681034 2009
13
The change in sex hormone binding globulin and the influence by gestational diabetes mellitus in fetal period. 61 54
19557594 2009
14
Gender differences in serum leptin concentrations from umbilical cord blood of newborn infants born to nondiabetic, gestational diabetic and type-2 diabetic mothers. 54 61
20336197 2009
15
[The regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen synthase activities by insulin superfamily peptides in myometrium of pregnant women and its impairments under different types of diabetes mellitus]. 61 54
20017397 2009
16
[Serum resistin concentrations in cases of gestational diabetes mellitus with good glycemic control and in cord blood]. 61 54
19642599 2009
17
TGF-beta1 inhibits expression and activity of hENT1 in a nitric oxide-dependent manner in human umbilical vein endothelium. 61 54
19193655 2009
18
Neonatal adiposity following maternal treatment of gestational diabetes with glyburide compared with insulin. 54 61
19375570 2009
19
Defective insulin signaling in placenta from pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. 61 54
19179458 2009
20
High resistin and interleukin-6 levels are associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. 61 54
19408175 2009
21
Visfatin in gestational diabetes: serum level and mRNA expression in fat and placental tissue. 54 61
19185944 2009
22
Maternal serum adiponectin multimers in gestational diabetes. 61 54
19530957 2009
23
Visfatin in human pregnancy: maternal gestational diabetes vis-à-vis neonatal birthweight. 54 61
19099366 2009
24
Design of FitFor2 study: the effects of an exercise program on insulin sensitivity and plasma glucose levels in pregnant women at high risk for gestational diabetes. 54 61
19123930 2009
25
Serum visfatin concentration is elevated in pregnant women irrespectively of the presence of gestational diabetes. 54 61
19323054 2009
26
Does continuous use of metformin throughout pregnancy improve pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome? 61 54
18834342 2008
27
Screening for biomarkers predictive of gestational diabetes mellitus. 61 54
18496643 2008
28
Combined association of maternal and paternal family history of diabetes with plasma leptin and adiponectin in overweight Hispanic children. 54 61
19183309 2008
29
High plasma retinol binding protein-4 and low plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with severity of glucose intolerance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. 54 61
18492757 2008
30
Pre- and early post-partum adiponectin and interleukin-1beta levels in women with and without gestational diabetes. 61 54
18694861 2008
31
Serum concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 in women with and without gestational diabetes. 54 61
18437353 2008
32
Visfatin concentration is decreased in women with gestational diabetes mellitus in the third trimester. 61 54
18787378 2008
33
Elevated concentrations of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) in gestational diabetes mellitus: negative correlation with soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1). 54 61
18584408 2008
34
Metformin versus insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes. 54 61
18463376 2008
35
Retinol-binding protein 4 responses during an oral glucose tolerance testing in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. 54 61
18328819 2008
36
Differences in low-grade chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus and women with polycystic ovary syndrome. 54 61
18382906 2008
37
Safety of glyburide for gestational diabetes: a meta-analysis of pregnancy outcomes. 54 61
18349305 2008
38
Variations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin and adiponectin in mid-trimester of gestational diabetes mellitus. 61 54
18701022 2008
39
Therapeutic management, delivery, and postpartum risk assessment and screening in gestational diabetes. 61 54
18457474 2008
40
Insulin sensitivity and resistin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus and after parturition. 54 61
18230823 2008
41
Diabetes mellitus following gestational diabetes: role of subsequent pregnancy. 54 61
18081603 2008
42
Postpartum adiponectin concentration, insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities among women with pregnancy-induced disturbances. 61 54
18401239 2008
43
Comparison of metformin and insulin in the treatment of gestational diabetes: a retrospective, case-control study. 54 61
18795211 2008
44
Leptin expression in primary trophoblast cells in response to incubation with the serum of preeclamptic women. 54 61
18696355 2008
45
Relationship between leptin concentration and insulin resistance. 61 54
18075970 2007
46
Metformin and insulin in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus: preliminary results of a comparison. 61 54
18161398 2007
47
Insulin resistance in Hispanic large-for-gestational-age neonates at birth. 54 61
17635945 2007
48
Efficacy, safety and lack of immunogenicity of insulin aspart compared with regular human insulin for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. 61 54
17888133 2007
49
Oral hypoglycaemic agents for diabetes in pregnancy - an appraisal of the current evidence for oral anti-diabetic drug use in pregnancy. 54 61
17767338 2007
50
Visfatin response to glucose is reduced in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. 61 54
17416788 2007

Variations for Gestational Diabetes

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Gestational Diabetes:

6 ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 GCK NM_000162.5(GCK):c.544G>A (p.Val182Met)SNV Pathogenic 129144 rs587780345 7:44189603-44189603 7:44150004-44150004
2 GCK NM_000162.5(GCK):c.706G>A (p.Glu236Lys)SNV Pathogenic 129146 rs587780347 7:44187406-44187406 7:44147807-44147807
3 GCK NM_000162.5(GCK):c.616A>C (p.Thr206Pro)SNV Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic 129145 rs587780346 7:44189422-44189422 7:44149823-44149823
4 GCK NM_000162.5(GCK):c.787T>C (p.Ser263Pro)SNV Likely pathogenic 36258 rs193922331 7:44187325-44187325 7:44147726-44147726
5 GCK NM_000162.5(GCK):c.1112G>T (p.Cys371Phe)SNV Likely pathogenic 129140 rs587780343 7:44185237-44185237 7:44145638-44145638

Expression for Gestational Diabetes

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gestational Diabetes.

Pathways for Gestational Diabetes

Pathways related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 31)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.24 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS ADRB3
2
Show member pathways
12.86 SLC2A4 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS HKDC1
3
Show member pathways
12.73 SLC2A4 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
4
Show member pathways
12.63 SLC2A4 RETN RBP4 NAMPT LEP IRS2
5
Show member pathways
12.51 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS ADRB3
6 12.51 SLC2A4 NAMPT IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
7
Show member pathways
12.48 SLC2A4 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
8
Show member pathways
12.44 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INS GCK
9
Show member pathways
12.43 SLC2A4 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
10
Show member pathways
12.3 KCNJ11 INS ADIPOR1 ADIPOQ
11
Show member pathways
12.21 SLC2A4 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
12
Show member pathways
12.11 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS ADIPOR1 ADIPOQ
13
Show member pathways
12.06 SLC2A4 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
14
Show member pathways
11.95 SLC2A4 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
15 11.89 TCF7L2 IRS1 INSR
16 11.88 SLC2A4 RETN NAMPT LEP IRS2 IRS1
17 11.86 INSR INS HKDC1
18 11.85 SLC2A4 LEP INS ADIPOQ
19 11.64 SLC2A4 LEP IRS2 IRS1 ADIPOR1 ADIPOQ
20 11.62 IRS1 INSR INS
21 11.58 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS ADRB3
22 11.54 LEP IRS1 INSR INS
23 11.52 SLC2A4 LEP KCNJ11 IRS2 IRS1
24 11.44 KCNJ11 INS GCK
25 11.43 IRS1 INSR INS
26 11.35 IRS1 INSR INS
27
Show member pathways
11.26 SLC2A4 KCNJ11 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
28 11.22 SLC2A4 INSR INS
29
Show member pathways
10.94 SLC2A4 IRS1 INSR
30 10.85 SLC2A4 INS
31 10.78 SLC2A4 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR ADIPOQ

GO Terms for Gestational Diabetes

Cellular components related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 insulin receptor complex GO:0005899 8.62 IRS1 INSR

Biological processes related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 37)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.27 RETN NAMPT LEP IRS2 IRS1 INS
2 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 10.05 NAMPT LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
3 carbohydrate metabolic process GO:0005975 9.93 SLC2A4 INSR INS HKDC1 GCK ADRB3
4 positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling GO:0051897 9.88 TCF7L2 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
5 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.87 LEP INSR INS ADRB3
6 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.86 SLC2A4 RBP4 LEP ADIPOQ
7 positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis GO:0120162 9.85 LEP ADRB3 ADIPOR1 ADIPOQ
8 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.84 LEP IRS2 INSR INS
9 female pregnancy GO:0007565 9.83 PAPPA NAMPT LEP
10 circadian rhythm GO:0007623 9.83 NAMPT LEP ADIPOQ
11 insulin receptor signaling pathway GO:0008286 9.83 NAMPT IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
12 response to insulin GO:0032868 9.81 RETN PTPRN LEP IRS1
13 response to glucose GO:0009749 9.8 TCF7L2 PTPRN IRS2 ADIPOQ
14 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.79 LEP KCNJ11 GCK
15 cellular response to glucose stimulus GO:0071333 9.79 SLC29A1 KCNJ11 IRS2
16 positive regulation of insulin secretion GO:0032024 9.78 TCF7L2 RBP4 IRS2 GCK
17 glucose metabolic process GO:0006006 9.73 LEP KCNJ11 IRS2 INS GCK ADIPOQ
18 positive regulation of glucose import GO:0046326 9.72 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS ADIPOQ
19 negative regulation of gluconeogenesis GO:0045721 9.7 INS GCK ADIPOQ
20 positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process GO:0032270 9.67 INS ADIPOQ
21 fatty acid oxidation GO:0019395 9.67 ADIPOR1 ADIPOQ
22 positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway GO:0046628 9.67 LEP IRS1 INS ADIPOR1
23 energy reserve metabolic process GO:0006112 9.66 LEP ADRB3
24 glucose 6-phosphate metabolic process GO:0051156 9.65 HKDC1 GCK
25 cellular response to leptin stimulus GO:0044320 9.65 LEP GCK
26 leptin-mediated signaling pathway GO:0033210 9.64 LEP ADIPOR1
27 neuron projection maintenance GO:1990535 9.64 INSR INS
28 regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process GO:0042304 9.63 ADIPOR1 ADIPOQ
29 positive regulation of fatty acid beta-oxidation GO:0032000 9.63 IRS2 IRS1
30 positive regulation of glucose metabolic process GO:0010907 9.62 IRS2 IRS1
31 positive regulation of respiratory burst GO:0060267 9.61 INSR INS
32 negative regulation of feeding behavior GO:2000252 9.6 RETN INS
33 hexose metabolic process GO:0019318 9.59 HKDC1 GCK
34 positive regulation of developmental growth GO:0048639 9.58 LEP INSR
35 positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process GO:0045725 9.55 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS GCK
36 cellular response to insulin stimulus GO:0032869 9.5 SLC2A4 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR GCK
37 glucose homeostasis GO:0042593 9.32 TCF7L2 SLC2A4 RBP4 LEP IRS1 INSR

Molecular functions related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.56 RETN LEP INS ADIPOQ
2 glucose binding GO:0005536 9.46 HKDC1 GCK
3 mannokinase activity GO:0019158 9.43 HKDC1 GCK
4 fructokinase activity GO:0008865 9.4 HKDC1 GCK
5 hexokinase activity GO:0004396 9.37 HKDC1 GCK
6 insulin receptor binding GO:0005158 9.33 IRS2 IRS1 INS
7 glucokinase activity GO:0004340 9.32 HKDC1 GCK
8 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding GO:0043548 9.13 IRS2 IRS1 INSR
9 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding GO:0005159 8.8 IRS1 INSR INS

Sources for Gestational Diabetes

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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