GDM
MCID: GST033
MIFTS: 58

Gestational Diabetes (GDM)

Categories: Blood diseases, Metabolic diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Gestational Diabetes

MalaCards integrated aliases for Gestational Diabetes:

Name: Gestational Diabetes 12 25 15 63 17 72
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus 12 75 25 15
Gdm 12 25 48
Diabetes Mellitus Arising in Pregnancy 25 33
Maternal Gestational Diabetes Mellitus 12
Diabetes Mellitus, Pregnancy Related 25
Diabetes Mellitus, Gestational 25
Diabetes, Pregnancy-Induced 25
Diabetes, Gestational 44
Diabetes Gestational 55

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:11714
MeSH 44 D016640
NCIt 50 C34942
SNOMED-CT 68 11687002
ICD10 33 O24.4
UMLS 72 C0085207

Summaries for Gestational Diabetes

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Gestational diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. Affected women do not have diabetes before they are pregnant, and most of these women go back to being nondiabetic soon after the baby is born. The disease has a 30 to 70 percent chance of recurring in subsequent pregnancies. Additionally, about half of women with gestational diabetes develop another form of diabetes, known as type 2 diabetes, within a few years after their pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is often discovered during the second trimester of pregnancy. Most affected women have no symptoms, and the disease is discovered through routine screening at their obstetrician's office. If untreated, gestational diabetes increases the risk of pregnancy-associated high blood pressure (called preeclampsia) and early (premature) delivery of the baby. Babies of mothers with gestational diabetes tend to be large (macrosomia), which can cause complications during birth. Infants whose mothers have gestational diabetes are also more likely to develop dangerously low blood sugar levels soon after birth. Later in life, these individuals have an increased risk of developing obesity, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes.

MalaCards based summary : Gestational Diabetes, also known as gestational diabetes mellitus, is related to maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 2 and hypoglycemia, and has symptoms including hyperemesis gravidarum, pelvic pain and morning sickness. An important gene associated with Gestational Diabetes is INS (Insulin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins. and Regulation of lipid metabolism Insulin signaling-generic cascades. The drugs Resveratrol and Silicon have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, ovary and placenta, and related phenotypes are no effect and homeostasis/metabolism

PubMed Health : 63 About gestational diabetes: Most women's blood sugar levels remain normal during pregnancy. But if blood sugar levels go above a certain value, they are considered to have gestational diabetes. This is the case in about 4 out of 100 women. It is not always clear whether a woman just has slightly higher blood sugar levels or whether she has gestational diabetes. Women’s metabolism changes over the course of pregnancy anyway: It takes longer for the cells in their body to absorb the sugar in their blood after meals. This means that elevated blood sugar levels are often a normal part of pregnancy – and they usually return to normal afterwards. Having gestational diabetes doesn’t mean that you have developed chronic diabetes. The raised blood sugar levels in gestational diabetes slightly increase the risk of certain rare birth complications. This risk can usually be lowered by changing your diet, though. The vast majority of women who develop gestational diabetes experience an otherwise normal pregnancy and go on to give birth to a healthy baby.

Wikipedia : 75 Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels... more...

Related Diseases for Gestational Diabetes

Diseases related to Gestational Diabetes via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 393)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 2 32.7 INS GCK
2 hypoglycemia 32.1 KCNJ11 INSR INS GCK
3 fetal macrosomia 31.9 LEP INSR INS
4 maturity-onset diabetes of the young 31.3 KCNJ11 IRS1 INS GCK
5 acute insulin response 31.3 TCF7L2 KCNJ11 INS
6 hyperglycemia 31.2 LEP KCNJ11 IRS1 INSR INS GCK
7 polycystic ovary syndrome 31.2 SHBG LEP IRS1 INSR INS
8 lipid metabolism disorder 31.2 RETN RBP4 LEP INS ADIPOQ
9 monogenic diabetes 31.0 KCNJ11 INS GCK
10 sleep apnea 31.0 LEP INS ADIPOQ
11 hyperinsulinism 31.0 SHBG LEP KCNJ11 INSR INS GCK
12 prediabetes syndrome 31.0 TCF7L2 LEP INS ADIPOQ
13 severe pre-eclampsia 31.0 RBP4 LEP ADIPOQ
14 fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic 1 30.9 RETN LEP INS ADIPOQ
15 proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1 30.9 RETN INS ADIPOQ
16 hyperandrogenism 30.8 SHBG INSR INS
17 anovulation 30.8 SHBG LEP INS
18 vascular disease 30.7 RETN NAMPT INS ADIPOQ
19 hyperthyroidism 30.5 SHBG LEP INS
20 abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 1 30.5 SLC2A4 LEP INS ADIPOQ
21 insulinoma 30.4 PTPRN INS GCK
22 acanthosis nigricans 30.3 SHBG LEP INSR INS ADIPOQ
23 diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal 30.3 KCNJ11 INS GCK
24 arteries, anomalies of 30.3 LEP INS ADIPOQ
25 coronary heart disease 1 30.2 RETN INS ADIPOQ
26 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 30.1 KCNJ11 INSR INS GCK
27 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 6 30.0 PTPRN INS GCK
28 glucose intolerance 29.6 SLC2A4 SHBG RETN RBP4 LEP IRS1
29 hypertension, essential 29.6 RETN LEP INSR INS ADRB3 ADIPOQ
30 fatty liver disease 29.2 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS ADIPOR1
31 insulin-like growth factor i 29.1 SHBG LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
32 diabetes mellitus 28.8 TCF7L2 SLC2A4 SHBG RETN PTPRN NAMPT
33 overnutrition 28.7 SLC2A4 SHBG RETN NAMPT LEP IRS1
34 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 1 28.2 TCF7L2 RETN LEP KCNJ11 IRS2 IRS1
35 glucose metabolism disease 27.6 TCF7L2 SLC2A4 RETN PTPRN LEP KCNJ11
36 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 26.9 SLC2A4 SHBG RETN RBP4 NAMPT LEP
37 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent 26.0 TCF7L2 SLC2A4 SHBG RETN RBP4 PTPRN
38 gestational diabetes insipidus 12.5
39 diabetes mellitus, transient neonatal, 3 11.2
40 congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract 2 11.2
41 pre-eclampsia 11.0
42 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 10.8
43 eclampsia 10.8
44 placenta disease 10.7
45 pancreas disease 10.7 LEP KCNJ11 INS
46 bilirubin metabolic disorder 10.7
47 munchausen by proxy 10.7 KCNJ11 GCK
48 lipodystrophy, congenital generalized, type 1 10.6 LEP INS ADIPOQ
49 apnea, obstructive sleep 10.6 LEP INS ADIPOQ
50 alstrom syndrome 10.6 LEP KCNJ11 INS

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gestational Diabetes:



Diseases related to Gestational Diabetes

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Gestational Diabetes

UMLS symptoms related to Gestational Diabetes:


hyperemesis gravidarum, pelvic pain, morning sickness

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no effect GR00402-S-1 9.92 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 ADRB3 GCK HKDC1 INS

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Gestational Diabetes:

46 (show all 12)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.38 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 ADRB3 GCK HKDC1 INS
2 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.32 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 ADRB3 INS INSR IRS1
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.31 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 ADRB3 GCK INS INSR
4 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.3 ADIPOQ ADRB3 GCK INS INSR IRS1
5 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.26 ADIPOQ INS INSR IRS1 IRS2 KCNJ11
6 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.19 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 ADRB3 INS INSR IRS2
7 immune system MP:0005387 10.11 ADIPOQ INS INSR IRS1 IRS2 LEP
8 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 10.1 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 GCK HKDC1 INS INSR
9 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.03 ADIPOQ GCK HKDC1 INS INSR IRS1
10 muscle MP:0005369 9.9 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 INS INSR IRS1 IRS2
11 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.56 ADIPOQ GCK INS INSR IRS2 LEP
12 skeleton MP:0005390 9.28 ADIPOQ ADIPOR1 INS IRS1 LEP PAPPA

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gestational Diabetes

PubMed Health treatment related to Gestational Diabetes: 63

A change in diet is usually enough to make the levels return to normal. Women with gestational diabetes can get advice from their doctor. Special dietary counseling can be helpful too. Another way to lower your blood sugar levels is by getting more exercise. In some pregnant women the blood sugar levels stay high for so long that they have to inject insulin or, in rare cases, take medicine for diabetes. The doctor will offer to measure the woman’s blood sugar levels again after the baby is born. If her blood sugar levels have returned to normal, no more treatment is needed.

Drugs for Gestational Diabetes (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 277)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Resveratrol Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 501-36-0 445154
2
Silicon Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-21-3 4082203
3
Cyproterone Acetate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 427-51-0
4
Cefazolin Approved Phase 4 25953-19-9 656510 33255
5
Liraglutide Approved Phase 4 204656-20-2 44147092
6
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-30-3 6037
7 Acidophilus Phase 4
8 Bifidobacterium Phase 4
9 Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic Phase 4
10 Sulfalene Phase 4
11 Androgens Phase 4
12 Contraceptive Agents, Male Phase 4
13
Cyproterone Phase 4 2098-66-0 5284537
14 Cyproterone acetate, ethinyl estradiol drug combination Phase 4
15 Androgen Antagonists Phase 4
16 Insulin, Long-Acting Phase 4
17 Isophane insulin, insulin lispro drug combination 50:50 Phase 4
18 Protamines Phase 4
19 Biphasic Insulins Phase 4
20 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
21 Sitagliptin Phosphate Phase 4
22 Biguanides Phase 4
23 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
24 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4
25 Micronutrients Phase 4
26 Trace Elements Phase 4
27 Vitamins Phase 4
28 Vitamin B9 Phase 4
29 Folate Phase 4
30 Nutrients Phase 4
31 Vitamin B Complex Phase 4
32 Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Phase 4
33 Vaccines Phase 4
34 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
35
Vildagliptin Approved, Investigational Phase 3 274901-16-5 6918537
36
Dopamine Approved Phase 3 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
37
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 3 364-62-5 4168
38
Alogliptin Approved Phase 3 850649-61-5 11450633
39
Ramipril Approved Phase 3 87333-19-5 5362129
40
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 3 122320-73-4 77999
41
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 3 111025-46-8 4829
42 Papaya Approved Phase 2, Phase 3
43
Saxagliptin Approved Phase 3 361442-04-8 11243969
44
Glucagon Approved Phase 3 16941-32-5
45
Empagliflozin Approved Phase 3 864070-44-0
46
Acarbose Approved, Investigational Phase 3 56180-94-0 441184
47
Phentermine Approved, Illicit Phase 3 122-09-8 4771
48
Topiramate Approved Phase 3 97240-79-4 5284627
49
Titanium dioxide Approved Phase 3 13463-67-7
50
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-78-2 2244

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 633)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Impacts of Vitamin D Supplementation on Glucose Metabolism in Chinese Women With Vitamin D Deficiency and Former Gestational Diabetes Mellitus:A Randomised Control Trial Unknown status NCT03138616 Phase 4 vitamin D
2 Can Resveratrol Improve Insulin Sensitivity and Preserve Beta Cell Function Following Gestational Diabetes? Unknown status NCT01997762 Phase 4
3 Efficacy of Myo-inositol in Preventing Gestational Diabetes in High-risk Pregnant Women Unknown status NCT01511835 Phase 4 Folic Acid
4 Glucose Control During Labour in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus With Insulin Treatment: Insulin-Glucose-Infusion Versus Observational Approach - Is There a Difference in Neonatal Hypoglycemia Rate? Unknown status NCT02590016 Phase 4 Insulin, Aspart
5 Metformin Treatment for Preventing Gestational Diabetes in High-risk Patients Unknown status NCT00883259 Phase 4 Metformin
6 The POP-study: Effect of Probiotics on Weight, Microbiota and Glucose Tolerance in Obese Pregnant Women and Their Newborn - a Randomized, Double-blind Placebo Controlled Trial With Vivomixx® Unknown status NCT02508844 Phase 4
7 Oral Antidiabetic Agents on Gestational Diabetes: Modulating Effect on Fetal Growth - a Clinical Randomized Trial Unknown status NCT02091336 Phase 4 Metformin;Glyburide
8 Phase 4 Study of Effectiveness of Metformin in Patients With Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriages Unknown status NCT01718340 Phase 4 Metformin
9 Effect of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium Lactis BB 12 on Beta-cell Function in Children With Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes - a Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT03032354 Phase 4 Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12
10 The Effect of Diane-35 Pretreatment on Endocrine and Clinical Profile for Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Undergoing In-vitro Fertilization Unknown status NCT01752270 Phase 4 Diane-35 pretreatment;Diane-35 pretreatment
11 Therapeutic Monitoring of Metformin in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Unknown status NCT01366391 Phase 4 Metformin
12 A Double Blind Randomized Control Trial to Study the Effect of Long Term Vitamin D Supplementation on Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity in Apparently Healthy Middle Aged Centrally Obese Adults Unknown status NCT01052181 Phase 4 Cholecalciferol;placebo
13 Phase 4 Humalog® Mix50/50(tm) for the Treatment of Insulin Requiring Gestational Diabetes Completed NCT01613807 Phase 4 Insulin LISPRO;Insulin, Long-Acting and Insulin LISPRO
14 Metformin Versus Insulin in Gestational Diabetes. A Randomized Controlled Single Center Trial. Completed NCT01240785 Phase 4 metformin;insulin
15 EFFECTIVITY OF MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY PLUS TRANSGESTATIONAL METFORMIN FOR PREVENTING THE INCIDENCE OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS IN HIGH RISK MEXICAN WOMEN. Completed NCT01675310 Phase 4 medical nutrition therapy + metformin
16 Physiological Effects of Gestational Diabetes on the Placenta and Neonatal Outcome; Role of Antioxidant Administration Completed NCT02355197 Phase 4 L-ascorbic acid
17 A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Treatment of Mild Gestational Diabetes With Glyburide Versus Placebo Completed NCT00744965 Phase 4 Glyburide;Placebo
18 A Comparison Between Two Oral Hypoglycemics - Metformin and Glybenclamide for the Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT01563120 Phase 4 metformin;glybenclamide
19 Effects of Resistance Exercise Training Program Performed During the 2nd and 3rd Trimesters of Pregnancy on Maternal and Newborn Health Completed NCT00813657 Phase 4
20 The Effects of Metformin on Retained Postpartum Weight in Women With Gestational Diabetes: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Completed NCT01280409 Phase 4 Metformin;Placebo
21 A Randomized Pilot Study Evaluating Combination Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin Plus Metformin Compared to Metformin Monotherapy and Placebo on Metabolic Abnormalities in Women With a Recent History of GDM Completed NCT01856907 Phase 4 Sitagliptin-Metformin;Metformin;Placebo pill
22 Increased Cefazolin (Ancef) Dosing for Prophylaxis During Cesarean Delivery in the Obese Population Completed NCT02049944 Phase 4 Cefazolin
23 The Effect of Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Glycemic Control and Pregnancy Outcomes in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus:A Randomized Controlled Trial. Recruiting NCT03955107 Phase 4
24 Preventing Recurrent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus With Early Metformin Intervention Recruiting NCT02394158 Phase 4 Metformin;placebo
25 Metabolic Analysis for Treatment Choice in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Recruiting NCT03029702 Phase 4 Insulin;Glyburide;Metformin
26 A Randomized Control Trial of Vitamin D Prophylaxis in the Prevention of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Recruiting NCT02920593 Phase 4 Vitamin D3
27 Effects of a Supplementation With Zinc and Myo-inositol in Paediatric Obesity Recruiting NCT03283813 Phase 4 Placebos;Myoinositol
28 The Impact of Liraglutide on Glucose Tolerance and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women With Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Active, not recruiting NCT01795248 Phase 4 Liraglutide;Placebo
29 Threshold for Initiation of Medical Treatment for Women With Gestational Diabetes: A Single Site Randomized Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03527537 Phase 4 Insulin;Glyburide;Metformin
30 Pertussis Vaccination in Pregnant Women: Implementation and Evaluation of Different Models of Vaccination Dispensation Not yet recruiting NCT03909126 Phase 4
31 Metformin Use to Improve Pregnancy Outcome in Women With Type 1 Diabetes. A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Multicenter Study. Not yet recruiting NCT03765359 Phase 4 metforminhydrochloride;Placebo Oral Tablet
32 Failure Rate of GLyburide And Metformin Among Gestational Diabetics Withdrawn NCT03078725 Phase 4 Glyburide;Metformin
33 Program for the Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus Development in Women Who Had Already Experienced A Gestational Diabetes. Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Life-style Modification and the Life-style Modification in Conjunction With Metformin, in the Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus Development in a Population of Women Who Had Expired a Gestational Diabetes - a Multicenter, Randomized, Double Blind Study. Withdrawn NCT00265746 Phase 4 Metformin
34 Pilot Study of Exenatide Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Gestational Diabetes Withdrawn NCT00572689 Phase 4 Exenatide
35 Glyburide Compared to Insulin in the Management of White's Classification A2 Gestational Diabetes Withdrawn NCT00160485 Phase 4 Glyburide;Insulin
36 Glycemic Profile in Women With Gestational Diabetes Treated With Glyburide Withdrawn NCT01947699 Phase 4 Glyburide
37 Metformin vs Control to Prevent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) in Women With a High Risk for GDM, an Open Label Randomized Controlled Trial, The Medico-GDM Trial Unknown status NCT02275845 Phase 3 Metformin
38 Metformin for the Treatment of Diabetes in Pregnancy Unknown status NCT00414245 Phase 3 metformin
39 Metformin for Prevention of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnant Women With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT ) Unknown status NCT02802215 Phase 2, Phase 3 metformin;placebo (folic acid )
40 Metformin in Gestational Diabetes and type2 Diabetes in Pregnancy in a Developing Country Unknown status NCT01855763 Phase 2, Phase 3 Metformin;Insulin
41 Modulation of the Intestinal Flora With the Probiotic VIVOMIXX™ in Pregnant Women at Risk of Metabolic Complications Unknown status NCT02768818 Phase 3
42 Effect of a Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02838147 Phase 3
43 Effects of Probiotics (Lactobacillus Rhamnosus) In Reducing Glucose Intolerance During and After Pregnancy: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial in Antenatal Clinic of Karachi-Pakistan (GRIP) Unknown status NCT01436448 Phase 3 Probiotics Lactobacillus Rhamnosus
44 Metformin Versus Insulin in the Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: a Randomized Controlled Study Completed NCT01087866 Phase 2, Phase 3 Metformin;Insulin
45 Comparison of Metformin and Insulin for Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT03320694 Phase 3 Metformin;Insulin
46 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Insulin or Oral Hypoglycemic Agents? Completed NCT01215331 Phase 3 Insulin;Metformin, glyburide and insulin
47 Multicenter Randomized Trial of Non-inferiority Between Glyburide and Insulin for the Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Completed NCT01731431 Phase 3 Glyburide
48 Safety and Efficacy of Insulin Aspart vs. Regular Human Insulin in Basal/Bolus Therapy for Patients With Gestational Diabetes Completed NCT00065130 Phase 3 human insulin;insulin NPH;insulin aspart
49 A Feasibility Study Looking at the Use of Glibenclamide and metfoRmin Versus stAndard Care in gEstational diabeteS Completed NCT02080377 Phase 3 Glibenclamide;Insulin
50 Randomized Comparative Trial on the Efficacy of Behavioral Therapy, Exercise and Their Combination in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Completed NCT01506310 Phase 3

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gestational Diabetes

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :


Glyburide
Insulin Aspart
Insulin Lispro

Cochrane evidence based reviews: diabetes, gestational

Genetic Tests for Gestational Diabetes

Anatomical Context for Gestational Diabetes

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gestational Diabetes:

41
Testes, Ovary, Placenta, Heart, Endothelial, Liver, Breast

Publications for Gestational Diabetes

Articles related to Gestational Diabetes:

(show top 50) (show all 13312)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Full-length adiponectin attenuates insulin signaling and inhibits insulin-stimulated amino Acid transport in human primary trophoblast cells. 9 38
20150288 2010
2
Nitric oxide reduces SLC29A1 promoter activity and adenosine transport involving transcription factor complex hCHOP-C/EBPalpha in human umbilical vein endothelial cells from gestational diabetes. 9 38
20032083 2010
3
Retinol-binding protein 4: a novel adipokine implicated in the genesis of LGA in the absence of gestational diabetes mellitus. 9 38
20146659 2010
4
Retinol-binding protein 4 in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. 9 38
20156079 2010
5
Further evidence that mutations in INS can be a rare cause of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). 9 38
20226046 2010
6
Assessment of insulin sensitivity/resistance and their relations with leptin concentrations and anthropometric measures in a pregnant population with and without gestational diabetes mellitus. 9 38
19269197 2010
7
Association between retinol-binding protein 4 concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus and risk of developing metabolic syndrome after pregnancy. 9 38
19897788 2010
8
Serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and retinol in a cohort of borderline obese women with and without gestational diabetes. 9 38
19857477 2010
9
Declining beta-cell compensation for insulin resistance in Hispanic women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus: association with changes in weight, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein. 9 38
19933993 2010
10
[Correlation of retinol binding protein 4 expression in maternal serum and subcutaneous adipose tissue with insulin resistance in gestational diabetes mellitus.]. 9 38
20193418 2009
11
The change in sex hormone binding globulin and the influence by gestational diabetes mellitus in fetal period. 9 38
19557594 2009
12
Maternal plasma soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and placental growth factor levels as biochemical markers of gestational hypertension for Malaysian mothers. 9 38
20149032 2009
13
Abnormal glucose tolerance is associated with diminished postload change in leptin levels in women. 9 38
19681034 2009
14
Gender differences in serum leptin concentrations from umbilical cord blood of newborn infants born to nondiabetic, gestational diabetic and type-2 diabetic mothers. 9 38
20336197 2009
15
[The regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen synthase activities by insulin superfamily peptides in myometrium of pregnant women and its impairments under different types of diabetes mellitus]. 9 38
20017397 2009
16
[Serum resistin concentrations in cases of gestational diabetes mellitus with good glycemic control and in cord blood]. 9 38
19642599 2009
17
TGF-beta1 inhibits expression and activity of hENT1 in a nitric oxide-dependent manner in human umbilical vein endothelium. 9 38
19193655 2009
18
Neonatal adiposity following maternal treatment of gestational diabetes with glyburide compared with insulin. 9 38
19375570 2009
19
Visfatin in gestational diabetes: serum level and mRNA expression in fat and placental tissue. 9 38
19185944 2009
20
High resistin and interleukin-6 levels are associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. 9 38
19408175 2009
21
Defective insulin signaling in placenta from pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. 9 38
19179458 2009
22
Visfatin in human pregnancy: maternal gestational diabetes vis-à-vis neonatal birthweight. 9 38
19099366 2009
23
Serum visfatin concentration is elevated in pregnant women irrespectively of the presence of gestational diabetes. 9 38
19323054 2009
24
Maternal serum adiponectin multimers in gestational diabetes. 9 38
19530957 2009
25
Design of FitFor2 study: the effects of an exercise program on insulin sensitivity and plasma glucose levels in pregnant women at high risk for gestational diabetes. 9 38
19123930 2009
26
Does continuous use of metformin throughout pregnancy improve pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome? 9 38
18834342 2008
27
Screening for biomarkers predictive of gestational diabetes mellitus. 9 38
18496643 2008
28
Combined association of maternal and paternal family history of diabetes with plasma leptin and adiponectin in overweight Hispanic children. 9 38
19183309 2008
29
High plasma retinol binding protein-4 and low plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with severity of glucose intolerance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. 9 38
18492757 2008
30
Serum concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 in women with and without gestational diabetes. 9 38
18437353 2008
31
Visfatin concentration is decreased in women with gestational diabetes mellitus in the third trimester. 9 38
18787378 2008
32
Pre- and early post-partum adiponectin and interleukin-1beta levels in women with and without gestational diabetes. 9 38
18694861 2008
33
Elevated concentrations of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) in gestational diabetes mellitus: negative correlation with soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1). 9 38
18584408 2008
34
Retinol-binding protein 4 responses during an oral glucose tolerance testing in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. 9 38
18328819 2008
35
Metformin versus insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes. 9 38
18463376 2008
36
Variations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin and adiponectin in mid-trimester of gestational diabetes mellitus. 9 38
18701022 2008
37
Safety of glyburide for gestational diabetes: a meta-analysis of pregnancy outcomes. 9 38
18349305 2008
38
Differences in low-grade chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus and women with polycystic ovary syndrome. 9 38
18382906 2008
39
Therapeutic management, delivery, and postpartum risk assessment and screening in gestational diabetes. 9 38
18457474 2008
40
Insulin sensitivity and resistin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus and after parturition. 9 38
18230823 2008
41
Diabetes mellitus following gestational diabetes: role of subsequent pregnancy. 9 38
18081603 2008
42
Comparison of metformin and insulin in the treatment of gestational diabetes: a retrospective, case-control study. 9 38
18795211 2008
43
Leptin expression in primary trophoblast cells in response to incubation with the serum of preeclamptic women. 9 38
18696355 2008
44
Postpartum adiponectin concentration, insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities among women with pregnancy-induced disturbances. 9 38
18401239 2008
45
Relationship between leptin concentration and insulin resistance. 9 38
18075970 2007
46
Metformin and insulin in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus: preliminary results of a comparison. 9 38
18161398 2007
47
Insulin resistance in Hispanic large-for-gestational-age neonates at birth. 9 38
17635945 2007
48
Efficacy, safety and lack of immunogenicity of insulin aspart compared with regular human insulin for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. 9 38
17888133 2007
49
Oral hypoglycaemic agents for diabetes in pregnancy - an appraisal of the current evidence for oral anti-diabetic drug use in pregnancy. 9 38
17767338 2007
50
Visfatin response to glucose is reduced in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. 9 38
17416788 2007

Variations for Gestational Diabetes

Expression for Gestational Diabetes

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gestational Diabetes.

Pathways for Gestational Diabetes

Pathways related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 29)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.49 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS ADRB3
2
Show member pathways
12.86 SLC2A4 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS HKDC1
3
Show member pathways
12.72 SLC2A4 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
4
Show member pathways
12.63 SLC2A4 RETN RBP4 NAMPT LEP IRS2
5 12.51 SLC2A4 NAMPT IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
6
Show member pathways
12.46 SLC2A4 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
7
Show member pathways
12.43 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INS GCK
8
Show member pathways
12.34 SLC2A4 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
9
Show member pathways
12.28 KCNJ11 INS ADIPOR1 ADIPOQ
10
Show member pathways
12.21 SLC2A4 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
11
Show member pathways
12.11 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS ADIPOR1 ADIPOQ
12
Show member pathways
12.06 SLC2A4 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
13
Show member pathways
11.95 SLC2A4 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
14 11.88 TCF7L2 IRS1 INSR
15 11.88 SLC2A4 RETN NAMPT LEP IRS2 IRS1
16 11.85 INSR INS HKDC1
17 11.68 SLC2A4 LEP IRS2 IRS1 ADIPOR1 ADIPOQ
18 11.61 IRS1 INSR INS
19 11.57 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS ADRB3
20 11.54 LEP IRS1 INSR INS
21 11.52 SLC2A4 LEP KCNJ11 IRS2 IRS1
22 11.42 KCNJ11 INS GCK
23 11.41 IRS1 INSR INS
24 11.34 IRS1 INSR INS
25
Show member pathways
11.26 SLC2A4 KCNJ11 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
26 11.21 SLC2A4 INSR INS
27
Show member pathways
10.94 SLC2A4 IRS1 INSR
28 10.84 SLC2A4 INS
29 10.78 SLC2A4 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR ADIPOQ

GO Terms for Gestational Diabetes

Cellular components related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 insulin receptor complex GO:0005899 8.62 IRS1 INSR

Biological processes related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 35)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 carbohydrate metabolic process GO:0005975 9.93 SLC2A4 INSR INS HKDC1 GCK ADRB3
2 positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling GO:0051897 9.88 TCF7L2 LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
3 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.87 LEP INSR INS ADRB3
4 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.85 SLC2A4 RBP4 LEP ADIPOQ
5 positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis GO:0120162 9.84 LEP ADRB3 ADIPOR1 ADIPOQ
6 female pregnancy GO:0007565 9.83 PAPPA NAMPT LEP
7 response to glucose GO:0009749 9.83 TCF7L2 PTPRN IRS2 ADIPOQ
8 insulin receptor signaling pathway GO:0008286 9.83 NAMPT IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS
9 circadian rhythm GO:0007623 9.82 NAMPT LEP ADIPOQ
10 response to insulin GO:0032868 9.81 RETN PTPRN LEP IRS1
11 cellular response to insulin stimulus GO:0032869 9.8 SLC2A4 IRS2 IRS1 INSR GCK ADIPOQ
12 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.78 LEP KCNJ11 GCK
13 positive regulation of insulin secretion GO:0032024 9.78 TCF7L2 RBP4 IRS2 GCK
14 cellular response to glucose stimulus GO:0071333 9.77 SLC29A1 KCNJ11 IRS2
15 cellular glucose homeostasis GO:0001678 9.67 HKDC1 GCK
16 negative regulation of gluconeogenesis GO:0045721 9.67 INS GCK ADIPOQ
17 positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway GO:0046628 9.67 LEP IRS1 INS ADIPOR1
18 positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process GO:0032270 9.66 INS ADIPOQ
19 fatty acid oxidation GO:0019395 9.66 ADIPOR1 ADIPOQ
20 energy reserve metabolic process GO:0006112 9.65 LEP ADRB3
21 positive regulation of glucose import GO:0046326 9.65 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS ADIPOQ
22 regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process GO:0042304 9.64 ADIPOR1 ADIPOQ
23 positive regulation of glucose metabolic process GO:0010907 9.64 IRS2 IRS1
24 positive regulation of fatty acid beta-oxidation GO:0032000 9.63 IRS2 IRS1
25 neuron projection maintenance GO:1990535 9.63 INSR INS
26 glucose metabolic process GO:0006006 9.63 LEP KCNJ11 IRS2 INS GCK ADIPOQ
27 glucose 6-phosphate metabolic process GO:0051156 9.62 HKDC1 GCK
28 cellular response to leptin stimulus GO:0044320 9.62 LEP GCK
29 leptin-mediated signaling pathway GO:0033210 9.61 LEP ADIPOR1
30 negative regulation of feeding behavior GO:2000252 9.59 RETN INS
31 positive regulation of respiratory burst GO:0060267 9.58 INSR INS
32 positive regulation of developmental growth GO:0048639 9.58 LEP INSR
33 positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process GO:0045725 9.35 IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS GCK
34 glucose homeostasis GO:0042593 9.32 TCF7L2 SLC2A4 RBP4 LEP IRS1 INSR
35 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 10.03 NAMPT LEP IRS2 IRS1 INSR INS

Molecular functions related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.56 RETN LEP INS ADIPOQ
2 glucose binding GO:0005536 9.46 HKDC1 GCK
3 mannokinase activity GO:0019158 9.43 HKDC1 GCK
4 hexokinase activity GO:0004396 9.4 HKDC1 GCK
5 glucokinase activity GO:0004340 9.37 HKDC1 GCK
6 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding GO:0043548 9.33 IRS2 IRS1 INSR
7 fructokinase activity GO:0008865 9.32 HKDC1 GCK
8 insulin receptor binding GO:0005158 9.13 IRS2 IRS1 INS
9 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding GO:0005159 8.8 IRS1 INSR INS

Sources for Gestational Diabetes

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 TGDB
71 Tocris
72 UMLS
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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