MCID: GNT008
MIFTS: 48

Giant Cell Tumor

Categories: Cancer diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Giant Cell Tumor

MalaCards integrated aliases for Giant Cell Tumor:

Name: Giant Cell Tumor 12 15
Giant Cell Tumors 12 55 44 73
Tumor of the Giant Cell 12
Giant Cell Neoplasm 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:200
MeSH 44 D005870
NCIt 50 C3055 C7069
UMLS 73 C0017525

Summaries for Giant Cell Tumor

MalaCards based summary : Giant Cell Tumor, also known as giant cell tumors, is related to tenosynovial giant cell tumor and bone giant cell tumor. An important gene associated with Giant Cell Tumor is ZNF687 (Zinc Finger Protein 687), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Cytokine Signaling in Immune system. The drugs Xgeva and Denosumab have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, pancreas and liver, and related phenotypes are limbs/digits/tail and respiratory system

Related Diseases for Giant Cell Tumor

Diseases in the Giant Cell Tumor family:

Malignant Giant Cell Tumor

Diseases related to Giant Cell Tumor via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 216)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 tenosynovial giant cell tumor 34.8 CSF1 SERPINA3
2 bone giant cell tumor 33.3 CALCA CTSK VIM
3 nodular tenosynovitis 33.1 PTPRC SERPINA3
4 pigmented villonodular synovitis 32.8 CSF1 MMP9 PTPRC TNFSF11
5 villonodular synovitis 31.2 MMP9 TNFSF11 VIM
6 epulis 30.7 DES VIM
7 mucinous cystadenocarcinoma 30.4 MUC1 PTPRC VIM
8 aneurysmal bone cysts 30.1 CALCA TNFRSF11A TNFSF11
9 giant cell reparative granuloma 29.8 CALCA TNFRSF11A
10 fibrous histiocytoma 29.8 DES SERPINA3 VIM
11 dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans 29.8 DES SERPINA3 VIM
12 spindle cell sarcoma 29.6 DES MUC1 VIM
13 arthritis 29.5 CSF1 MMP9 TNFRSF11A TNFSF11
14 osteonecrosis 29.4 BGLAP TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
15 fibrosarcoma 29.3 DES MMP9 VIM
16 osteitis fibrosa 29.0 BGLAP CALCA
17 chordoma 28.9 CTSK DES MUC1 VIM
18 hyperparathyroidism 28.8 BGLAP CALCA TNFRSF11B
19 rheumatoid arthritis 28.0 CSF1 CTSK MMP9 TNFRSF11A TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
20 paget's disease of bone 27.5 BGLAP CALCA CSF1 TNFRSF11A TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
21 bone disease 26.1 BGLAP CALCA CSF1 CTSK TNFRSF11A TNFRSF11B
22 malignant giant cell tumor 12.2
23 malignant giant cell tumor of soft parts 12.2
24 malignant giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath 12.2
25 osteoclast-like giant cell neoplasm of the pancreas 12.1
26 osteoclastic giant cell tumor of pancreas 12.1
27 bone giant cell sarcoma 11.8
28 cherubism 11.3
29 paget disease of bone 6 11.1
30 mandibular cancer 10.8 CSF1 TNFSF11
31 intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia 10.8 SERPINA3 VIM
32 breast leiomyosarcoma 10.8 TNFRSF11A TNFSF11
33 retroperitoneal fibrosis 10.8 PTPRC VIM
34 kummell's disease 10.7 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
35 periodontitis, chronic 10.7 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
36 gingival hypertrophy 10.7 MMP9 VIM
37 chronic apical periodontitis 10.7 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
38 malignant peritoneal mesothelioma 10.7 MUC1 VIM
39 papillary tumor of the pineal region 10.7 MUC1 VIM
40 infantile digital fibromatosis 10.7 DES VIM
41 lymphangiomatosis 10.6 DES VIM
42 angiolipoma 10.6 DES VIM
43 fibrous meningioma 10.6 MUC1 VIM
44 chordoid meningioma 10.6 MUC1 VIM
45 malignant mixed mullerian tumor 10.6 MUC1 VIM
46 nodular hidradenoma 10.6 MUC1 VIM
47 eccrine porocarcinoma 10.6 MUC1 VIM
48 spindle cell lipoma 10.6 DES VIM
49 endometrial mucinous adenocarcinoma 10.6 MUC1 VIM
50 adenofibroma 10.6 MUC1 VIM

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Giant Cell Tumor:



Diseases related to Giant Cell Tumor

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Giant Cell Tumor

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Giant Cell Tumor:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 limbs/digits/tail MP:0005371 9.43 TNFSF11 CSF1 CTSK MMP9 TNFRSF11A TNFRSF11B
2 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.17 TNFSF11 VIM CSF1 CTSK MMP9 PTPRC

Drugs & Therapeutics for Giant Cell Tumor

FDA approved drugs:

# Drug Name Active Ingredient(s) 18 Company Approval Date
1
Xgeva 18 49 DENOSUMAB Amgen June 2013/ November 2010

Drugs for Giant Cell Tumor (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 61)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Denosumab Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 615258-40-7
2
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 1406-16-2
3 Bone Density Conservation Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
4 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4,Phase 2
5 Vitamins Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1
6
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 437-38-7 3345
7
Ethanol Approved Phase 3 64-17-5 702
8
Phenol Approved, Experimental Phase 3 108-95-2 996
9
Zoledronic acid Approved Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2 118072-93-8 68740
10 Pancreatic Polypeptide Investigational Phase 3 59763-91-6
11 Liver Extracts Phase 3,Not Applicable
12 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 3,Phase 1
13 Analgesics Phase 3
14 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 3
15 Anesthetics Phase 3,Phase 1
16 Anesthetics, General Phase 3,Phase 1
17 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 3,Phase 1
18 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 3,Phase 1
19 Narcotics Phase 3
20 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 3
21 Antibodies Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
22 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 3,Phase 2
23 Immunoglobulins Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
24 Diphosphonates Phase 3,Phase 2
25 Polymethyl Methacrylate Phase 3
26 Cola Nutraceutical Phase 3,Not Applicable
27
nivolumab Approved Phase 2 946414-94-4
28
Dasatinib Approved, Investigational Phase 2 302962-49-8 3062316
29 Micronutrients Phase 2,Phase 1
30 Trace Elements Phase 2,Phase 1
31 Protein Kinase Inhibitors Phase 2
32 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 1, Phase 2
33 Grapefruit Seed Extract Nutraceutical Phase 2
34
Paclitaxel Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1 33069-62-4 36314
35
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 1 59467-70-8 4192
36
Warfarin Approved Phase 1 81-81-2 6691 54678486
37
Menadione Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 1 58-27-5 4055
38
Phytonadione Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 1 84-80-0 4812 5284607
39 Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel Phase 1
40 Antimitotic Agents Phase 1
41 Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic Phase 1
42 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 1
43 Anticoagulants Phase 1
44 Antifibrinolytic Agents Phase 1
45 Coagulants Phase 1
46 GABA Agents Phase 1
47 GABA Modulators Phase 1
48 Hemostatics Phase 1
49 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 1
50 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 1

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 26)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Long-term Safety Follow-up of Subjects With Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Treated With Denosumab in Study 20062004 Recruiting NCT03301857 Phase 4 Cohort A Denosumab
2 Fentanyl Sublingual Spray in Treating Patients With Breakthrough Cancer Pain Completed NCT00538850 Phase 3 Fentanyl sublingual spray;Placebo
3 Characteristics and Mechanism of Denosumab-treated Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Recruiting NCT03259152 Phase 3 Denosumab
4 Local Bisphosphonate Effect on Recurrence Rate in Extremity Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Recruiting NCT03295981 Phase 3 Zoledronic Acid
5 Phase 3 Study of Pexidartinib for Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS) or Giant Cell Tumor of the Tendon Sheath (GCT-TS) Active, not recruiting NCT02371369 Phase 3 Pexidartinib;Placebo
6 Safety and Efficacy Study of Denosumab in Patients With Recurrent or Unresectable Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Completed NCT00396279 Phase 2
7 Study of Denosumab in Subjects With Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Completed NCT00680992 Phase 2 Denosumab
8 Study of Nilotinib Efficacy in Pigmented Villo-Nodular Synovitis/ Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumour (PVNS/TGCT) Completed NCT01261429 Phase 2 Tasigna
9 Denosumab: A Potential Treatment Option for Aneurysmal Bone Cysts Completed NCT03415477 Phase 1, Phase 2 Denosumab (Xgeva)
10 Study of Cabiralizumab in Patients With Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis / Diffuse Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor Recruiting NCT02471716 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Rare Tumors Recruiting NCT02834013 Phase 2
12 Nilotinib in Patients With Relapsed or Metastatic Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis/Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor/Diffuse-Type Giant Cell Tumor Active, not recruiting NCT01207492 Phase 2 nilotinib
13 MCS110 in Patients With Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS) Active, not recruiting NCT01643850 Phase 2 MCS110;Placebo;MCS110;Placebo
14 Trial of Dasatinib in Advanced Sarcomas Active, not recruiting NCT00464620 Phase 2 Dasatinib
15 Denosumab Treatment for Fibrous Dysplasia Enrolling by invitation NCT03571191 Phase 2 Denosumab;Denosumab;Denosumab
16 Study of the Effect of Zoledronate on Local Recurrence After Surgical Treatment of Giant Cell Tumors of Bone Zométa Terminated NCT01564121 Phase 1, Phase 2 acid Zoledronic
17 Adjuvant Zoledronic Acid in High Risk Giant Cell Tumour of Bone (GCT) Terminated NCT00889590 Phase 2 Zoledronic acid
18 A Study of RO5509554 as Monotherapy and in Combination With Paclitaxel in Participants With Advanced Solid Tumors Completed NCT01494688 Phase 1 Paclitaxel;RO5509554
19 Effect of Pexidartinib on the Way the Body Processes CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 Substrates (Pharmacokinetics) Recruiting NCT03291288 Phase 1 Tolbutamide;Midazolam;Pexidartinib
20 A Study of PLX73086 in Advanced Solid Tumors and Locally Advanced or Refractory Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor Terminated NCT02673736 Phase 1 PLX73086
21 Phase 1 Study of PLX7486 as Single Agent in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors Terminated NCT01804530 Phase 1 PLX7486 TsOH
22 Cyclophosphamide and Cryoablation in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Epithelial Cancer Unknown status NCT00499733 Not Applicable cyclophosphamide
23 Giant Cell Tumor of the Extremities Treated With Surgery and/or Medical Treatment Completed NCT02996734
24 Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumors (TGCT) Observational Platform Project Recruiting NCT02948088
25 Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Surgical Treatment of Villo-nodular Synovitis of the Hip in Children Recruiting NCT03507933
26 Safety and Efficacy of Post-operative Denosumab Strategy for Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Treatment in China Not yet recruiting NCT03358212 Denosumab

Search NIH Clinical Center for Giant Cell Tumor

Cochrane evidence based reviews: giant cell tumors

Genetic Tests for Giant Cell Tumor

Anatomical Context for Giant Cell Tumor

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Giant Cell Tumor:

41
Bone, Pancreas, Liver, Breast, Uterus, Salivary Gland, Lung

Publications for Giant Cell Tumor

Articles related to Giant Cell Tumor:

(show top 50) (show all 942)
# Title Authors Year
1
Giant Cell Tumor of the Temporal Bone and Skull Base: A Case Report. ( 29764791 )
2018
2
Osteonecrosis of the Jaw and Rebound Hypercalcemia in Young People Treated With Denosumab for Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. ( 29211870 )
2018
3
Expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-3 with incidence and prognosis of giant-cell tumor of the bone. ( 29963137 )
2018
4
Giant Cell Tumor of the Ribs and Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Presenting with Hemothorax in a Child: Erratum. ( 29738344 )
2018
5
Retrospective investigation of "paint brush borders" sign in association with local recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone after intralesional curettage. ( 29255669 )
2018
6
First Case Report of a Huge Giant Cell Tumor of Soft Tissue Originating from the Retroperitoneum. ( 29867073 )
2018
7
Mid- to long-term clinical outcome of giant cell tumor of bone treated with calcium phosphate cement following thorough curettage and phenolization. ( 29315595 )
2018
8
Therapeutic benefits of neoadjuvant and post-operative denosumab on sacral giant cell tumor: a retrospective cohort study of 30 cases. ( 29745092 )
2018
9
Bone combined cement grafting in giant cell tumor around the knee reduces mechanical failure. ( 29700587 )
2018
10
Distinct extra-articular invasion patterns of diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis/tenosynovial giant cell tumor in the knee joints. ( 29637236 )
2018
11
The Values of Receptor Activator Nuclear Kappa-B Ligand Expression in Stage III Giant Cell Tumor of the Bone. ( 29416167 )
2018
12
Extra-articular tenosynovial giant cell tumor of diffuse type in the temporal area with brain parenchymal invasion: a case report. ( 29334779 )
2018
13
Primary Pulmonary Giant Cell Tumor. ( 29909079 )
2018
14
Giant Cell Tumor of Bone in Patients 55 Years and Older: A Study of 34 Patients. ( 29425276 )
2018
15
Retrospective Analysis of Giant Cell Tumor Lower End Radius Treated with<i>En bloc</i>Excision and Translocation of Ulna. ( 29416164 )
2018
16
Norcantharidin modulates the miR-30a/Metadherin/AKT signaling axis to suppress proliferation and metastasis of stromal tumor cells in giant cell tumor of bone. ( 29710674 )
2018
17
An extremely rare case of primary malignancy in giant cell tumor of bone, arising in the right femur and harboring H3F3A mutation. ( 29970305 )
2018
18
Detection of H3F3A p.G35W and p.G35R in giant cell tumor of bone by Allele Specific Locked Nucleic Acid quantitative PCR (ASLNAqPCR). ( 29254795 )
2018
19
Multiple Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath Involving Both Flexor and Extensor Tendons in a Single Digit: A Case Report and Review of the Literatures. ( 29734904 )
2018
20
Successful treatment of a diffuse type tenosynovial giant cell tumor in the thoracic spine mimicking spinal metastasis by frozen recapping laminoplasty in a patient with thyroid cancer. ( 29663145 )
2018
21
Immunohistochemistry for histone H3G34W and H3K36M is highly specific for giant cell tumor of bone and chondroblastoma, respectively, in FNA and core needle biopsy. ( 29757500 )
2018
22
Uncemented three-dimensional-printed prosthetic replacement for giant cell tumor of distal radius: a new design of prosthesis and surgical techniques. ( 29445303 )
2018
23
Denosumab-Treated Giant Cell Tumor of the Bone Mimicking Low-Grade Central Osteosarcoma. ( 29429326 )
2018
24
Response evaluation of giant-cell tumor of bone treated by denosumab: Histogram and texture analysis of CT images. ( 29429890 )
2018
25
Osteoscopic Surgery of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone for Preservation of Proximal Fibula. ( 29715130 )
2018
26
Vascularized Iliac Bone Lining in Downgraded Treatment of Campanacci Grade III Giant Cell Tumor of the Distal Radius. ( 29734913 )
2018
27
Giant Cell Tumor of the Lateral Skull Base: Diagnostic and Management Options. ( 29845001 )
2018
28
Osteolytic lesions (brown tumors) of primary hyperparathyroidism misdiagnosed as multifocal giant cell tumor of the distal ulna and radius: a case report. ( 29936913 )
2018
29
Pycnodysostosis: Novel Variants in<i>CTSK</i>and Occurrence of Giant Cell Tumor. ( 29441215 )
2018
30
Tuberculosis of knee joint mimicking giant cell tumor - A case report. ( 29933871 )
2018
31
Recurrence of Giant Cell Tumor of The Larynx. ( 29419584 )
2018
32
Giant cell tumor of bone: updated molecular pathogenesis and tumor biology. ( 29944971 )
2018
33
Giant cell tumor at the clivus: Not an area 51. ( 29766962 )
2018
34
Prognosis of metastatic giant cell tumor of bone in the pre-denosumab era. A systematic review and a meta-analysis. ( 29741702 )
2018
35
Recurrence of Giant Cell Tumor of the Spine after Resection: A Report of 10 Cases. ( 29878714 )
2018
36
Resection of a Giant-Cell Tumor of the Proximal Aspect of the Radius with Osteoarticular Allograft Reconstruction: A Case Report. ( 29443818 )
2018
37
Multifocal tenosynovial giant cell tumors in a child with Noonan syndrome. ( 27878339 )
2017
38
Microsurgical reconstruction in limb salvage due to a giant cell tumor of the distal radius. Case report. ( 28840677 )
2017
39
Extra-articular diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor with benign histological features resulting in fatal pulmonary metastases. ( 28219303 )
2017
40
TRAIL-R1 as a novel surface marker for circulating giant cell tumor of bone. ( 28881598 )
2017
41
Chondroid Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor of the Temporomandibular Joint: A Rare Case Report. ( 29215692 )
2017
42
Giant Cell Tumor of the Sacrum: Series of 19 Patients and Review of the Literature. ( 29299501 )
2017
43
Surgical treatment for diffused-type giant cell tumor (pigmented villonodular synovitis) about the ankle joint. ( 29137617 )
2017
44
Combining of serial embolization and denosumab for large sacropelvic giant cell tumor: Case report of 3 cases. ( 28816971 )
2017
45
Primary giant cell tumor of the female breast: a diagnostic red herring with therapeutic implications. ( 27862328 )
2017
46
Imaging features for diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor of the temporomandibular joint: A case report. ( 28658169 )
2017
47
Osseous Myopericytoma Simulating a Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A Case Report. ( 29244665 )
2017
48
Highly recurrent H3F3A mutations with additional epigenetic regulator alterations in giant cell tumor of bone. ( 28545165 )
2017
49
Transformation of Benign Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Into Epithelioid Angiosarcoma. ( 29309463 )
2017
50
Localized and diffuse forms of tenosynovial giant cell tumor (formerly giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath and pigmented villonodular synovitis). ( 28057477 )
2017

Variations for Giant Cell Tumor

Expression for Giant Cell Tumor

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Giant Cell Tumor.

Pathways for Giant Cell Tumor

GO Terms for Giant Cell Tumor

Cellular components related to Giant Cell Tumor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.65 ADAM12 BGLAP CALCA CSF1 CTSK MMP9
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.36 ADAM12 BGLAP CALCA CSF1 CTSK H3F3A

Biological processes related to Giant Cell Tumor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 22)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.88 CALCA CSF1 SERPINA3 TNFRSF11A TNFRSF11B
2 skeletal system development GO:0001501 9.78 BGLAP MMP9 TNFRSF11B
3 tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway GO:0033209 9.76 TNFRSF11A TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
4 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.72 CSF1 MMP9 MUC1 TNFSF11 VIM
5 monocyte chemotaxis GO:0002548 9.61 CALCA TNFRSF11A TNFSF11
6 bone resorption GO:0045453 9.6 CTSK TNFSF11
7 positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation GO:0045672 9.59 CSF1 TNFSF11
8 macrophage differentiation GO:0030225 9.58 CSF1 MMP9
9 embryo implantation GO:0007566 9.58 CALCA H3F3A MMP9
10 positive regulation of bone resorption GO:0045780 9.57 TNFRSF11A TNFSF11
11 mammary gland alveolus development GO:0060749 9.56 TNFRSF11A TNFSF11
12 intermediate filament organization GO:0045109 9.55 DES VIM
13 regulation of osteoclast differentiation GO:0045670 9.54 BGLAP TNFSF11
14 response to inorganic substance GO:0010035 9.52 BGLAP TNFRSF11B
15 positive regulation of macrophage differentiation GO:0045651 9.51 CALCA CSF1
16 negative regulation of bone resorption GO:0045779 9.49 CALCA TNFRSF11B
17 TNFSF11-mediated signaling pathway GO:0071847 9.46 TNFRSF11A TNFSF11
18 osteoclast differentiation GO:0030316 9.43 CSF1 TNFRSF11A TNFSF11
19 osteoclast proliferation GO:0002158 9.37 CSF1 TNFSF11
20 positive regulation of fever generation by positive regulation of prostaglandin secretion GO:0071812 9.16 TNFRSF11A TNFSF11
21 positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade via TNFSF11-mediated signaling GO:0071848 8.96 TNFRSF11A TNFSF11
22 ossification GO:0001503 8.92 BGLAP MMP9 TNFRSF11A TNFSF11

Molecular functions related to Giant Cell Tumor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein binding GO:0005515 9.5 ADAM12 CALCA CSF1 CTSK DES H3F3A
2 identical protein binding GO:0042802 9.43 CALCA CSF1 DES MMP9 PTPRC VIM
3 tumor necrosis factor-activated receptor activity GO:0005031 9.16 TNFRSF11A TNFRSF11B

Sources for Giant Cell Tumor

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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