MCID: GRD001
MIFTS: 46

Giardiasis

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Infectious diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Giardiasis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Giardiasis:

Name: Giardiasis 12 73 54 3 44 15 70
Infection by Giardia Lamblia 12
Beaver Feaver 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:10718
ICD9CM 34 007.1
MeSH 44 D005873
SNOMED-CT 67 266176008
ICD10 32 A07.1
UMLS 70 C0017536

Summaries for Giardiasis

CDC : 3 Giardia is a microscopic parasite that causes the diarrheal illness known as giardiasis. Giardia (also known as Giardia intestinalis, Giardia lamblia, or Giardia duodenalis) is found on surfaces or in soil, food, or water that has been contaminated with feces (poop) from infected humans or animals. Giardia is protected by an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for long periods of time and makes it tolerant to chlorine disinfection. While the parasite can be spread in different ways, water (drinking water and recreational water) is the most common mode of transmission.

MalaCards based summary : Giardiasis, also known as infection by giardia lamblia, is related to cryptosporidiosis and strongyloidiasis, and has symptoms including fever and pruritus. An important gene associated with Giardiasis is TPI1 (Triosephosphate Isomerase 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are T cell receptor signaling pathway and NF-kappaB Signaling. The drugs Metronidazole and Tinidazole have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include small intestine, liver and skin, and related phenotypes are Reduced mammosphere formation and hematopoietic system

Disease Ontology : 12 A parasitic protozoa infectious disease that involves infection of the small intestine by a single-celled enteric protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. The symptoms include greasy and malodorous stools, diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting.

Wikipedia : 73 Giardiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Giardia duodenalis (also known as G. lamblia and G.... more...

Related Diseases for Giardiasis

Diseases related to Giardiasis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 521)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cryptosporidiosis 30.9 TPI1 CD8A CD79A CD4
2 strongyloidiasis 30.5 TGFB1 CD79A CD4
3 diarrhea 30.3 TGM2 TGFB1 SCT LCT IL10 ALB
4 immunoglobulin a deficiency 1 30.0 TOR1A TGM2 CD79A
5 vitamin b12 deficiency 29.9 CD79A ATP4A ATP12A
6 pneumocystosis 29.9 CD8A CD4 ALB
7 amebiasis 29.7 IL17A IL10 CD79A CD4 ALB
8 granulomatous hepatitis 29.7 CD8A CD4 ALB
9 gastritis 29.7 SCT IL17A IL10 ATP4A
10 toxoplasmosis 29.7 TGFB1 IL10 CD79A
11 cellulitis 29.6 CD8A CD4 ALB
12 interstitial nephritis 29.6 ATP4A ATP12A ALB
13 immunoglobulin alpha deficiency 29.6 TOR1A TGM2 PIGR CD8A CD79A CD4
14 echinococcosis 29.6 IL17A IL10 CD8A
15 whipple disease 29.5 TOR1A TGM2 CD4 ALB
16 iridocyclitis 29.5 IL17A IL10 CD4
17 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 29.5 IL10 CD79A CD4 ALB
18 gastroduodenitis 29.4 CD8A CD4 ATP4A ATP12A
19 taeniasis 29.4 IL10 CD8A CD4 ALB
20 herpes zoster 29.4 IL10 CD8A CD4
21 bile reflux 29.3 SCT ATP4A ATP12A ALB
22 deficiency anemia 29.3 TOR1A CD8A CD4 ATP4A ATP12A ALB
23 dysentery 29.3 IL10 CD4 ATP4A ATP12A ALB
24 trichinosis 29.3 IL17A IL10 CD4
25 schistosomiasis 29.3 TPI1 IL17A IL10 ALB
26 parasitic helminthiasis infectious disease 29.3 IL17A IL10 CD8A CD4 ALB
27 crohn's disease 29.2 IL17A IL10 CD4 ALB
28 hepatitis a 29.2 IL10 CD4 ALB
29 duodenitis 29.2 TOR1A TGM2 CD8A CD4 ATP4A ATP12A
30 syphilis 29.1 IL17A CD8A CD79A CD4 ALB
31 disease by infectious agent 29.1 IL17A IL10 CD8A CD4 ALB
32 intestinal schistosomiasis 29.1 TPI1 IL17A IL10 CD8A CD4
33 peptic ulcer disease 29.1 SCT IL10 ATP4A ATP12A
34 chorioretinitis 29.0 IL17A IL10 CD8A CD4
35 esophageal candidiasis 29.0 IL17A CD8A CD4 ATP4A ATP12A
36 dermatitis, atopic 29.0 IL17A IL10 CD8A CD4
37 salmonellosis 29.0 IL17A IL10 CD8A CD4 ALB
38 food allergy 28.9 IL17A IL10 ALB
39 otitis media 28.9 IL17A IL10 CD79A ALB
40 parasitic protozoa infectious disease 28.9 TPI1 IL17A IL10 CD8A CD4 ALB
41 tropical sprue 28.8 TOR1A TGM2 LCT ATP4A ATP12A ALB
42 peripheral nervous system disease 28.8 IL17A IL10 CD8A CD4 ALB
43 lactose intolerance 28.7 TOR1A TGM2 LCT IL10 ATP4A ATP12A
44 coccidiosis 28.6 IL17A IL10 CD8A CD4 ALB
45 exanthem 28.3 IL10 CD8A CD4 ATP4A ATP12A ALB
46 skin disease 28.3 TIA1 IL17A IL10 CD8A CD79A CD4
47 inflammatory bowel disease 27.6 TGFB1 SCT PIGR IL17A IL10 GZMB
48 celiac disease 1 27.2 TOR1A TIA1 TGM2 SCT LCT IL17A
49 lymphomatoid granulomatosis 10.4 TIA1 GZMB
50 breast lipoma 10.4 TIA1 GZMB

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Giardiasis:



Diseases related to Giardiasis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Giardiasis

UMLS symptoms related to Giardiasis:


fever; pruritus

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Giardiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Reduced mammosphere formation GR00396-S 9.23 ALB ATP4A CD79A IL17A MYLK TGFB1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Giardiasis:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.13 ATP4A CD4 CD79A CD8A IL10 IL17A
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.1 ALB ATP12A ATP4A CD4 CD79A IL10
3 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.07 ALB ATP12A ATP4A CD4 IL10 IL17A
4 immune system MP:0005387 10.03 ALB ATP4A CD4 CD79A CD8A IL10
5 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.83 ALB ATP4A CD4 CD79A CD8A ENO1
6 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.28 ALB ATP12A CD79A CD8A IL17A MYLK

Drugs & Therapeutics for Giardiasis

Drugs for Giardiasis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 22)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Metronidazole Approved Phase 4 443-48-1 4173
2
Tinidazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19387-91-8 5479
3 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
4 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4
5 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
6 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 4
7 Alkylating Agents Phase 4
8
Auranofin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 34031-32-8 6918453 6333901
9 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2
10
Secnidazole Approved 3366-95-8
11
Albendazole Approved, Vet_approved 54965-21-8 2082
12
Formaldehyde Approved, Vet_approved 50-00-0 712
13
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 1406-16-2
14 Tubulin Modulators
15 Anthelmintics
16 Antimitotic Agents
17 Ether
18 Disinfectants
19 Vitamins
20 Calciferol
21 Hormones
22 Ecdysterone

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Treatment of Giardia Lamblia Infections in Children: Randomized Open-labeled Trial Comparing Rectal Metronidazole With Oral Tinidazole Terminated NCT02942485 Phase 4 Metronidazole;Tinidazole
2 Phase IIa Randomized, Single-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of the Reprofiled Drug Auranofin for GI Protozoa Recruiting NCT02736968 Phase 2 Auranofin
3 Effects of Anti-Giardia and Antihelmintic Treatment on Infant Nutritional and Biochemical Status and Intestinal Permeability in Rural Bangladesh Completed NCT00607074 Anti-Giardia and antihelmintic treatment (secnidazole or albendazole);Anti-Giardia treatment only (secnidazole or albendazole);Control group (placebo)
4 Diagnosis of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in Patients Presenting With Persistent Digestive Disorders (≥2 Weeks) in Côte d'Ivoire, Indonesia, Mali and Nepal Completed NCT02105714
5 Estimation of Vitamin D in Humans Infected With Giardia Lamblia Recruiting NCT04778280
6 Anti-protozoal Effect of Steroid Hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone Active, not recruiting NCT04827537 20-hydroxyecdysone Oral;Metronidazole Oral;Placebo Oral
7 Study of Patients With Parasitic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract Terminated NCT00001162

Search NIH Clinical Center for Giardiasis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :


Albendazole
Metronidazole
Metronidazole Hydrochloride
METRONIDAZOLE PWDR
nitazoxanide
Quinacrine
Quinacrine Monohydrochloride

Cochrane evidence based reviews: giardiasis

Genetic Tests for Giardiasis

Anatomical Context for Giardiasis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Giardiasis:

40
Small Intestine, Liver, Skin, Pancreas, Bone Marrow, Bone, Colon

Publications for Giardiasis

Articles related to Giardiasis:

(show top 50) (show all 2920)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in intestinal immune defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia. 54 61
17056558 2006
2
Comparison of two target genes for detection and genotyping of Giardia lamblia in human feces by PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. 54 61
16333079 2005
3
Sensitive PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for detection and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in human feces. 61 54
11825955 2002
4
Human giardiasis: correlation of specific secretory IgA levels in duodenal fluid to the severity of disease and infestation by Giardia lamblia. 54 61
1520960 1992
5
Raised stool and serum IgA levels in undernourished infants with chronic diarrhoea and associated parasitic infestations. 61 54
2355407 1990
6
Extracellular vesicles secreted by Giardia duodenalis regulate host cell innate immunity via TLR2 and NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathways. 61
33798196 2021
7
Evolving Epidemiology of Reported Giardiasis Cases in the United States, 1995-2016. 61
32047932 2021
8
Access and use of quinacrine (mepacrine) in the treatment of resistant giardiasis. 61
33774205 2021
9
Giardiasis Outbreaks - United States, 2012-2017. 61
33661866 2021
10
Giardia duodenalis in humans and animals - Transmission and disease. 61
33066992 2021
11
Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Neo-Tropical Rodents and Marsupials: Is There Any Zoonotic Potential? 61
33804628 2021
12
Eosinophils are dispensable for the regulation of IgA and Th17 responses in Giardia muris infection. 61
32918307 2021
13
Zoonotic Giardia duodenalis sub-assemblage BIV in wild raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Germany and Luxembourg. 61
33749156 2021
14
Risk assessment of parasites in Norwegian drinking water: opportunities and challenges. 61
33681490 2021
15
Giardiasis reactivation during severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. 61
33160052 2021
16
Hidden Diversity within Common Protozoan Parasites as Revealed by a Novel Genomotyping Scheme. 61
33397705 2021
17
Infection rate and genetic diversity of Giardia duodenalis assemblage C in Iranian stray dogs, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase gene. 61
33776307 2021
18
Molecular epidemiology of Giardia spp. in northern Vietnam: Potential transmission between animals and humans. 61
33490658 2021
19
Preventive role of probiotic bacteria against gastrointestinal diseases in mice caused by Giardia lamblia. 61
33600560 2021
20
Occurrence and Multi-Locus Analysis of Giardia duodenalis in Coypus (Myocastor coypus) in China. 61
33562408 2021
21
A Curious Case for Development of Kinase Inhibitors as Antigiardiasis Treatments Using Advanced Drug Techniques. 61
33534539 2021
22
Therapeutic Effect of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Metronidazole in Treatment of Experimentally Giardiasis Infected Hamsters. 61
33786045 2021
23
Occupations at risk of contracting zoonoses of public health significance in Québec. 61
33679248 2021
24
Epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in Brazil: there is still a long way to go. 61
33503146 2021
25
Detection and removal of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by anaerobic reactors in Brazil. 61
33334260 2021
26
pH-Dependent Molecular Gate Mesoporous Microparticles for Biological Control of Giardia intestinalis. 61
33451061 2021
27
Psidium guajava Linn leaf ethanolic extract: In vivo giardicidal potential with ultrastructural damage, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. 61
33424326 2021
28
Global Lysine Acetylation and 2-Hydroxyisobutyrylation Profiling Reveals the Metabolism Conversion Mechanism in Giardia lamblia. 61
33376196 2021
29
Ascariasis, Amebiasis and Giardiasis in Mexican children: distribution and geographical, environmental and socioeconomic risk factors. 61
33177788 2020
30
Malabsorption Due to Chronic Giardiasis as a Presenting Symptom of Common Variable Immunodeficiency. 61
33489610 2020
31
Giardiasis notifications are associated with socioeconomic status in Sydney, Australia: a spatial analysis. 61
33197099 2020
32
Saccharomyces boulardii as therapeutic alternative in experimental giardiasis. 61
33289232 2020
33
Giardiasis in symptomatic children from Sharkia, Egypt: genetic assemblages and associated risk factors. 61
33184538 2020
34
Giardia duodenalis pathogenicity on immunosuppressed animal model. 61
33612753 2020
35
Examination of Giardia intestinalis with Direct Microscopy and Direct Fluorescent Antibody in Patients with Diarrhea. 61
33269557 2020
36
Molecular Characterization of Giardia duodenalis in Children and Adults Sampled in Algeria. 61
33379186 2020
37
Frequency of Giardia duodenalis infection and its genetic variability in dogs in Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil. 61
33378286 2020
38
High-Yield Purification of Giardia intestinalis Cysts from Fecal Samples. 61
33034399 2020
39
Antigiardial Activity of Acetylsalicylic Acid Is Associated with Overexpression of HSP70 and Membrane Transporters. 61
33287104 2020
40
A case of giardiasis in a Japanese organic farmer. 61
33304725 2020
41
Treatment of giardiasis in children: Randomized trial of rectal metronidazole versus oral tinidazole. 61
32882314 2020
42
Epidemiological study of Giardia duodenalis infection in companion dogs from the metropolitan area of São Paulo Brazil. 61
32347663 2020
43
Isoenzyme profiles and phylogenetic analysis of Giardia duodenalis isolates from Iranian patients. 61
32671708 2020
44
Giardiasis treatment: an update with a focus on refractory disease. 61
32773501 2020
45
FELINE GIARDIASIS IN TURKEY: PREVALENCE AND GENETIC AND HAPLOTYPE DIVERSITY OF GIARDIA DUODENALIS BASED ON THE β-GIARDIN GENE SEQUENCE IN SYMPTOMATIC CATS. 61
33120408 2020
46
Differential antibody responses to Giardia lamblia strain variants expressing dissimilar levels of an immunogenic protein. 61
32594543 2020
47
Giardia spp., the most ubiquitous protozoan parasite in Argentina: human, animal and environmental surveys reported in the last 40 years. 61
32803334 2020
48
A case of quinacrine-induced psychosis: case report. 61
33019939 2020
49
Prevalence and pattern of waterborne parasitic infections in eastern Africa: A systematic scoping review. 61
32995583 2020
50
[Giardiasis in a paediatric population of the province of castellon. Clinical details and impact]. 61
32988766 2020

Variations for Giardiasis

Expression for Giardiasis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Giardiasis.

Pathways for Giardiasis

Pathways related to Giardiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.43 TGFB1 IL17A IL10 CD8A CD4
2 12.39 IL17A IL10 GZMB CD8A CD79A
3
Show member pathways
12.24 TGFB1 PIGR IL17A IL10 GZMB CD8A
4 11.77 IL10 CD8A CD79A CD4
5
Show member pathways
11.58 TGFB1 IL17A GZMB CD4
6
Show member pathways
11.44 TGFB1 IL17A IL10 CD4
7 11.33 TGFB1 IL10 CD8A CD4
8 11.21 CD8A CD79A CD4
9
Show member pathways
11.17 TGFB1 IL10 GZMB
10 11.01 TGFB1 IL10 CD4
11 10.92 IL17A IL10 GZMB CD8A CD4

GO Terms for Giardiasis

Cellular components related to Giardiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.28 TPI1 TGFB1 SCT PIGR IL17A IL10

Biological processes related to Giardiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 establishment or maintenance of transmembrane electrochemical gradient GO:0010248 8.96 ATP4A ATP12A
2 T cell activation GO:0042110 8.8 TGFB1 CD8A CD4

Molecular functions related to Giardiasis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity GO:0005391 9.16 ATP4A ATP12A
2 potassium-transporting ATPase activity GO:0008556 8.96 ATP4A ATP12A
3 potassium:proton exchanging ATPase activity GO:0008900 8.62 ATP4A ATP12A

Sources for Giardiasis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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