MCID: GGN002
MIFTS: 37

Gigantism

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Gigantism

MalaCards integrated aliases for Gigantism:

Name: Gigantism 53 55 73

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 73 C0017547

Summaries for Gigantism

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Gigantism is abnormally large growth due to an excess of growth hormone (GH) during childhood, before the bone growth plates have closed (epiphyseal fusion). It causes excessive growth in height, muscles, and organs, making the child extremely large for his or her age. Other symptoms may include delayed puberty; double vision or difficulty with side (peripheral) vision; prominent forehead (frontal bossing) and a prominent jaw; headache; increased sweating (hyperhidrosis); irregular periods; large hands and feet with thick fingers and toes; thickening of the facial features; and weakness. It may begin at any age before epiphyseal fusion. The most common cause is a non-cancerous (benign) tumor of the pituitary gland, which may cause it to make too much GH, but it can be caused by other underlying conditions (which may cause a pituitary tumor) including Carney complex; McCune-Albright syndrome ; Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and type 4; and Neurofibromatosis. In some cases the disease is caused by mutations in the GPR101 gene. Treatment typically includes surgery to remove the tumor and can cure many cases. Medication or radiation therapy may be used to reduce GH release or block the effect of GH.  If the condition occurs after normal bone growth has stopped (in adulthood), it is referred to as acromegaly.

MalaCards based summary : Gigantism is related to pituitary adenoma 1, multiple types and mccune-albright syndrome, and has symptoms including endocrine system signs and symptoms An important gene associated with Gigantism is AIP (Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interacting Protein), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Growth hormone receptor signaling. The drugs Somatostatin and lanreotide have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, bone and breast.

Wikipedia : 76 Gigantism, also known as giantism (from Greek γίγα�?, gígas, "giant", plural γίγαν�?ε�?, gígantes), is a... more...

Related Diseases for Gigantism

Diseases related to Gigantism via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 200)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pituitary adenoma 1, multiple types 32.6 AIP GH1 PRL
2 mccune-albright syndrome 31.9 GH1 PRL
3 acromegaly 31.5 AIP GH1 GHRH GPR101 PRL
4 fibrous dysplasia 30.0 GH1 PRL
5 dwarfism 30.0 GH1 GHRH
6 hyperprolactinemia 29.8 GH1 PRL
7 adenoma 29.8 AIP GH1 GPR101 PRL
8 hypopituitarism 29.7 GH1 GHRH PRL
9 growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma 29.6 AIP PRL
10 insulin-like growth factor i 29.6 GH1 GHRH PRL
11 multiple endocrine neoplasia, type i 29.4 GHRH PRL
12 pituitary apoplexy 29.4 AIP PRL
13 pituitary adenoma, prolactin-secreting 29.1 AIP GH1 PRL
14 cerebral gigantism jaw cysts 12.3
15 sotos syndrome 1 12.1
16 gigantism advanced bone age hoarse cry 12.0
17 perlman syndrome 12.0
18 beckwith-wiedemann syndrome 12.0
19 chromosome xq26.3 duplication syndrome 11.8
20 simpson-golabi-behmel syndrome, type 1 11.8
21 proteus syndrome 11.6
22 macrodactyly 11.5
23 x-linked acrogigantism due to a point mutation 11.3
24 lipodystrophy, congenital generalized, type 2 11.3
25 cowden syndrome 1 11.0
26 simpson-golabi-behmel syndrome, type 2 11.0
27 pituitary adenoma 2, growth hormone-secreting 11.0
28 lipodystrophy, congenital generalized, type 1 11.0
29 macrocephaly mesodermal hamartoma spectrum 11.0
30 simpson-golabi-behmel syndrome 11.0
31 macroglossia 10.2
32 pituitary adenoma 10.2
33 isolated growth hormone deficiency 10.1 GH1 GHRH
34 isolated growth hormone deficiency, type ib 10.1 GH1 GHRH
35 growth hormone deficiency 10.1 GH1 GHRH
36 wilms tumor 6 10.0
37 isolated growth hormone deficiency, type ii 10.0 GH1 GHRH
38 tuberous sclerosis 10.0
39 lipomatosis 10.0
40 renal dysplasia 10.0
41 sella turcica neoplasm 10.0 GHRH PRL
42 tuberculum sellae meningioma 10.0 GHRH PRL
43 fibrous dysplasia/mccune-albright syndrome 9.9 GH1 PRL
44 adenohypophysitis 9.9 GH1 PRL
45 pseudohypoparathyroidism, type ia 9.9 GH1 PRL
46 diabetes mellitus, ketosis-prone 9.9
47 hemangioma 9.9
48 keratosis 9.9
49 slipped capital femoral epiphysis 9.9
50 empty sella syndrome 9.9 GH1 PRL

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gigantism:



Diseases related to Gigantism

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Gigantism

UMLS symptoms related to Gigantism:


endocrine system signs and symptoms

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gigantism

Drugs for Gigantism (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 15)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Somatostatin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51110-01-1, 38916-34-6 53481605
2 lanreotide Approved Phase 4 108736-35-2
3 Hormones Phase 4,Phase 2
4 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2
5 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2
6 Angiopeptin Phase 4
7 Liver Extracts Phase 4
8
Pasireotide Approved Phase 2 396091-73-9 9941444
9
Citric Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Not Applicable 77-92-9 311
10 Sildenafil Citrate Not Applicable 171599-83-0
11 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Not Applicable
12 Vasodilator Agents Not Applicable
13 Citrate Not Applicable
14 Anesthetics Not Applicable
15 Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Pilot Study of Pre- and Post-operative Use of Somatuline Depot. Terminated NCT01861717 Phase 4 lanreotide
2 Efficacy and Safety of Pasireotide LAR in Japanese Patients With Acromegaly or Pituitary Gigantism Completed NCT01673646 Phase 2 SOM230LAR
3 Interdisciplinary Pituitary Disorders Centre of Excellence: Assessment of Patient Education Tools Unknown status NCT01775332 Not Applicable
4 An Investigation of Pituitary Tumors and Related Hypothalmic Disorders Recruiting NCT00001595
5 Radial Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction Recruiting NCT03596047 Not Applicable
6 Genetics of Endocrine Tumours - Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma - FIPA Recruiting NCT00461188

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gigantism

Genetic Tests for Gigantism

Anatomical Context for Gigantism

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gigantism:

41
Pituitary, Bone, Breast, Liver, B Cells, Heart, Prostate

Publications for Gigantism

Articles related to Gigantism:

(show top 50) (show all 452)
# Title Authors Year
1
Deep Invasive Fungal Infection of the Hand in a Child Mimicking a Local Gigantism. ( 29706736 )
2018
2
The evolution of foraging capacity and gigantism in cetaceans. ( 29895582 )
2018
3
An orphan G-protein-coupled receptor causes human gigantism and/or acromegaly: Molecular biology and clinical correlations. ( 29678281 )
2018
4
Surgical trauma induces overgrowth in lower limb gigantism: regulation with use of rapamycin is promising. ( 29301794 )
2018
5
Gigantism Precedes Filter Feeding in Baleen Whale Evolution. ( 29754903 )
2018
6
Gigantism in a McCune-Albright's syndrome with calcified GH-releasing pituitary adenoma: Case report and literature review. ( 30390486 )
2018
7
Coexisting pituitary and non-pituitary gigantism in the same family. ( 30223298 )
2018
8
Jumping genomic gigantism. ( 30323209 )
2018
9
The causes and consequences of pituitary gigantism. ( 30361628 )
2018
10
Unusual AIP mutation and phenocopy in the family of a young patient with acromegalic gigantism. ( 29472986 )
2018
11
An early trend towards gigantism in Triassic sauropodomorph dinosaurs. ( 29988169 )
2018
12
Embolic stroke, left atrial myxoma and gigantism in a patient with Carney complex with additional features suggestive of Marfan syndrome. ( 30077980 )
2018
13
Oldest case of gigantism? Assessment of the alleged remains of Sa-Nakht, king of ancient Egypt. ( 28732663 )
2017
14
Independent evolution of baleen whale gigantism linked to Plio-Pleistocene ocean dynamics. ( 28539520 )
2017
15
Earth's oldest 'Bobbit worm' - gigantism in a Devonian eunicidan polychaete. ( 28220886 )
2017
16
AIP mutations and gigantism. ( 28483363 )
2017
17
Regional endothermy as a trigger for gigantism in some extinct macropredatory sharks. ( 28938002 )
2017
18
Multiple organ gigantism caused by mutation in VmPPD gene in blackgram (Vigna mungo). ( 28588392 )
2017
19
In-frame seven amino-acid duplication in AIP arose over the last 3000 years, disrupts protein interaction and stability and is associated with gigantism. ( 28634279 )
2017
20
Efficacy and safety of long-acting pasireotide in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism: results from a multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase 2 study. ( 28592706 )
2017
21
Tyrannosauroid integument reveals conflicting patterns of gigantism and feather evolution. ( 28592520 )
2017
22
A Paleocene penguin from New Zealand substantiates multiple origins of gigantism in fossil Sphenisciformes. ( 29233963 )
2017
23
Corrigendum: Gigantism and comparative life-history parameters of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs. ( 26675726 )
2016
24
Gigantism: X-linked acrogigantism and GPR101 mutations. ( 27743704 )
2016
25
Multiple origins of gigantism in stem baleen whales. ( 27717969 )
2016
26
Genetic drift and mutational hazard in the evolution of salamander genomic gigantism. ( 27714793 )
2016
27
Increased Population Risk of AIP-related Acromegaly and Gigantism in Ireland. ( 27650164 )
2016
28
Combined treatment with octreotide LAR and pegvisomant in patients with pituitary gigantism: clinical evaluation and genetic screening. ( 27287035 )
2016
29
Gigantism and Its Implications for the History of Life. ( 26771527 )
2016
30
Pituitary gigantism: a retrospective case series. ( 26887033 )
2016
31
Coexisting diseases modifying each othera89s presentation - lack of growth failure in Turner syndrome due to the associated pituitary gigantism. ( 29328563 )
2016
32
Genetics of gigantism and acromegaly. ( 27657986 )
2016
33
Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome. ( 26607152 )
2016
34
Giants among larges: how gigantism impacts giant virus entry into amoebae. ( 27039270 )
2016
35
Macrodystrophia Lipomatosa: An Unusual Cause of Localized Gigantism. ( 27293271 )
2016
36
Convergent evolution of sperm gigantism and the developmental origins of sperm size variability in Caenorhabditis nematodes. ( 27565121 )
2016
37
Salamanders' slow slither into genomic gigantism<sup/>. ( 27861781 )
2016
38
Localized gigantism. ( 25987124 )
2015
39
Pituitary gigantism: update on molecular biology and management. ( 26574647 )
2015
40
Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics. ( 26585365 )
2015
41
Ecological explanations to island gigantism: dietary niche divergence, predation, and size in an endemic lizard. ( 26405734 )
2015
42
Gigantism Remains a Clinical Challenge. ( 26621024 )
2015
43
The Oldest Recorded Case of Acromegaly and Gigantism in Iran. ( 26443258 )
2015
44
Gigantism, acromegaly, and GPR101 mutations. ( 25806920 )
2015
45
Gigantism, acromegaly, and GPR101 mutations. ( 25806919 )
2015
46
Pituitary Gigantism - Experience of a Single Centre from Western India. ( 25716640 )
2015
47
Localised gigantism. ( 25849020 )
2015
48
Clinical and genetic characterization of pituitary gigantism: an international collaborative study in 208 patients. ( 26187128 )
2015
49
Retraction notice to a89Expression of a truncated Hmga1b gene induces gigantism, lipomatosis and B-cell lymphomas in micea89 [Eur J Cancer 47 (2011) 470a89478]. ( 25977969 )
2015
50
Gigantism, acromegaly, and GPR101 mutations. ( 25806921 )
2015

Variations for Gigantism

Expression for Gigantism

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gigantism.

Pathways for Gigantism

Pathways related to Gigantism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
10.24 GH1 PRL

GO Terms for Gigantism

Cellular components related to Gigantism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.26 GH1 GHRH GPC3 PRL
2 endosome lumen GO:0031904 8.62 GH1 PRL

Biological processes related to Gigantism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.58 GH1 GHRH PRL
2 response to estradiol GO:0032355 9.43 GH1 PRL
3 response to nutrient levels GO:0031667 9.37 GH1 PRL
4 positive regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040018 9.32 GH1 GHRH
5 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.26 GH1 PRL
6 JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathway GO:0060397 9.16 GH1 PRL
7 positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0043568 8.96 GH1 GHRH
8 positive regulation of lactation GO:1903489 8.62 GHRH PRL

Molecular functions related to Gigantism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.13 GH1 GHRH PRL
2 prolactin receptor binding GO:0005148 8.62 GH1 PRL

Sources for Gigantism

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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