MCID: GNG012
MIFTS: 50

Gingival Overgrowth

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Oral diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Gingival Overgrowth

MalaCards integrated aliases for Gingival Overgrowth:

Name: Gingival Overgrowth 12 29 55 6 44 15
Gingival Enlargement 12
Gingival Hyperplasia 73

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:3086
ICD10 33 K06.1
MeSH 44 D019214

Summaries for Gingival Overgrowth

MalaCards based summary : Gingival Overgrowth, also known as gingival enlargement, is related to fibromatosis, gingival, 1 and keloids. An important gene associated with Gingival Overgrowth is RET (Ret Proto-Oncogene), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and TGF-Beta Pathway. The drugs Cetylpyridinium and Ethanol have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, kidney and liver, and related phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and cardiovascular system

Wikipedia : 76 Gingival enlargement, (also termed gingival overgrowth, hypertrophic gingivitis, gingival hyperplasia,... more...

Related Diseases for Gingival Overgrowth

Diseases related to Gingival Overgrowth via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 89)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 fibromatosis, gingival, 1 30.4 CD36 MMP1 TGFB1
2 keloids 30.4 CD36 MMP1 TGFB1
3 periodontitis 29.8 IL1A MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1
4 gingival fibromatosis 29.3 CD36 CTGF FAM20A ITGA2 MMP1 MMP3
5 periodontal disease 28.7 IL1A MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1
6 amelogenesis imperfecta, type ig 11.1
7 gingivitis 11.1
8 epulis 10.9
9 kidney hypertrophy 10.7 CTGF TGFB1
10 cholecystolithiasis 10.6 CTGF TGFB1
11 stiff skin syndrome 10.6 CTGF TGFB1
12 tendinopathy 10.5 DCN MMP1
13 eosinophilic granuloma 10.5 CD36 DCN
14 interstitial keratitis 10.5 CD36 DCN
15 scleroderma, familial progressive 10.5 CD36 CTGF
16 leukoregulin 10.4 IL1A TGFB1
17 penile disease 10.4 DCN TGFB1
18 ocular cicatricial pemphigoid 10.4 CD36 CTGF TGFB1
19 differentiated thyroid carcinoma 10.4 CD36 RET TGFB1
20 renal fibrosis 10.4 CD36 CTGF TGFB1
21 superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis 10.4 MMP1 MMP3
22 hypertrophic scars 10.3 CD36 TGFB1 TIMP1
23 vitreoretinopathy, neovascular inflammatory 10.3 CTGF TGFB1 TIMP1
24 spastic entropion 10.3 MMP1 MMP3
25 periodontitis, aggressive, 1 10.3 IL1A MMP1
26 biliary atresia 10.3 CTGF TGFB1 TIMP1
27 clonorchiasis 10.3 CTSL TGFB1
28 chronic graft versus host disease 10.3 CD36 IL1A
29 odontogenic myxoma 10.3 CD36 DCN MMP1
30 pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive 10.2 MMP1 TGFB1 TIMP1
31 pulmonary fibrosis 10.2 CTGF TGFB1 TIMP1
32 diabetic foot ulcers 10.2 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
33 epithelial basement membrane dystrophy 10.2 IL1A TGFB1
34 adult astrocytic tumour 10.1 MMP1 MMP3
35 adenomyosis 10.1 MMP1 MMP3
36 localized scleroderma 10.0 CTGF DCN MMP1 TGFB1
37 aging 10.0
38 epilepsy 10.0
39 endotheliitis 10.0
40 interstitial lung disease 10.0 IL1A TGFB1 TIMP1
41 conjunctivochalasis 10.0 MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1
42 amelogenesis imperfecta 9.9
43 tuberous sclerosis 9.9
44 hypertrichosis 9.9
45 type i 9.9
46 chondrosarcoma 9.9 CTGF MMP1 MMP3
47 bone deterioration disease 9.9 MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1
48 varicose veins 9.9 MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1
49 nephrogenic systemic fibrosis 9.9 CTGF DCN TGFB1 TIMP1
50 multiple sclerosis 9.8

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gingival Overgrowth:



Diseases related to Gingival Overgrowth

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Gingival Overgrowth

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Gingival Overgrowth:

46 (show all 12)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.18 TGFB1 PDGFB TIMP1 RET CTGF IL1A
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.11 RET TGFB1 PDGFB TIMP1 FAM20A CTGF
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.11 RET TGFB1 PDGFB TIMP1 DCN CD36
4 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.09 RET TGFB1 MMP3 PDGFB TIMP1 IL1A
5 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.08 RET TGFB1 TIMP1 CTGF ITGA2 CTSB
6 immune system MP:0005387 10.07 TGFB1 PDGFB TIMP1 RET IL1A CTSB
7 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.97 RET TGFB1 CD36 CTGF CTSB DCN
8 integument MP:0010771 9.87 TGFB1 PDGFB CTGF IL1A ITGA2 CTSB
9 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.8 TGFB1 TIMP1 RET IL1A CTSB MMP1
10 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.7 TGFB1 PDGFB RET FAM20A CTSB DCN
11 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.5 RET TGFB1 PDGFB TIMP1 FAM20A CTGF
12 skeleton MP:0005390 9.17 MMP3 TGFB1 TIMP1 DCN CD36 FAM20A

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gingival Overgrowth

Drugs for Gingival Overgrowth (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 27)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Cetylpyridinium Approved Phase 4 7773-52-6
2
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
3
Menthol Approved Phase 4 2216-51-5 16666
4
Methyl salicylate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 119-36-8 4133
5
Thymol Approved Phase 4 89-83-8 6989
6
Eucalyptol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 470-82-6 2758
7 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
8 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 4
9 Fluorides Phase 4
10 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
11 Salicylates Phase 4
12
Phenytoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 57-41-0 1775
13
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 59-30-3 6037
14
leucovorin Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 58-05-9 143 6006
15 Anticonvulsants Phase 3
16 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 3
17 Hematinics Phase 3
18 Micronutrients Phase 3
19 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 3
20 Trace Elements Phase 3
21 Vitamin B Complex Phase 3
22 Vitamins Phase 3
23 Folate Nutraceutical Phase 3
24 Vitamin B9 Nutraceutical Phase 3
25 calcium channel blockers
26 Calcium, Dietary
27 Cyclosporins

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Mouthwashes During Orthodontic Treatment Enrolling by invitation NCT03179735 Phase 4 Essential oils;Cetylpyridinium Chloride 0.7 mg/ml;Placebos
2 Folic Acid Supplementation in Phenytoin Induced Gingival Overgrowth Completed NCT00781196 Phase 3 folic acid;placebo
3 Diode Laser in Gingival Enlargement Related to Orthodontics Unknown status NCT01286298 Not Applicable
4 Genes Associated With Hereditary and Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth Completed NCT00104026
5 Scalpel Versus Laser Gingivectomy in Orthodontic Patients in the Management of Periodontal Health Completed NCT03514316 Not Applicable
6 Soft Tissue Wound Healing Following Different Gingivectomy Techniques Completed NCT03435068 Not Applicable
7 Flapless Esthetic Crown Lengthening for the Treatment of Excessive Gingival Display Completed NCT01821157 Not Applicable
8 Development and Validation of the Periodontal Aesthetic Perception Scale in Patients With Periodontal Problems Completed NCT03436537
9 Comparison Between Laser, Synthetic Gel and Herbal Gel as Topical Agents After Gum Surgery Recruiting NCT03569683 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gingival Overgrowth

Cochrane evidence based reviews: gingival overgrowth

Genetic Tests for Gingival Overgrowth

Genetic tests related to Gingival Overgrowth:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Gingival Overgrowth 29

Anatomical Context for Gingival Overgrowth

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gingival Overgrowth:

41
Heart, Kidney, Liver, Endothelial, Lung, Bone, Bone Marrow

Publications for Gingival Overgrowth

Articles related to Gingival Overgrowth:

(show top 50) (show all 460)
# Title Authors Year
1
Is dental plaque the only etiological factor in Amlodipine induced gingival overgrowth? A systematic review of evidence. ( 29930781 )
2018
2
Influence of 3 calcium channel blockers on gingival overgrowth in a population of severe refractory hypertensive patients. ( 29687449 )
2018
3
Reversal of drug-induced gingival overgrowth by UV-mediated apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts - an in vitro study. ( 29427738 )
2018
4
High-power diode laser on management of drug-induced gingival overgrowth: Report of two cases and long-term follow-up. ( 29351498 )
2018
5
Immunohistochemical Analysis of the Role Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Drug-induced Gingival Overgrowth in Response to Phenytoin, Cyclosporine, and Nifedipine. ( 29629324 )
2018
6
Systematic review of cyclosporin A-induced gingival overgrowth and genetic predisposition. ( 28439573 )
2017
7
Lack of Association Between TGF-I^1 and MDR1 Genetic Polymorphisms and Cyclosporine-Induced Gingival Overgrowth in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Meta-analysis. ( 28736004 )
2017
8
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition in Cyclosporine A-induced rat gingival overgrowth. ( 28472720 )
2017
9
Mulberry-Shaped Gingival Overgrowth Induced by Amlodipine and Cyclosporine. ( 29208265 )
2017
10
Oral squamous cell carcinoma masquerading as gingival overgrowth. ( 28932153 )
2017
11
Lack of pathogenic mutations in SOS1 gene in phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth patients. ( 28433619 )
2017
12
Gingival overgrowth: Part 2: management strategies. ( 28184072 )
2017
13
Phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth caused by death receptor pathway malfunction. ( 28160766 )
2017
14
A Rare Case of Digoxin Associated Gingival Overgrowth. ( 28571294 )
2017
15
On the Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth. ( 28868093 )
2017
16
Gingival overgrowth: Part 1: aetiology and clinical diagnosis. ( 28127024 )
2017
17
A novel gingival overgrowth mouse model induced by the combination of CsA and ligature-induced inflammation. ( 28274836 )
2017
18
Drug-induced gingival overgrowth after renal transplantation. ( 28656480 )
2017
19
Efficacy of azithromycin and metronidazole combined therapy on rats' gingival overgrowth induced by cyclosporine-A: An experimental animal study. ( 27761387 )
2016
20
Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Plasma Levels of Transglutaminase-2 and Oxidative Stress Markers in Cylosporin A-Induced Gingival Overgrowth. ( 27468796 )
2016
21
In vivo association of immunophenotyped macrophages expressing CD163 with PDGF-B in gingival overgrowth-induced by three different categories of medications. ( 26937363 )
2016
22
Biological roles of KGF, CTGF and TGF-I^ in cyclosporine-A- and phenytoin- induced gingival overgrowth: A comparative experimental animal study. ( 26894526 )
2016
23
Local cause of gingival overgrowth. Clinical and histological study. ( 27516015 )
2016
24
Upregulation of Slug expression by cyclosporine A contributes to the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth. ( 27287534 )
2016
25
Gingival Overgrowth Leading to the Diagnosis of Familial Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. ( 26885413 )
2016
26
Amlodipine-induced gingival overgrowth in a child after liver transplant. ( 27818959 )
2016
27
A Clinical Evaluation of Gingival Overgrowth in Children on Antiepileptic Drug Therapy. ( 26894172 )
2016
28
Experimental animal model in a histological study of drug-induced gingival overgrowth. ( 28002516 )
2016
29
Loss of epithelial FAM20A in mice causes amelogenesis imperfecta, tooth eruption delay and gingival overgrowth. ( 27281036 )
2016
30
Immunoexpression of interleukin-6 in drug-induced gingival overgrowth patients. ( 27307657 )
2016
31
An unusual case report of gingival overgrowth associated with the use of leflunomide. ( 27061898 )
2016
32
Possible pharmacotherapy for nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth: 18I+-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits human gingival fibroblast growth. ( 26676684 )
2016
33
An unusual case report of gingival overgrowth associated with the use of leflunomide. ( 27606481 )
2016
34
Amlodipine-Induced Gingival Overgrowth. ( 27731568 )
2016
35
Gingival overgrowth due to amlodipine. ( 27316509 )
2016
36
Effect of azithromycin on gingival overgrowth induced by cyclosporine A + nifedipine combination therapy: A morphometric analysis in rats. ( 28298821 )
2016
37
Immunohistochemical Localization of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Markers in Cyclosporine A Induced Gingival Overgrowth. ( 27656563 )
2016
38
Management of periodontal disease in patients using calcium channel blockers - gingival overgrowth, prescribed medications, treatment responses and added treatment costs. ( 26076712 )
2015
39
Using Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Levels as a Biomarker for Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth. ( 26649282 )
2015
40
Management of Gingival Overgrowth in a Cardiac Transplant Patient Using Laser-Assisted Gingivectomy/Gingivoplasty. ( 26373224 )
2015
41
Severe Antiepileptic Drug-induced Gingival Overgrowth in a Physically Disabled Patient. ( 26907979 )
2015
42
Prevalence of gingival overgrowth induced by antihypertensive drugs: A hospital-based study. ( 26229273 )
2015
43
Elevated Snail expression in human gingival fibroblasts by cyclosporine A as the possible pathogenesis for gingival overgrowth. ( 26691272 )
2015
44
Local Inflammation Alters MMP-2 and MMP-9 Gelatinase Expression Associated with the Severity of Nifedipine-Induced Gingival Overgrowth: a Rat Model Study. ( 25652432 )
2015
45
Angiotensin II Levels in Gingival Tissues from Healthy Individuals, Patients with Nifedipine Induced Gingival Overgrowth and Non Responders on Nifedipine. ( 26436057 )
2015
46
Prevention of Phenytoin-Induced Gingival Overgrowth by Lovastatin in Mice. ( 25843680 )
2015
47
Phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth management with periodontal treatment. ( 25672382 )
2015
48
Cyclosporine A: Novel concepts in its role in drug-induced gingival overgrowth. ( 26759584 )
2015
49
Impact of three different mouthwashes on the incidence of gingival overgrowth induced by cyclosporine-A: a randomized controlled experimental animal study. ( 26153120 )
2015
50
Interleukin-6 Family of Cytokines in Crevicular Fluid of Renal Transplant Recipients With and Without Cyclosporine A-Induced Gingival Overgrowth. ( 25927423 )
2015

Variations for Gingival Overgrowth

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Gingival Overgrowth:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 RET NM_020975.4(RET): c.2753T> C (p.Met918Thr) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs74799832 GRCh37 Chromosome 10, 43617416: 43617416
2 RET NM_020975.4(RET): c.2753T> C (p.Met918Thr) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs74799832 GRCh38 Chromosome 10, 43121968: 43121968
3 46;XY;t(3;17)(p14.3;q24.3)dn Translocation Likely pathogenic

Expression for Gingival Overgrowth

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gingival Overgrowth.

Pathways for Gingival Overgrowth

Pathways related to Gingival Overgrowth according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 27)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.77 CD36 CTSB CTSL IL1A MMP1 MMP3
2
Show member pathways
13.34 CTGF IL1A ITGA2 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
3
Show member pathways
13.24 CTGF IL1A ITGA2 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
4
Show member pathways
13.13 CD36 ITGA2 MMP1 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
5
Show member pathways
13.03 CD36 IL1A MMP1 MMP3 PDGFB RET
6
Show member pathways
12.88 CTGF ITGA2 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
7 12.66 ITGA2 MMP1 PDGFB RET TGFB1
8
Show member pathways
12.42 CTGF IL1A PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
9
Show member pathways
12.05 MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1
10 12.04 CTSL DCN ITGA2 TGFB1
11 11.99 CD36 CTSL ITGA2
12 11.93 CTSL IL1A PDGFB
13
Show member pathways
11.93 CTSB CTSL DCN ITGA2 MMP1 MMP3
14 11.9 ITGA2 MMP1 TGFB1
15
Show member pathways
11.78 CTGF IL1A PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
16
Show member pathways
11.74 MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1
17 11.72 CD36 IL1A ITGA2
18 11.67 MMP3 TGFB1 TIMP1
19
Show member pathways
11.53 ITGA2 PDGFB TGFB1
20 11.51 CTSL IL1A MMP1 MMP3 TGFB1
21
Show member pathways
11.49 IL1A MMP1 MMP3
22 11.49 CD36 IL1A MMP1 MMP3 TGFB1 TIMP1
23 11.46 MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1
24 11.39 DCN ITGA2 TGFB1
25 11.36 CTGF PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
26 10.88 MMP1 TIMP1
27 10.81 MMP1 TGFB1

GO Terms for Gingival Overgrowth

Cellular components related to Gingival Overgrowth according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.7 CTGF CTSB CTSL DCN FAM20A IL1A
2 extracellular matrix GO:0031012 9.63 DCN MMP1 MMP3 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
3 Golgi lumen GO:0005796 9.54 DCN PDGFB TGFB1
4 platelet alpha granule lumen GO:0031093 9.5 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
5 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.36 CD36 CTGF CTSB CTSL DCN FAM20A
6 endolysosome lumen GO:0036021 9.26 CTSB CTSL

Biological processes related to Gingival Overgrowth according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 29)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.92 CTGF IL1A PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
2 negative regulation of gene expression GO:0010629 9.84 CD36 CTGF PDGFB TGFB1
3 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 9.81 CTGF FAM20A TGFB1
4 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.8 CD36 PDGFB RET
5 response to organic cyclic compound GO:0014070 9.78 CTGF ITGA2 TGFB1
6 aging GO:0007568 9.78 CTGF DCN TGFB1 TIMP1
7 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation GO:0050731 9.74 CD36 PDGFB TGFB1
8 response to wounding GO:0009611 9.73 CTGF PDGFB TGFB1
9 platelet degranulation GO:0002576 9.73 CD36 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
10 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.73 CD36 CTGF IL1A PDGFB RET TGFB1
11 positive regulation of cell division GO:0051781 9.69 IL1A PDGFB TGFB1
12 wound healing GO:0042060 9.67 DCN ITGA2 TGFB1 TIMP1
13 positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010575 9.64 IL1A TGFB1
14 positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division GO:0045840 9.63 IL1A PDGFB
15 positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:1902895 9.63 PDGFB TGFB1
16 toll-like receptor signaling pathway GO:0002224 9.63 CD36 CTSB CTSL
17 positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade GO:0070374 9.63 CD36 CTGF IL1A PDGFB RET TGFB1
18 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration GO:0014911 9.62 ITGA2 PDGFB
19 collagen catabolic process GO:0030574 9.62 CTSB CTSL MMP1 MMP3
20 response to fatty acid GO:0070542 9.61 CD36 CTGF
21 cell activation GO:0001775 9.6 TGFB1 TIMP1
22 positive regulation of protein oligomerization GO:0032461 9.59 MMP1 MMP3
23 cellular response to thyroid hormone stimulus GO:0097067 9.58 CTSB CTSL
24 positive regulation of chemotaxis GO:0050921 9.58 PDGFB TGFB1
25 positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process GO:0032967 9.58 CTGF ITGA2 TGFB1
26 positive regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment GO:0060100 9.55 CD36 ITGA2
27 connective tissue replacement involved in inflammatory response wound healing GO:0002248 9.49 IL1A TGFB1
28 extracellular matrix disassembly GO:0022617 9.35 CTSL DCN MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1
29 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.17 CD36 DCN IL1A MMP1 MMP3 TGFB1

Molecular functions related to Gingival Overgrowth according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 serine-type endopeptidase activity GO:0004252 9.46 CTSB CTSL MMP1 MMP3
2 fibronectin binding GO:0001968 9.37 CTGF CTSL
3 proteoglycan binding GO:0043394 9.26 CTSB CTSL
4 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.26 CTGF PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
5 collagen binding GO:0005518 9.02 CTSB CTSL DCN ITGA2 PDGFB
6 protein binding GO:0005515 10.13 CD36 CTGF CTSB CTSL DCN FAM20A

Sources for Gingival Overgrowth

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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