MCID: GND003
MIFTS: 38

Gonadal Disease

Categories: Endocrine diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Gonadal Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Gonadal Disease:

Name: Gonadal Disease 12 15
Gonadal Disorders 43 71
Gonadal Dysfunction 54

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2277
MeSH 43 D006058
NCIt 49 C26786
UMLS 71 C0018050

Summaries for Gonadal Disease

Disease Ontology : 12 An endocrine system disease that is located in the gonads.

MalaCards based summary : Gonadal Disease, also known as gonadal disorders, is related to amenorrhea and premature ovarian failure 1. An important gene associated with Gonadal Disease is MIR199A1 (MicroRNA 199a-1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are MicroRNAs in cancer and SRF and miRs in Smooth Muscle Differentiation and Proliferation. The drugs Metformin and insulin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include gonads, pituitary and bone.

Related Diseases for Gonadal Disease

Diseases related to Gonadal Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 333)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 amenorrhea 31.6 POMC NR5A1 IGF1 GNRH1 FSHR CRH
2 premature ovarian failure 1 31.3 POMC NR5A1 IGF1 GNRH1 FSHR
3 lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia 31.3 POMC NR5A1 GNRH1 CRH
4 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 31.2 POMC NR5A1 MIR9-1 MIR21 MIR199A1 MIR17
5 leukemia, acute lymphoblastic 31.2 MIR9-1 MIR27A MIR21 MIR17 H2AC18 CCR6
6 polycystic ovary syndrome 31.2 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1 FSHR
7 hypopituitarism 31.2 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1 CRH
8 hyperprolactinemia 31.2 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
9 testicular disease 31.1 MIR199A1 H2AC18 GNRH1 CCR6
10 lymphoma, hodgkin, classic 31.1 MIR30A MIR21 MIR200A CCR6
11 pituitary adenoma, prolactin-secreting 30.9 POMC NR5A1 IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
12 pituitary gland disease 30.9 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1 CRH
13 ovarian disease 30.9 POMC NR5A1 MIR21 MIR199A1 MIR17 MIR145
14 vascular disease 30.9 MIR214 MIR21 MIR199A1 MIR145 IGF1
15 bone inflammation disease 30.9 MIR30A MIR21 MIR199A1 MIR17 H2AC18 CCR6
16 anovulation 30.9 IGF1 GNRH1 FSHR CRH
17 acromegaly 30.9 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1 CRH
18 hypoglycemia 30.9 POMC IGF1 GH1 CRH
19 hyperandrogenism 30.9 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
20 sex development disorder 30.9 POMC NR5A1 IGF1 GNRH1 FSHR
21 pituitary tumors 30.9 POMC IGF1 GH1
22 prader-willi syndrome 30.9 POMC IGF1 H2AC18 GNRH1 GH1
23 hypothyroidism 30.9 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1 FSHR
24 lymphoma, non-hodgkin, familial 30.9 MIR9-1 MIR30A MIR27A MIR214 MIR21 MIR199A1
25 hyperthyroidism 30.3 POMC IGF1 GH1
26 49, xxxxx 11.1
27 hypogonadism 11.0
28 pituitary apoplexy 10.9 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
29 hypothalamic disease 10.9 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1 CRH
30 empty sella syndrome 10.9 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
31 functioning pituitary adenoma 10.9 POMC MIR199A1 IGF1 GH1 CRH
32 pituitary infarct 10.9 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 CRH
33 pituitary adenoma 10.9 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1 CRH
34 pituitary-dependent cushing's disease 10.9 POMC GNRH1 GH1 CRH
35 pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 2 10.9 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1 CRH
36 hyperpituitarism 10.9 POMC IGF1 GH1 CRH
37 endocrine organ benign neoplasm 10.9 POMC MIR21 MIR199A1 MIR17 IGF1 H2AC18
38 central precocious puberty 10.9 IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
39 retinal vascular disease 10.9 MIR30A MIR21 MIR199A1 IGF1 H2AC18
40 sebaceous gland disease 10.9 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 CRH CCR6
41 cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral 10.9 POMC NR5A1 IGF1 GNRH1 FSHR
42 adrenal cortex disease 10.9 POMC NR5A1 IGF1 CRH CCR6
43 adrenal gland disease 10.9 POMC NR5A1 IGF1 CRH CCR6
44 cell type benign neoplasm 10.9 POMC MIR21 MIR200A MIR199A1 MIR17 IGF1
45 intestinal benign neoplasm 10.9 MIR21 MIR199A1 MIR17 H2AC18 CCR6
46 bone resorption disease 10.9 MIR214 MIR199A1 IGF1 H2AC18 CCR6
47 adrenal cortical hypofunction 10.9 POMC NR5A1 CRH CCR6
48 bile duct adenocarcinoma 10.9 MIR9-1 MIR30A MIR21 MIR199A1 MIR17 H2AC18
49 hypoadrenalism 10.9 POMC GH1 CRH
50 gastrointestinal system benign neoplasm 10.9 MIR21 MIR199A1 MIR17 H2AC18 CCR6

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gonadal Disease:



Diseases related to Gonadal Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Gonadal Disease

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gonadal Disease

Drugs for Gonadal Disease (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 66)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Metformin Approved Phase 4 657-24-9 14219 4091
2 insulin Phase 4
3 Insulin, Globin Zinc Phase 4
4 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 4
5
Lactulose Approved Phase 3 4618-18-2 11333
6
Mycophenolic acid Approved Phase 3 24280-93-1 446541
7 Antitubercular Agents Phase 3
8 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3
9 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 3
10 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3
11
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 68-04-2
12
Cisplatin Approved Phase 2 15663-27-1 84093 441203 2767
13
Paclitaxel Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 33069-62-4 36314
14
Carboplatin Approved Phase 2 41575-94-4 10339178 498142 38904
15
Finasteride Approved Phase 2 98319-26-7 57363
16
Methyltestosterone Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 58-18-4 6010
17
Testosterone Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 58-22-0, 481-30-1 6013 10204
18
Testosterone undecanoate Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 5949-44-0
19
Testosterone enanthate Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 315-37-7 9416
20
tannic acid Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 1401-55-4
21
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
22
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 77-92-9 311
23
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 1, Phase 2 7440-70-2 271
24
Dihydrotestosterone Illicit, Investigational Phase 2 521-18-6 10635
25
Enclomiphene Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 15690-57-0
26 Fertility Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
27 Estrogens Phase 1, Phase 2
28 Citrate Phase 1, Phase 2
29 Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Phase 1, Phase 2
30 Anticoagulants Phase 1, Phase 2
31 Chelating Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
32 Clomiphene Phase 1, Phase 2
33 Estrogen Antagonists Phase 1, Phase 2
34 Estrogen Receptor Antagonists Phase 1, Phase 2
35 Zuclomiphene Phase 1, Phase 2
36 Estrogen Receptor Modulators Phase 1, Phase 2
37 Chorionic Gonadotropin Phase 1, Phase 2
38 Calcium, Dietary Phase 1, Phase 2
39 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 2
40 Immunologic Factors Phase 2
41 Antibodies Phase 2
42 Immunoglobulins Phase 2
43 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
44 Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel Phase 2
45 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors Phase 2
46 Steroid Synthesis Inhibitors Phase 2
47 Hormones Phase 1, Phase 2
48 Hormone Antagonists Phase 1, Phase 2
49 Anabolic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
50 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 1, Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 24)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Combined Influence of Puberty and Obesity on Insulin Resistance in Adolescents Completed NCT01775813 Phase 4 Metformin
2 Phase 3, Active-Controlled, Safety and Efficacy Trial of Oral Testosterone Undecanoate (TU, LPCN 1021) in Hypogonadal Men Completed NCT02081300 Phase 3 Oral testosterone undecanoate, LPCN 1021;Topical testosterone gel 1.62 %
3 A Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare the Efficacy of Oral Mycophenolate Mofetil With Placebo in Patients With Systemic Sclerosis Related Early Interstitial Lung Disease Completed NCT02896205 Phase 3 Mycophenolate mofetil;Placebo
4 A Phase 2B Study to Determine the Dose Response Pharmacokinetics of TSX-002 (Testosterone) in Hypogonadal Males Completed NCT02222558 Phase 2 TSX-002
5 A Phase 2, Randomized, Double-blind, Dose Response Study of Oral Testosterone in Subjects With Hypogonadism Completed NCT01717768 Phase 2 TSX-002
6 Comparison of Micro-dose Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) With HMG in PCOs Patients With Previous Clomiphene Citrate (CC)-Resistant Anovulation Completed NCT00947713 Phase 1, Phase 2 low dose human chorionic gonadotropin;Clomiphen citrate plus HMG
7 Phase II Study of Avelumab in Multiple Relapsed/Refractory Testicular Germ Cell Cancer. Completed NCT03403777 Phase 2 Avelumab
8 Efficacy of the Oncoxin-Viusid® Nutritional Supplement on the Quality of Life of Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Ovarian Epithelial Cancer. Clinical Trial Phase II. Recruiting NCT03562897 Phase 2
9 Higher-Than-Replacement Testosterone Plus Finasteride Treatment After SCI Recruiting NCT02248701 Phase 2 testosterone enanthate, finasteride;placebo
10 A Phase 1/2a Study to Determine the Dose Response Pharmacokinetics of TSX-011 (Testosterone Undecanoate) in Hypogonadal Males Terminated NCT03335254 Phase 1, Phase 2 TSX-011
11 A Phase I Study of MK-4827 in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Hematologic Malignancies Completed NCT00749502 Phase 1 MK-4827
12 A Pilot Study of Reduced Intensity Conditioning in Pediatric Patients <21 Years of Age With Non-Malignant Disorders Undergoing Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation Completed NCT00744692 Phase 1 Reduced Intensity Conditioning
13 A Phase 1, Open-Label, Single-Dose, Sequential Dose-Escalation Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of NBI-77860 in Adolescent Females With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Withdrawn NCT02349503 Phase 1 NBI-77860;NBI-77860;NBI-77860
14 Influence of Early Adiposity Rebound, Genetic Polymorphisms and GnRHa Treatment on Long-term Outcome of Girls With Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty. Unknown status NCT02790112
15 Prospective Validation and Comparison of Subjective Assessment, the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) ADNEX Model, Logistic Regression Model LR2, Simple Rules and the Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) for Discrimination Between Benign and Malignant Adnexal Masses in the Hands of Ultrasound Examiners With Different Levels of Experience Unknown status NCT02847832
16 Characterization of Ovarian Masses Unable to Classify With Ultrasound Using the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) Simple Rules: Value of Pelvic MRI With Perfusion- and Diffusion-weighted Imaging Unknown status NCT02836275
17 Evaluation of Iron Overload in Pediatric Oncology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients Completed NCT01034072
18 The Effect of Testosterone Treatment on Depressive Symptoms and Quality of Life in Older Men With Age-Related Hypogonadism and Subsyndromal Depression. Completed NCT00202462 Testosterone gel
19 Late Effects of Treatment in Survivors of Pediatric Sarcomas Completed NCT00006515
20 Feedback Control of FSH Secretion in the Human Male Completed NCT00392457 ketoconazole;gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
21 Breast, Ovarian and Endometrial Cancer Case-Control Study in Poland Completed NCT00341458
22 Exome Sequencing of Fanconi Anemia Children and the Their Parents Available NCT01995305
23 Amount, Distribution and Dysfunction of Body Fat as Determinants of Female Gonadal Dysfunction: From Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea to the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Not yet recruiting NCT03841981
24 Detection and Treatment of Endocrine Abnormalities in Childhood Cancer Survivors and Hematopoitic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients Terminated NCT00504218

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gonadal Disease

Cochrane evidence based reviews: gonadal disorders

Genetic Tests for Gonadal Disease

Anatomical Context for Gonadal Disease

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Gonadal Disease:

19
Gonads

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gonadal Disease:

40
Pituitary, Bone, Ovary, Liver, Lung, Breast, Thyroid

Publications for Gonadal Disease

Articles related to Gonadal Disease:

(show top 50) (show all 75)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Factors Affecting Loss to Follow-Up in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Endocrine Conditions. 61
32023623 2020
2
Correlation of anti-Mullerian hormone with humanchorionic gonadotropin test in the evaluation of testicular function of children with 46 XY male hypogonadism: Use of anti-Mullerian hormone as abiomarker. 61
31614067 2019
3
The ovarian germinal reserve and apoptosis-related proteins in the infant and adolescent human ovary. 61
30857552 2019
4
Causes and Metabolic Consequences of Gynecomastia in Adult Patients. 61
31687020 2019
5
Phenotype-Driven Virtual Panel Is an Effective Method to Analyze WES Data of Neurological Disease. 61
30687093 2018
6
Chromosome 15 structural abnormalities: effect on IGF1R gene expression and function. 61
28899882 2017
7
Dynamic GnRH and hCG testing: establishment of new diagnostic reference levels. 61
28077499 2017
8
Malignant extra-cranial germ cell tumors in children and adolescents. Results following the guidelines of SFOP/SFCE 95 Protocol. 61
27723613 2016
9
Testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. 61
25887389 2015
10
[Endocrine diseases: progress in diagnosis and treatments. Topics: VII. Adrenogenital syndrome and gonadal disorders experienced by internist]. 61
24908988 2014
11
A holistic assessment of bariatric surgical outcomes in a Northern Irish cohort. 61
24592646 2014
12
Endocrine health conditions in adult survivors of childhood cancer: the need for specialized adult-focused follow-up clinics. 61
23258270 2013
13
CBX2 gene analysis in patients with 46,XY and 46,XX gonadal disorders of sex development. 61
23219007 2013
14
The international spinal cord injury endocrine and metabolic function basic data set. 61
21577217 2011
15
Long-term follow-up of patients undergoing auto-SCT for advanced germ cell tumour: a multicentre cohort study. 61
21042312 2011
16
Disorders of sex development. 61
21303737 2011
17
Inter-laboratory validation of the measurement of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) after various lengths of frozen storage. 61
21114859 2010
18
[Flow cytometry application in the evaluation of antisperm antibodies in sera samples of infertile people and prepubertal boys with gonadal disorders]. 61
20873120 2010
19
Characterization of deletions at 9p affecting the candidate regions for sex reversal and deletion 9p syndrome by MLPA. 61
19417767 2009
20
Clinical review: Prevalence and incidence of endocrine and metabolic disorders in the United States: a comprehensive review. 61
19494161 2009
21
[The role of gonadal peptides in clinical investigation]. 61
19411230 2009
22
The novel compound heterozygous mutations, V434del and W666X, in WFS1 gene causing the Wolfram syndrome in a Chinese family. 61
19160074 2009
23
Current developments in Wolfram syndrome. 61
19344068 2009
24
Effects of growth hormone reduction in a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome complicated with acromegaly. 54
18840925 2009
25
The management of hypogonadism in aging male patients. 61
19179819 2009
26
[Wolfram syndrome. Clinical and genetic study in two families]. 61
18194629 2008
27
Bone metabolism and mineral density in patients with beta-thalassemia major. 54
17768474 2007
28
Drug-induced endocrine and metabolic disorders. 61
17343430 2007
29
Antisperm antibodies in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism. 61
17050321 2006
30
Inactivating mutations of LH and FSH receptors--from genotype to phenotype. 61
17021580 2006
31
Analysis of DAX1 (NR0B1) and steroidogenic factor-1 (NR5A1) in children and adults with primary adrenal failure: ten years' experience. 54
16684822 2006
32
[Drug-induced sexual and gonadal disorders]. 61
16817413 2006
33
Evaluation and management of the abnormal gonad. 61
15846569 2005
34
Obesity and gonadal function of women. 54
16444176 2004
35
Thyroid disease and other endocrine disorders in pregnancy. 61
15200964 2004
36
A microdeletion in the ligand binding domain of human steroidogenic factor 1 causes XY sex reversal without adrenal insufficiency. 54
15070943 2004
37
MIS/AMH in the assessment of cryptorchidism and intersex conditions. 61
14656481 2003
38
Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of unclassified type occupying the whole testis accompanied by a small mature teratoma and metastatic choriocarcinoma and Sertoli cell-only tubules in the other testis. 61
14516326 2003
39
Steroid hormone concentration profiles in healthy intact and neutered dogs before and after cosyntropin administration. 61
12450624 2003
40
High serum concentrations of dimeric inhibins A and B in normal newborn girls. 61
11821098 2002
41
[Mutations in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor genes in patients with gonadal dysfunction]. 54
11857913 2002
42
Effects of androgen deficiency and replacement on prostate zonal volumes. 61
11318778 2001
43
Use, misuse and abuse of androgens. The Endocrine Society of Australia consensus guidelines for androgen prescribing. 61
10776394 2000
44
Inactivating FSH receptor mutations and gonadal dysfunction. 54
9922109 1998
45
Mullerian inhibiting substance in humans: normal levels from infancy to adulthood. 61
8636269 1996
46
Declining sperm counts and increasing incidence of testicular cancer and other gonadal disorders: is there a connection? 61
8567242 1993
47
Hypogonadism induced by African trypanosomes in humans and animals. 61
8097981 1993
48
Hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis in chronic renal failure. 54
8449185 1993
49
Decrease of testosterone level during an experimental African trypanosomiasis: involvement of a testicular LH receptor desensitization. 61
1519428 1992
50
[Disorders of puberty and gonadal disorders in the child]. 61
1585275 1992

Variations for Gonadal Disease

Expression for Gonadal Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gonadal Disease.

Pathways for Gonadal Disease

Pathways related to Gonadal Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.81 MIR9-1 MIR30A MIR27A MIR214 MIR21 MIR200A
2 10.37 MIR199A1 MIR145
3 10.27 GNRH1 FSHR
4 9.8 POMC CRH

GO Terms for Gonadal Disease

Cellular components related to Gonadal Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.4 POMC MIR30A MIR27A MIR21 MIR199A1 MIR182

Biological processes related to Gonadal Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 20)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.95 NR5A1 MIR30A MIR21 MIR182 IGF1 CRH
2 positive regulation of cell migration GO:0030335 9.85 MIR30A MIR21 MIR182 IGF1
3 negative regulation of gene expression GO:0010629 9.8 MIR27A MIR214 MIR21 MIR17 IGF1 CRH
4 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.76 MIR21 IGF1 GH1 FSHR
5 negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process GO:0010667 9.69 MIR21 MIR199A1 MIR145
6 negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell migration GO:1904753 9.61 MIR214 MIR21 MIR182
7 positive regulation of connective tissue replacement GO:1905205 9.59 MIR214 MIR199A1
8 positive regulation of cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development GO:0061051 9.58 MIR199A1 IGF1
9 positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0043568 9.58 IGF1 GH1
10 negative regulation of low-density lipoprotein particle clearance GO:0010989 9.58 MIR27A MIR199A1 MIR17
11 male sex determination GO:0030238 9.57 NR5A1 GNRH1
12 negative regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure GO:0003085 9.56 MIR17 CRH
13 positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:1904707 9.55 MIR27A MIR214 MIR21 MIR17 IGF1
14 positive regulation of metalloendopeptidase activity GO:1904685 9.54 MIR21 MIR17
15 positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy in response to stress GO:1903244 9.54 MIR214 MIR199A1 MIR17
16 negative regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process GO:0034392 9.52 MIR21 IGF1
17 miRNA mediated inhibition of translation GO:0035278 9.5 MIR9-1 MIR30A MIR27A MIR21 MIR182 MIR17
18 negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation GO:1905175 9.49 MIR182 MIR145
19 negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell apoptotic process GO:1905460 9.43 MIR21 MIR17 IGF1
20 gene silencing by miRNA GO:0035195 9.36 MIR9-1 MIR30A MIR27A MIR214 MIR21 MIR200A

Molecular functions related to Gonadal Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 mRNA binding involved in posttranscriptional gene silencing GO:1903231 9.36 MIR9-1 MIR30A MIR27A MIR214 MIR21 MIR200A
2 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.35 POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1 CRH

Sources for Gonadal Disease

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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